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immediate possession of the fort, with all the public profooty; amongst which were forty barrels of gunpowder, #99 rounds of fixed 24-pound shot, 100,000 ball cartridges, 3,500 stand of arms, twenty-five pieces of iron cannon, and eight of brass; the greater part of which had been captured o the Americans during the revolution. By this disgraceful surrender the whole Michigan territory, of which Detroit is the chief town, containin 37,000 square miles, was given up to the British, with al the forts and garrisons within general Hull's district, and the detachments under colonels Cass, Miller, and 'M*Arthur, as well as the party under captain Brush, were included in the capitulation. The latter indignantly refused to surrender, declaring that Hull had no right to include him, and determined to return to the state of Ohio. The number of American troops made prisoners of war amounted to 2,800, while the whole British force consisted of no more than 700 regulars and militia, and 600 Indians. The Ohio and Michigan volunteers and militia were permitted to return home, but the regulars, together with the general, were taken to Quebec. The sensations produced by this event, throughout the United States, and particularly in the western coun. try, can scarcely be deseribed. At first, no one could believe so extraordinary and unexpected an occurrence, It had not even been supposed that the situation of Hull was critical, nor was it doubted by any person that he was fully able at least to defend himself. He was afterwards exchanged for thirty British prisoners, and brought before a court-martial. He was charged with treason, cowardice, and unofficer-like conduct. On the first gharge the court declined giving an opinion, on the two last he was sentenced to suffer death; but was recommended to mercy on account of his former services and advanced age. The sentence was remitted by the president; but his name was ordered to be struck from the rolls of the army. He afterwards published a vindication of his conduct, without effect, the public mind being too well satisfied,
Naval transactions.—At the moment of the declaration of war, a squadron under commodore Rodgers, consisting of the President, Congress, and United States frigates, with the brig Hornet, had rendezvoused off Sandy Hook, 9. the 21st of June they put to sea, in search of a small British squadron which had sailed as the convoy of the West India fleet. While thus engaged, the British frigate Belvidera was discovered, to which they gave chase. The President, which outsailed the other vessels, had come within gun-shot, and commenced firing with her bow guns, which the Belvidera returned with her stern chasers. In about ten . minutes, one of the President's guns burst, killed and wounded sixteen men, and fractured the commodore's leg. By this accident the deck was so completely shattered, as to render all the guns on that side useless. The Belvidera then shot ahead, and escaped from all her pursuers. After this, the American squadron proceeded after the West India convoy as far as the British channel, without falling in with them; they then stood for Madeira, the Azores, and Newfoundland, and arrived at Boston on the 30th of August, having made very few captures. On the 3d of July, the frigate Essex, sailed from New York, and nine days afterwards the Constitution, captain Hull, put to sea from the Chesapeak; at the same time, the brigs Nautilus, Viper, .." Wixen were cruising off the coast; the Wasp sloop of war was on her return from France. On the morning of the 17th, the Constitution, then off Egg-harbour, was chased by a British ship of the line and three frigates, which were rapidly approaching with a fine breeze, while the American frigate was nearly beealmed. At sun rise the next morning, escape was almost hopeless, the enemy being only five miles distant, and the seventy-four towed by all the boats of the squadron. Captain Hull then sent boats a head to warp the ship, and the enemy immediately resorted to the same expedient. In this manner the chase continued for two days, partly sailing and partly warping, when the squadron was left out of sight by the Constitution. This escape was considered as deserving a high rank in naval exploits, and was much admired at the time, proving great nautical skill. On the 2d of August, the Constitution again put to sea, and on the 19th discovered the British frigate Guerrier, who immediately backed her main-topsail and waited for the enemy. After mueh tacking and manoeuvring on both siles for three quarters of an hour, during which the Guerrier attempted to board, both vessels were brought along side of each other, when a furious action commenced for thirty minutes, which ended in the capture of the Guerrier, after being reduced to a mere wreck, and having lost fifteen killed and sixty-three wounded: the Constitution had seven killed and seven wounded ; but was so little injured in her hull and rigging, that when a ship appeared N0, X. 2 F
next day, she actually prepared for action. The Guerrier was so much damaged that it was found impossible to take her into port, she was therefore burnt at sea. It will be proper to observe in this place, that the Constitution was of a force much superior to the British frigate. Never did any event produce such universal joy over the United States. Captain Hull and his officers were received with enthusiastic gratitude wherever they appeared. In all the cities through which the captain passed he was presented with his freedom, and also many valuable donations. Congress voted 50,000 dollars to the crew, as a recompense for the loss of the prize, and several of the officers were promoted. The public mind was now continually excited by some new series of naval exploits. On the 7th of September, commodore Porter, of the Essex, entered the Delaware, after a most successful cruise of two months, during which he captured a brig with 150 soldiers on board, which was ransomed for 14,000 dollars; the men were disarmed and released, on taking an oath not to serve against the United States during the war. He also captured, on the 13th of August, the Alert sloop of war, after an action of eight minutes. When she struck her colours, she had but three men wounded; but there were seven feet water in her hold. Being now embarrassed with prisoners, above 500 in number, the Alert was converted into a cartel, and she was sent to St. John's in order to procure an exchange. .The Essex was afterwards chased by two ships of war, but escaped by skilful manoeuvring. On the 8th of October, the President, United States, Congress, and Argus, sailed from Boston, and on the 13th captured the British packet Swallow, containing 200,000 dollars. After a very successful cruise, they returned to the same port on the 30th of December. The Argus, which had separated from the others in a gale of wind, after being out ninety-six days, arrived at New York with prizes to the amount of 200,000 dollars. The United States, commodore Decatur, had also separated from the squadron, and on the 25th of October, off the Western Isles, fell in with the Macedouian frigate, captain Carden, a brave and honourable officer. After a severe action of nearly two hours, in a very heavy sea, the Mecedonian having lost her main-mast, main-topmast, and main yard, and being much cut up in her hull, struck her colours, She had thirty-six killed and sixty-eight wounded, while the United States had only five killed and seven wounded; but, as in the case of the Guerrier and Constitution, there
was great difference in the size of the ships. The United States measured 176 feet deck, and forty-two feet beam, her gun-deck six feet six o: high, she had fifteen portholes on a side, and carried 24-pounders on her main deck. The Macedonian had 166 feet deek, forty-two feet eight inches beam, her gun-deck six feet ten inches high, fifteen port-holes on a side, and carried 18-pounders on her main deck. - The news of this engagement had scaree time to subside, when intelligence of another was received, fought with the same desperate resolution on both sides; the Wasp sloop of war, captain Jones, had returned from France, after carrying over Mr. Crawford, the American ambassador. On the 13th of October, he again put to sea, and on the 17th descried six British merchant ships, under convoy of a brig and two ships of sixteen guns each. The brig, which proved to be the Frolic, captain. Whinyates, dropped behind, while the others made sail. The Wasp then prepared for action, which was commenced by the Frolic's cannon and musketry, and both ships soon became closely engaged. In five minutes, the Wasp's main-topmast was shot away, and in two minutes more, her gaft and mizzen top-gallant-mast followed; by these means her yards were rendered unmanageable during the action. The sea running very high, the muzzles of the Wasp's guns were sometimes under water, but were always fired while the vessel was descending: on the contrary, the Frolie's guns were discharged as she rose. By these means the shot of the former scarcely ever missed the enemy, while that of the latter was either thrown away, or went through the rigging of her antagonist. At length, the ships approached so close, that in the last broadside the rammers touched the opposite vessel. An opportunity adw offering, the Wasp swept the decks of the Frolic by a raking fire, and then boarded her; but to the astonishment of the boarders, no person was found on the quarter-deck except three officers and the man at the wheell The deck was quite slippery with blood, and presented a scene of havoc and ruin not, often witnessed. The colours were still flying, there being no seaman to pull them down. Lieutenant Biddle, of the Wasp, hauled them down himself, and received the sword of the brave officer who commanded her. The Frolic was taken possession of in fortythree minutes, after one of the most bloody conflicts recorded in naval history. The condition of this unfortunate vessel was inexpressibly shocking ; the birth-deck being covered with the dead, the d yiug, and the wounded;
and the masts, which soon after fell, covering them and every thing else on deck, left her a most melancholy wreck. The loss on board the Frolic was never properly ascertained; but has been stated at thirty killed and above forty wounded: that of the Wasp was five killed and five wounded. Both ships were captured the same day by a British seventy-four, the Poictiers, captain Beresford.
Northwestern and northern armies, Canada frontier, military movements, &c.—The public mind having recovered from the distress occasioned by the surrender of general Hull, was now carried to the contrary extreme. To the westward and to the southward, volunteer corps were forming in every quarter, and tendering their services for any enterprise. This patriotic spirit was conspicuous in the western parts of Pennsylvania and Virginia, but it was in the states of Kentucky, Ohio, and Tennessee, where it prevailed in the highest degree. Civil pursuits were almost forsaken, and this ardour was confined to no sex. The ladies set themselves to work in preparing military clothing for their friends, and they cheerfully contributed from their household stock, such articles as were wanted. Companies were equipped in a single day, and were ready to march the next. Thus, in a few weeks, upwards of 4,000 men were drawn from their homes, embodied, and ready for the field. The command of this army was given to major-general Harrison, who was appointed by the president commander in chief of the northwestern army.
In consequence of the war with Great Britain, vast numbers of Indians had taken up arms, and commenced their usual barbarities against the people of the United States. General Harrison's first object, therefore, was to relieve the frontier posts, principally fort Harrison, situated on the river Wabash, and fort Wayne, on the Miami-of-thelakes. He arrived at the former place on the 12th of September, with about 2,500 men, while it was invested by a large body of indians, who all disappeared at his approach. Not thinking it advisable to proceed further without reinforcements, he resolved to occupy the intermediate time in laying waste the Indian territory. Accordingly, two detachments were sent out on that service, who succeeded in destroying nine villages, with all the property of the inhabitants. General Harrison then proceeded to fort Wayne, where he arrived on the 18th, and