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on his march to Detroit, nine miles below lake Erie, with a view of putting an end to Indian hostilities, when he received information of the declaration of war. His force consisted of 1,000 regulars and 1,200 volunteers from the state of Ohio. At Urbanna, in Virginia, he was joined by the fourth regiment of infantry, and immediately commenced his march through a marshy country, without roads for 120 miles. It was on the last of June when this little army reached the Rapids, having encountered considerable obstacles, in passing through a gloomy and almost trackless wilderness; on the 5th of July they encamped at Spring-wells, within a few miles of Detroit. This was deemed the favourable moment for commencing active operations against Upper Canada, and an immediate invasion was determined on. The British, aware of the design, began to throw up a battery to oppose the landing; and, after being twice foiled in the attempt, succeeded the third time, mounting seven small cannon and two mortars. On the 12th, the American troops embarked, and landed without opposition, some distance above the fort. They immediately took possession of the village of Sandwich, but found that the principal part of the inhabitants had been marched to Malden, to assist in the defence of that place. A proclamation was now issued by Hull, declaring his intention of invading Canada, but assuring protection to the inhabitants, and advising them to take no part in the contest. In a few days possession was taken of the whole country along the river Thames, a beautiful river, whose borders are highly cultiwated, and well settled. A force of 280 men was then despatched against fort Malden, situated at the junction of Detroit river with lake Erie, and thirteen miles from general Hull's camp. When the onced party reached Canard's river, four miles above Malden, it was found that the British had taken possession of the bridge; the other part of the detachment, which was to have forded the river five miles below, was frustrated in their design, from ignorance of the country: in the mean time, the alarm had been given, and all the posts were oonsiderably reinforced. This induced the invading army to retire; but severas skirmishes ensued, with various success, in which both sides sustained considerable loss. These partial actions, however, were only preludes to the great object in view, the reduction of fort Malden ; preparations for which proceeded but lowly: indeed it seemed that everything was to be got ready after the invasion. It was not until near the beginning of August, that two 24-pounders and three howitzers were mounted; and no attempt in the meanwhile had been made upon the fort. But a most unexpected disaster had happened to the Americans during the preceding month. This was the capture of Michillimackinac, on the 17th 0. July, by a strong party of British troops and Indians, which had embarked at St. Joseph's the day before. The loss of this fort, which was garrisoned by only one lieutenant and fifty-six men, was afterwards severely felt. It had been called the American Gibraltar; and, from its situation on a strait of the same name, which connects lakes Michigan and Huron, 240 miles distant from Detroit, it completely commands the north-west trade, which is compelled to pass under the batteries, This intelligence reached general. Hull on the 23d of July, while engaged in preparing for the attack on Malden. The British, by this time, were eonsiderably reinforced, and aided by an additional number of Indians, The golden moment had been sustered to pass. The offcers of the besieging army had given their opinion, that the fort must inevitably fall, if an assault was made in the first instance; but the general declined under various pretexts; one of which was, that he had received no positive instructions to invade Canada! But he soon became fully sensible of his error; the necessity of possessing the post becoming every day more apparent. With the fall of Michillimackinac, Chicago, on lake Michigan, and all the other western posts, might be expected to follow, and the Indian tribes would move down with all their united force, rendering the situation of his army extremely critical. Foreseeing these events, he had sent repeated expresses for reinforcements, in confident expectation of which, he delayed the attack on Malden, contenting himself with carrying on a vigilant partisan war, in itself of little consequence. Reinforcements were not hastened, from the confident belief which prevailed, that the force under his command was fully sufficient for all the purposes which could be accomplished, in that quarter. The spirits which had hitherto animated the troops, were now giving way to feelings of despendency; while their commander had by this time nearly lost their confidence. By the first of August, every thing being ready for the long-intended attack, a council of war was summoned, and the result was a determination to make it immediately. This decision met the general's approval, and the day was actually appointed when the attempt would be made. A

short time previous to this, a detachment of Ohio volunteers had arrived at the river Raisin, with supplies for Hull's army. As they had experienced difficulties on their march, by the attacks of the enemy, it was thought prudent to send a body of troops for their protection. Accordingly major Wanhorn, with 150 men, was sent upon that important duty. On his second day's march, near Brownstown, he was suddenly attacked on all sides by British and

Indians, when after a severe conflict, in which he had * , nineteen killed and nine wounded, he succeeded in bring- ing of his detachment. Among the killed were three o captains; one captain and a subaltern were wounded. : o Scarcely had major Vanhorn's party proceeded on their

to expedition, when a sudden and unexpected change took o in the determination of the commander in chief. ithout any apparent cause, he announced his intention of abandoming not only the design upon Malden, but even the position which he then held ! This operated like a thunderbolt upon his army; the volunteers murmured loudly; they upbraided their commander with cowardice, and even treachery; and it was with difficulty they could be restrained by their own officers, in whom they confided. The troops were re-embarked, and reached the opposite shore on the 8th of August. Such was the termination of this ill-judged expedition into Canada, of whose success, an account was every moment expected in the United States; but it was decreed that the misfortunes of their arms should not terminate here. . A detachment of about 300 men was left at Sandwich, for the purpose of protecting the Canadians who had been induced, by general Hull's proclamation, to join the American standard. One thing was now on all hands considered indispensable, the opening the communication with the river Raisin, where the situation of the troops, having in possession the supplies for the army, was rendered extremely unpleasant, : being cut off from all intercourse with the state of Ohio. To effect this object, 300 regulars and 200 militia were detached, under the command of colonel Miller. . The force of the enemy had been increased by a large body of Indians, under the celebrated chief Tecumsech.” The

* This distinguished warrior, and extraordinary man, had received the stamp of greatness from the hand of nature. He was the determined foe of civilization, and

of had for years been labouring to unite all the Indian tribes in opposing the progress d of the settlements to the westward. He possessed a bold and commanding eloois, quence, infinitely superior to whatever has been recorded of any of his countrymen; s * he exhausted every topic calculated to operate on their minds, and alienate f their affections from the white people. Amongst the different nations his speeches | had a powerful affect; but especially among the Creeks. This savage Demos.


whole was commanded by major Muir, of the British army. On the 9th, the Americans moved forward with great caution, fearing a surprise; they, nevertheless, fell into the ambuscade, and their advanced guard, under captain Snelling, was suddenly attacked by the English, accompanied by the usual barbarous shouts of the Indians. This eombined and vigorous assault was firmly withstood by the American troops, until their main body approached, when 'a severe engagement ensied, in which Tecumseeh and his savages fought with desperate obstinacy. After an obsti. nate resistance of two hours, captain Snelling was obliged to retreat, having had fifteen killed, and above sixty wounded. 'The British who retired slowly, and in good order to Brownstown, had only three killed, and thirteen wounded, among the latter were two officers; but of the Indians, nearly 100 were left on the field. About this time, general Hull had sent orders to captain Heald, who commanded at fort Chicago, to abandon that post, and proceed to Detroit. He accordingly proceeded on his route, with his company of militia, about fifty regulars, and aecompanied by several families who had resided in and near the place. On his march he was attacked by a Iarge body of Indians, who soon gained his rear, and seized his horses and baggage. He then reached an open place, and kept the enemy at bay for some time; but finding that he should be compelled to yield at last, he aceepted the offer of protection from an Indian chief. Twenty-six regulars were killed, and all the militia; a number of women and children were murdered by the savages. Among the killed were captain Wells and ensign Warner; the commander, who was desperately wounded, with his lady, who had received six wounds, after many escapes, at length reached Michillimackinac. On the 14th, colonels Miller and Cass, with 350 men, were despatched to the river Raisin for the purpose of escorting the provisions for the troops, which still remained there under the charge of captain Brush. On the 19th. the British took a position opposite Detroit, and summoned the place to surrender. To this summons an answer was returned, that the fort would be defended to the last: extremity. As the enemy approached, major Denny, who commanded at Sandwich, abandoned his position and crossed over to Detroit, it having been determined to act

thenes, wherever he went, called councils of the tribes, and with that high-toned energy for which he was celebrated, never failed to convince and attach his truditors. Hnd such a man opposed the first settlement of Europeans, in all probability America. would still have been a wilderness. -

entirely on the defensive. The British immediately opened their batteries, and continued to throw shells during a great part of the night. The fire was returned, but little effect was produced on either side. In the morning, it was discovered that the British were landing their troops at Spring-wells, under cover of their shipping ; nor was it possible to prevent them from disembarking by the guns of the fort, the town lying between them and the river. But if general Hull had not neglected the advice of his officers, he might have effectually prevented it, by erecting batteries on the bank. A strange fatality seemed to attend this unfortunate man in every thing he did, or ueglected to do. All the British troops having been landed about ten o'clock, advanced towards the fort in close column and twelve deep. The American forces was judiciously disposed to prevent their approach; the militia and volunteers occupied the town, or were posted behind pickets, whence they could annoy the enemy's flanks; the regulars defended the fort, and two 24-pounders, loaded with grape-shot, were posted on an eminence, and could sweep the whole of the British line, should they venture to advance. Ali was now silent expectation; the intrepid foe still slowly moved forward, as if in utter contempt of death; but they had still greater contempt for a commander who had so meanly abandoned Sandwich a few days before. But who can describe the astonishment of the American troops, when they were ordered not to fire; and that at the very moment when they thought the enemy were advancing to certain destruction' The whole force, with a great number of women and children, were gathered into the fort, almost too marrow to contain them. Here the troops were ordered to stack their arms, and to the amazement of every one, a white flag, in token of submission, was suspended from the walls. A British officer rode up to ascertain the cause, for this surrender was no less unexpected to the assailants. A capitulation was agreed to, without even stipulating the terms. Words are wanting to express the indignant feelings of the Americans on this occasion ; they considered themselves basely betrayed, in thus surrendering to an inferior saree without firing a gun, when they had the enemy completely in their power. They had at least fifteen days provisions in the garrison, and were well supplied with arms and ammunition ; notwithstanding which, they were compelled, thus humiliated, to march out, and to surrender themselves prisoners at discretion. The British took

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