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ducted from the landing-place to the house which had been fitted up for his reception, and was followed by a procession of militia in elegant uniforms, and by great numbers of citizens. In the evening the houses of the inhabitants were brilliantly illuminated, and fire-works disPlo. in many places. Soon after his arrival, a day was appointed for his taking the oath of office; and on this occasion he was wholly clothed in American manufactures. In the morning of the day fixed for this purpose, the clergy of different denominations assembled their congregations in their respective places of worship, and offered up public prayers for the president and people of the United States. About noon a procession, followed by a multitude of citizens, moved from the president's house to the federal hall. When they came within a short distance of the hall, the troops formed a line on both sides of the way, through which ge-. neral Washington, accompanied by the vice-president, Mr. Adams, passed into the senate chamber. Immediately after, accompanied by both houses of congress, he went into the gallery fronting Broad-street, and before them,' and an immense concourse of people, took the oath prescribed by the constitution, which was administered by Mr. Livingston, chancellor of the state of New York, and was in the following words:

“I do solemnly swear, that I will faithfully execute the office of president of the United States, and will to the best of my abilities, preserve, protect, and defend the constitution of the United States.”

An awful silence prevailed among the spectators during this part of the ceremony: it was a minute of the most sublime political joy. The chancellor then proclaimed him president of the United States, which was followed by a salute from thirteen pieces of cannon, and by the voices of the surrounding spectators, who rent the air with their acclamations. The president bowed most respectfully to the people, and the air again resounded with shouts of exultation. He then retired to the senate chamber, where he made an animated speech to both houses; in which his language not only expressed his own feelings on this solemn occasion, but likewise discovered his anxiety and concern for the welfare and happiness of the people in whose cause he had so often ventured his life. . . . Several circumstances concurred to render the scene of his inauguration unusually solemn and impressive: the presence of the beloved father and deliverer of his coun

try; the impressions of gratitude for his past services; the

vast eoneourse of speetators; the devout fervency with which he repeated the oath, and the reverential manner in which he bowed to kiss the saered volume—these circumstances, together with that of his being chosen to the most dignified office in his country, and perhaps in the world, by the unanimous voice of more than 3,000,000 of enlightened freemen, all conspired to place this among the most august and interesting scenes which have ever been exhibited on the face of the globe.* The measures of the first congress, after the adoption of the federal econstitution, was marked with wisdom, and productive of great national prosperity. Among other important objects, the wise appointments of proper persons to fill the different offices of government; the establishment of a revenue, a judiciary system, and a national bank; the assumption of the debts of the individual states, (see page 119,) and the encouragement given to manufactures, commerce, literature, and useful inventions, opened the fairest prospect for peace, union, and happiness to the United States. But besides these objects of great national interest, the attention of the legislature was likewise engaged with associating into the general union, the new states of Wermont and Kentucky, and establishing temporary governments in the territories south and north-west of the river Ohio; the planning and building of a new metropolis, upon a grand scale, to be the seat of government, named after their heroic general and first president, Washington; the taking a general census of the population of the United States; the negociating a loan with Holland; the regulation of their militia; the making of new roads and bridges; the establishing of regular post-offices, of a mint, &c. and what may appear more surprising, the institution of an 64'cise! But while these important matters occupied the congress, the peace and prosperity of the country were considerably interrupted by an Indian war, which began in 1790, and was carried on with various success on the part of the United States, and with the usual barbarities on that of the

"“It seemed from the number of witnesses,” said an intelligent spectator of this *blime scene, “to be a solemn appeal to heaven and earth at once. Upon the :*ject of this great and good man, I may, perhaps, be an enthusiast; but I con**, I was under an awful and religious persuasion, that the gracious Ruler of the wniverse was looking down at that moment with peculiar complacency on an act, which, to a part of his ereatures, was so highly important. Under this impression, When the chancellor pronounced, in a very feeling manner, ‘Lang live George Washington,' my sensibility was wound up to such a pitch, that I could do no * than wave my hat with the rest, without the power of joining in the repeated *clamations which rent the air.”

Indians. The origin of it is said to have been occasioned by some of the Indian tribes laying claim to part of the ground occupied by the new settlers on the banks of the Ohio. Owing to the wandering habits of the Indians, it is often a very precarious tenure to purchase land from any one tribe, while others, who may have formerly occupied it, remain unsatisfied; as, unless they also are recompensed, they are apt to return and dispossess the new inhabitants; who, on the other hand, are but too ready to adopt violent, instead of pacific measures. . From such causes originated a war, wherein the Indians had evidently more than usual conduct, both by eombining in more numerous bodies, and by displaying more military skill than formerly; not only defeating a detachment of 1,400 men, under general Sinclair, but on different occasions, successfully contending with equal numbers under other American generals. They even captured fort Jefferson, in the present state of Ohio, fort Franklin, in Pennsylvania, and other places belonging to the United States. It is much to be regretted, that in a country, the far greater part of which is uninhabited, any misunderstanding should occur to excite the new and old inhabitants to slaughter each other. The American government, however, was prudent enough to observe a strict neutrality with regard to European politics, which at that period began to convulse the whole world. In the year 1791, the French revolution had been sometime commenced. From the beginning of that revolution, many of the leading men in, America, and amongst them the president, had no confidence in its beneficial consequences. But it was necessary for congress to preserve a good understanding with France, under whatever rulers, so long as she abstained from committing any acts of hostility against the United States. In the beginning of 1792, when the people of every country were divided into contending parties, much animosity prevailed in America upon the subject of French politics; and while a number of men in the higher ranks of society, and several holding. official situations, supported the cause of Great Britain, the great mass of the American people were decidedly in favour of France. During this period, general Washington was a second time chosen president of the United States, but by no means unanimously, as he had been the first time. The disposition which he had evinced to take no part in support of the French revolutionists, had been the means of creating him many enemies; particularly among those who considered all mankind as deeply interested in

the success of that great contest. He had, however, a
considerable majority; and Mr. Adams was again elected
vice-president. -
• At this time, and for some years afterwards, the danger
of America was truly great, and required the utmost pru-
dence and vigilance on the part of her governors. But
happily for the people of that country, they had appoint-
ed men for their rulers who possessed not only the virtue,
but the wisdom to avoid intermeddling with the madden-
ing politics of Europe. The great talents, and consum-
mate prudence of the president were never more conspi-
enous than at this trying period. The spirit of revolution
then agitated all the nations of Europe ; but in other
countries it had to contend with long-established power
and ancient prejudices. It had to eradicate habits of at-
tachment, in some nations, for their government; of fear
in others; and of submission in all ; but in America the
government was modern, and its power feeble. In addi-
tion to the difficulties of congress, arising from the above-
mentioned state of public affairs, they had to encounter
and suppress an insurrection in the western counties of
Pennsylvania. The character and office of the president
had been reviled, his authority insulted, and even his
life threatened. Yet neither resentment, nor fear, nor
even policy, could extinguish the humanity of that great
man; and the revolt was speedily quelled with less blood-
shed than often occurs in dispersing a common mob in
Throughout the whole of Washington’s administration,
the interests of the British nation had an evident prepon-
derance in the American councils, over those of France.
So early as August, 1793, the French ambassador, citizen
Genet, had used every exertion to prevail on congress to
take an active part with the republicans of France; but
all attempts for that purpose were uniformly and wisely
resisted on the part of the president. Indeed, if the
government of the United States had been desirous of a
rupture with Great Britain, they could not have wanted
(or sufficient pretexts. The general orders given to the
British ships of war and privateers to seize all vessels
laden with provisions or warlike stores for France, and
the consequent capture of a great number of American
vessels, gave great umbrage to the United States; besides
which, they complained that their seamen were impressed
British cruisers, and that several articles in the treaty
of peace, of 1783, had never been properly fulfilled.
Among others, that some forts which ought, by that treaty,

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to have been surrendered to America, were still held sh possession by the English forces. On these accounts, there was every appearance of a rupture between Britain and the United States in the summer of 1794; but the latter having, on the 16th of April, sent over Mr. Jay, chief justice of the republic, as ambassador extraordinary upon this important business, after several conferences with lord Grenville, and other members of the British cabinet, a treaty was, happily for both countries, concluded on the 19th of November, whereby all differences were adjusted; and the amity of Great Britain and the States for that time established. . By this treaty it was agreed, “that the British troops should be entirely withdrawn from all the posts still occupied by them, within the boundaries of the United States; that the subjects of Great Britain and the citizens of the United States should be mutually allowed a free passage through the territories of each other, for the purposes of trade; that the American courts of law should be open for the recovery of British debts; that America should be indemnified for all captures made by Great Britain during the war; that the natives of each country should be capable of enjoying and conveying lands in the dominions of the other; that the Americans should be at liberty to carry to the West Indies, the produce of their country in vessels of seventy tons or under; that the ships of the United States should have free admission into the ports possessed by the British in the East Indies; and that persons flying for murder or forgery, should, upon requisition, be delivered up on both sides.” By these stipulations, and a few others of less importance, all grounds of difference were removed; and to this treaty were the United States indebted for a continual stream of wealth and prosperity, unexampled in the history of nations. On the 31st of January, 1795, colonel Hamilton, secretary of the treasury, resigned his situation, and was succeeded in office by Mr. Wolcott. In a short time, afterwards, general Knox, secretary at war, resigned also, and was succeeded by colonel Pickering. By the resignation of colonel Hamilton, the American government lost a man of the most distinguished talents, and the pre: sident an able assistant, by whose counsel he was enabled to overcome the difficulties of that very critical period. This accomplished gentleman was afterwards killed in a duel by the celebrated colonel Burr. In the beginning of June, the treaty between Great

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