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found general Winchester, with considerable reinforcements from the states of Ohio and Kentucky. On the 23d, general Winchester, with about 2,000 men, set out for fort Defiance, on his way to the Rapids, the place of ultimate destination. After a most distressing march through a wilderness, highly favourable to Indian warfare, on the 1st of October, he took possession of fort Defiance, which had been previously eracuated by the British and Indians. On the 4th, general Harrison left the fort and returned to the settlements, with a view of organizing, and bringing up the remainder of the army; leaving orders with general Tupper to proceed with 1,000 men, to the Rapids, and drive the enemy from that place. From this period to the 13th of December, Tupper made three ata tempts to execute his orders, all of which proved abortive, from the total insubordination of the militia under his command. · While these things were taking place in the northwestern army, other occurrences deserving attention were transpiring further to the westward. The spirit of volunteering had been so highly excited, that the people could not rest contented without doing something. Nearly 4,000 men, chiefly mounted riflemen, ander general Hopkins, assembled at Vincennes, in the beginning of October, on an expedition into the Indian country. Before they had proceeded a week on their march, a mutiny arose among them for the want of military subordination, and they returned in confusion without achieving their object. Several other expeditions were undertaken about this time, against the Indians upon the Wabash and Illinois rivers ; in which many lives were sacrificed on both sides, and little injury done to the enemy, except the burning of a few villages, and the destruction of a quantity of corn.
It is now time to turn our attention to the northern frontier, from Niagara down the St. Lawrence. In the fall of the year, an American force, amounting to 4,000 men, had been assembled near Lewistown, on lake Ontario; another body of troops was stationed at Plattsburgh, on lake Champlain : the former under general Vanranselaer, the latter under the commander in chief, general Dearborne. At several other places on the frontiers, detachments had been stationed, and military stores collected at different points. Skilful naval officers were appointed to arm ves. sels on lakes Erie, Ontario, and Champlain ; and it was expected that before October, every thing would be ready for a formidable invasion of Canada. Considerable disappointment, however, was experienced, in consequence of the governors of Massachusetts, New Hampshire,' and Connecticut, refusing to permit the militia of those states to march, notwithstanding the orders of the president ! Nevertheless, between eight and 10,000 men were collected along the extensive frontier, the troops commanded by Vanranselaer were called the army of the centre, to distinguish it from Harrison's army; and those under the immediate orders of general Dearborne, the army of the north.
About this time an occurrence took place on lake Erie, which, though at first flattering to the American arms, occasioned most disastrous consequences in the end. On the 8th of October, liecienant Elliot, one of the officers conducting the naval egipments, captured the British brigs Detroit and Caledonia, the latter loaded with fur, to the amount of 150,000 dollars: the vessels were carried by boarding, with the loss of ouly two men killed and four wounded. This affair having kindled the ardour of the American army of the centre, they demanded to be led to the invasion of Canada; and some of the volunteers threatened to return home, unlest their wishes were complied with. After a conference with the officers, general Van. ranselaer resolved to make an attack upon Queenstown, seven miles below the falls of Niagara. Accordingly, at four o'clock, in the morning of the 11th of October, in the midst of a dreadful storm, and heary rain, an attempt was made to pass the river; which, from darkness, and various accidents, could not be effected.
The failure of this enterprise odly served to increase the impatience of the troops. Orders were therefore issued to prepare for another attempt; and early on the morning of the 13th, the troops embarked, under cover of the batteries. At day-light, as soon as the American boats could. be discovered, a shower of musketry and grape opened from the whole line on the Canada shore; which compelled two divisions of the invaders to re-cross the river. The rest succeeded in gaining the heights, when a severe coutest ensued, in which the British commander, general Brock, fell, morially wounded, and with him fell the post of Queenstown, which was taken possession of by the American troops. , Bat they were not long suffered to retain it; for reinforcements haring arrived to the British from fort George, and a large body of their Iudian, allies being advantageously posted near the scene of action, they were enabled to continue the engagement with great advantage. At two o'clock, the American general Wadsworth, crossed over and joined his countrymen, and gene
ral:Vanranselaer also passed the river, for the purpose of fortifying a camp; but perceiving that the men on the opposite side embarked but slowly, he returned to expedite them. But what was his astonishment, on reaching the American side, when be found that they positively refused to embark! More than 1,200 men under arms were drawn up on the bank, where they remained idle spectators of the scene, and neither commands nor entrea. ties could prevail on them to move! The Americans were finally defeated, with a loss of pearly 200 killed and wonnded, and 900 prisoners, among whom was their commander, general Wadsworth.
Shortly after the unfortunate battle of Queenstown, general Vanratselaer resigned his command, which devolved on brigadier-general Smith. The new comman. der immediately announced his intention of retrieving the honour of the American arms, by another attack upon Canada. The necessary preparations having been made, on the 27th of November above 4,500 volunteers were ready to embark; but the advanced guard having been vigorously opposed on their landing, and the main body not coming to their support, they were obliged to return, and the attempt was for that time abandoned. A few days afterwards, the whole body, with the exception of about 200 men, embarked at four o'clock in the morning, with every hope of success. Nothing was wanting but the word to move, when, after some delay, orders were suddenly given for the troops to be re-landed, as the invasion of Canada was relinquished for that season. One universal expression of indignation burst forth; the greater part of the militia threw down their arms, and returned to their homes, and those who remained threatened the life of the general. From the declaration of war to this period, the Americans had suffered the effects of total want of experience, and insubordination ; and in nothing more than in their different attempts against Canada. This last asfair had a most unfavourable aspect, both at home and abroad.
It is now time to revert to the northern army, for which few troops had been collected before late in the autumn ; it being confidently calculated that the upper part of Canada would fall ao easy conquest to the northwestern and center armies. But the unexpected surrender of Hull, produced a total change in the situation of affairs, and was the cause that nothing of importance was at. tempted by the army of the north. Skirmishes, however, were frequent, even during the winter, and incursions made both by the Americans and the British; but nothing of consequence was achieved on either side. • A new scene of warfare was now to be opened on those vast inland seas, already described, page 29; and for the first time their waves were to be lighted up with all the sublimity of naval combat. Commodore Chauncey had fitted up several vessels of war on lake Ontario, and having received notice that the British fleet had sailed down the lake, for the purpose of bringing up reinforcements to fort George, he determined to intercept them. On the 8th of November, his squadron descried one of the enemy's ships, the Royal George, of 26 guns, who made her escape into Kingston, where she was so well protected by the batteries, that the Americans were obliged to haul off, with considerable loss. They afterwards captured two schooners, one of which had on board 12,000 dollars in specie, and all the baggage of generał Brock, with captain Brock, the general's brother. Soon after this, winter set in and put an end to any further naval operations for the season. '
Congress again assembled in the beginning of November, at a time when party spirit raged throughout the country. Their attention was first directed towards raising an additional force; the inefficacy of mere militia, under no discipline, having been sufficiently seen. But there was no mode of remedying the evil, as regular soldiers, for the reasons already given, could not be procured in sufficient numbers. The navy, therefore, attracted much attention, great unanimity prevailing on this subject; and it was resolved to foster and encourage it, as the best reliance of the country. A war now threatened in another quarter, which occasioned considerable anxiety; the celebrated Indian chief, Tecumsech, had the year before visited all the tribes in the southern states, and, bý his powerful eloquence, raised a most upfriendly spirit among those people towards the white inhabitants. Georgia and Tennessee being in the greatest danger, the militia of these states were accordingly held in readiness, and in the spring, general Jackson, at the head of 2,000 men, marched through the Indian country to Natchez, a distance of 500 miles; but finding every thing quiet, returned soon after. Many skirmishes, however, afterwards took place in Georgia, which induced government to assign the defence of the southern frontier to general Pinckney.
Congress had not been long in session, when the publie feelings were once more excited by the news of another nával victory. This was the capture of the British frigato Java, of 46 guns, by the Constitution, of 60 guns, commodore Bainbridge. The action took place on the 29th of December, 1812, off the coast of South America, and was fought with the most determined valour. The Java had twenty-two men killed, and 102 wounded ; among the former was the gallant captajn Lambert. The Constitution had nine men killed, and twenty-five wounded. On Ithe day after the engagement, the prize was found in such a state as to render it impossible to bring her in, she was itherefore blown up, with every thing on board, except the prisoners baggage.
In the midst of these affairs, news of fresh disasters to the westward, accompanied by most aMicting circumstanees, tended effectually to damp the public joy for the seeond victory of the Constitution. General Harrison whose object was the re-capture of Detroit, had fixed his head quarters at Franklinton, in the state of Ohio ; meanwhile general Winchester continued at fort Defiance, with about 800 volunteers, belonging to the first families in Kentucky. The intrabitants of Frenchtown, twenty-six miles from Detroit, fearing a visit from the British and Indians, particularly the latter, bad solicited general Winchester for assistance. Accordingly, on the 17th of January, 1813, he detached a' body of men, under colonels Lewis and Alen, for their protection. On arriving at Presque Isłe, they learned that the enemy's advance had taken possession of Frenchtown ; they immediately resolyed to march forward and drive them out: this they effected, with the loss of twelve killed and fifty-five wounded. On the 20th, they were joined by general Winchester, and with this addition, the whole force amounted to 750 men.
On the morning of the 22d, they were attacked by the British under colonel Proctor, and a large body of Indians, commanded by the chiefs Round-head and Splitlog. After a most sanguinary conflict of six hours, during which their loss in killed and wounded-amounted to above 800, thirty-five officers and 500 men were obliged to surFender prisoners of war. The loss of the British was twentyfour killed, and 158 wounded. Searcely had the Americans surrendered, when the ferocious Indians commenced butóhering them in cold blood, in defiance of the entreaties of the British officers; many of whom exerted themselves in behalf of the unfortunate prisoners. The remains of this ill-fated little army was to have been marched to Malden, but small was the number that ever reached the British fort. The greater part of them had been carried