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village of Newark, in consequence of misconceiving the orders he had received from the secretary at war: this unfortunate event was attended with results afflicting to humanity. After the evacuation of fort George, the whole of the British side of the Niagara was abandoned by the Americans, It was now determined to retaliate for the burning of Newark; accordingly, at day-light, on the 19th, fort Niagara was surprised by colonel Murray, with a force of 550 men, and the place carried, after a spirited resist. ance, with the trifling loss of six men killed and five wounded ; while the loss of the garrison was sixty-five killed, fourteen wounded, and 344 made prisoners. This is according to colonel Murray's report; but the Ameri, ban account says, that nearly 300 were put to the sword, only about twenty being able to effect their escape. In the fort was found twenty-seven pieces of cannon, 3,000 stand of arms, a number of rifles, and a large quantity pf clothing and camp equipage. Captain Leonard, who had the command of the garrison, was absent at the time, and had taken no precautions whatever against an assault: in general M'Clure's report, he charges him with having deserted to the enemy. On the same day on which fort Niagara fell, Lewistown surrendered to the British, and, with Manchester, Young's-town, and the Indian village of Tuscarroras, was reduced to ashes, and many of the inhabitants put to death. On the 30th, a large detachment, under major-general Riall, accompanied by a great number of Indians, crossed the Niagara, with the intention of attacking Black-rock and Buffalo. At the approach of the British to the former place, a heavy fire was commenced by the militia under general Hall; but they were unable to withstand the gallant and determined advance of the assailants, who •ompelled them to retreat to Buffalo, two miles distant. Here the Americans, being 2,000 strong, attempted to make a stand, but the resistance of undisciplined troops was vain against such an enemy. The American militia soon broke and fled in disorder, betaking themselves to the woods, and leaving the British in possession of the town, which was soon after fired, and reduced to a heap of ruins. Eight pieces of cannon, and 130 prisoners fell into the hands of the victors; whose loss upon this occasion was thirty-one killed, sixty-seven wounded, and nine missing; the loss of the vanquished in killed and wound. ed was estimated at three hundred. On the evening of the same day, the village of Black-rock was consigned

to the flames; and the whole frontier, for many miles, exhibited a scene of ruin and devastation. But the work of retaliation was not yet complete; a detachment was sent down the river to destroy the fort of Niagara, the last remaining cover of the Americans in this quarter. A dreadful scene of desolation now presented itself; all the towns and villages on the American side of the river Niagara, for the distance of thirty-seven miles, were destroyed. The military transactions at the close of this campaign having assumed a most ferocious character, more resembling the conduct of the savage allies now. employed by both British and Americans, than the honourable warfare of civilized nations, On the 6th of December congress again assembled ; party spirit had almost reached its crisis, and the debates were carried on with the most virulent animosity. Some of the New England states carried their opposition to a most dangerous height, (see page 211), not only against the administration, but even against the federal constitution itself. On the 7th of January, 1814, a message was received from the president, announcing that, though the prince regent of England had declined the mediation of . the emperor of Russia, to reconcile the existing differences between Great Britain and America; yet, was willing to enter into a direct negociation, either at London or Gottenburg. This proposal was immediately accepted, and Gottenburg, as a neutral territory, fixed upon for the meeting of the plenipotentiaries. No sooner had the northern army retired into winter, quarters, than the public attention was called to the interesting events which had taken place in the country of the Creek Indians. In the course of the summer, the settlers near Oakmulgee river, in Georgia, became so much alarmed from the hostile behaviour of the Creeks, that the greater part of them abandoned their plantations, and shut themselves up in forts; and the peace party among the Indians shut themselves up with them, At length the majority of the Creek warriors, in defiance of the opinion of their most sagacious chiefs, procured arms from the Spaniards in Florida, and declared war against the United States. The commencement of hostilities was witnessed by one of the most shocking massacres to be found in the history of Indian wars. On the 30th of August, fort Mims, in which the greatest number of families had been collected, was sur. prised by a large body of the savages, and the garrison, with about 260 of the inhabitants, and 100 negroes, cruelly

butchered. Of the whole number of persons in the place, not more than thirty escaped. On the receipt of this disastrous intelligence, a part of the Georgia militia, and the volunteers and militia of Tennessee, under brigadier-general Floyd and general Jackson, were detached to revenge the massacre, and strike terror into the savages. During the month of November, four battles were fought at different places, in all of which the Indians were defeated and their villages destroyed ; though they fought with the utmost desperation, neither giving nor receiving quarter. The sanguinary details of this war are little more than a repetition of victories on the one side, and of defeat and misery on the other. The last battle which took place in this very unequal contest, was fought on the 27th of March, in which the greater part of the Indians were slain. On the morning of that day, general Jackson arrived at a lace called the Horse-shoe-bend of the river Coose. Nature furnishes few situations so eligible for defence, and here the Creeks, by the direction of their prophets, had made their last stand. Across the neck of land they had formed a breast-work of the greatest compactness and strength, from five to eight feet high, and provided with a double row of port-holes: this breast-work inclosed no less than 100 acres of land. Warriors from six different districts, amounting in the whole to more than 1,000, composed its garrison. General Jackson having detaehed a body of troops to attack the enemy in the rear, determined on taking the place by assault. Colonel Williams and major Montgomery, who led on the regular troops, were soon in possession of the nearest part of the breast-work, and were well supported by the militia. Having maintained for a few minutes a very obstinate contest, muzzle to muzzle through the port-holes, in which many of the Indians balls were transfixed upon the bayonets of the assailants, they succeeded in gaining the opposite side of the works. The event was no longer doubtful; the Indians, fighting with that bravery which desperation inspires, were cut to pieces, and the whole margin of the river strewed with the slain. About 300 were drowned in attempting to flee, and 557 killed in action ; not more than fifty could have escaped : among their slain was their famous prophet Manahoe, and two others of less note. Jackson's loss was twenty-six white men killed, and 107 wounded; twenty-three friendly Indians killed, and fortyseven wounded.—The total loss of the Americans in the

different battles during this short but sanguinary war, amounted to ninety-four killed, and 484 wounded; of the Indians were killed 1,834, wounded not known. This action, which was continued for five hours, terminated the Creek war. Two of their principal chiefs were taken prisoners; and their speaker, who was likewise a chief, finding the battle totally lost, surrendered himself also.” In a short time afterwards, a treaty of peace was concluded on severe but just terms. The Creeks ceded a portion of their country as an indemnity for the expences of the war; allowed roads to be made through their territory, and their rivers to be navigated; and stipulated to hold no intercourse with any British or Spanish post. The Unfited States undertook to guarantee their possessions; to restore all their prisoners; and in consideration of their destitute situation, to furnish them with the necessaries of life, gratis, until they could provide for themselves. After the failure of the campaign against Canada, the northern army remained in winter-quarters until the latter end of February. Indeed, on the part of Britain, warlike operations seemed to languish for a time; but no sooner was the power of Bonaparte overthrown in Europe, than the British ministry resolved to prosecute the contest with inereased vigour. The peace of Paris was scarcely ratified, before 14,000 of those troops which had gained so much renown under the duke of Wellington, were embarked at Bourdeaux for Canada. About the same time a strong naval force, with an adequate number of troops, was collected, and despatched for the purpose of invading different parts of the coast of the United States. The American army, under general Wilkinson, was at this time stationed at Plattsburgh, with 2,000 men under general Brown, at Sacket's-harbour. On the 30th of March, Wilkinson, at the head of 4,000 men, crossed the Canada line, and attacked the position of La Cole, near Odell-town, commanded by major Hancock; but the resistance made by the garrison was so spirited and determined, that the assailants were obliged to return to Plattsburgh, with the loss of 146 men killed and wounded. The British loss in this affair was eleven killed and forty

* Some time after the engagement, this updaunted warrior addressed general

Jackson in the following words: “Know, commander, that I fought at fort

*tims-I also fought your army from Georgia—I did you all the injury in my

Power and had Î been properly supported, I would have done you more. But my

"oriors are all slain—I cannot fight any longer. I ament the destruction of my

...low now is your power-treat me in whatever manner you please—l ana list.” -


six wounded. The unfortunate issue of this attack, and the failure of the last campaign, brought general Wilkinson into disrepute with the public ; and government, i. to the popular voice, thought proper to suspend im from his command, and the army was left under general Izard.—Wilkinson was afterwards tried by a court-martial, and honourably acquitted of all the charges against him. Before the reinforcements from Europe arrived in America, an expedition was undertaken under the command of general Drummond and commodore Yeo, against the fort of Oswego, on lake Ontario. On the 5th of May, the British commenced a heavy bombardment against the place, which was defended by 300 men, under the command of colonel Mitchell. In the first attempt they were repubsed, but returning again to the attac they succeeded in capturing the fort; the garrison having effected their escape, with the exception of about sixty, most of whom were wounded ; the naval stores were carried off; but a quantity of provisions, and some small craft, fell to the victors. The loss of the Americans on this occasion, was sixty-nine killed and wounded; that of the British, twenty-two killed, and seventy-three wounded. Another attempt on a small scale, made by the British on Sandy-creek, proved unfortunate, and was attended with a loss of eighteen men killed, and fifty severely wounded. Four lieutenants of the navy, two lieutenants of marines, and 130 seamen were made prisoners; all their boats were likewise captured. No further event of any consequence transpired in this quarter until late in the summer. On the 3d of July, a large American force, under major-general Brown, crossed the river Niagara, and advancing against fort Erie, demanded the surrender of the garrison; major Buck, who commanded the fort, instead of making an attempt to defend the place, surrendered it at the first summons; himself, and 140 men, being made prisoners of war. After the fall of fort Erie, general Brown advanced towards the British lines of Chippeway; upon which, major-general Riall, who commanded the British troops in the neighbourhood, ordered a large detachment to advance, for the purpose of reconnoitring the position, and ascertaining the number of the enemy. Early in the morning of the 5th, several skirmishes took place between the out-posts, and at four o'clock in the afternoon, both armies were drawn up in battle array, on a plain about a mile to the west of Chippeway, and a very short distance

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