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end of its course the navigation is very good, the current being deep and rapid, and the water muddy. Its breadth various, from 300 to 800 yards; and at its junction with the Mississippi, a few miles above St. Louis, in lat. 38 deg. 45 min. it is about 700 yards broad.
Mississippi River.—This noble river, which has been emphatically termed the Nile of America, though it is, in fact, much larger than that river, rises in Turtle Lake, north lat. 47 deg. 47 min. and after receiving a number of tributary streams, reaches the falls of St. Anthony in lat. 44 deg. north, where it is little more than 100 yards wide. These falls are sixteen feet perpendicular, with a rapid below of fifty-eight feet. At a short distance from the falls, St. Peter's river forms a junction with the Mississippi from the west, and a little below, the river St. Croix falls in from the east. About fifteen miles further down, the river spreads out into a beautiful sheet of water called Lake Pepin ; at the lower end of which it receives the waters of Chippeway river. Ninety miles below the Chippeway, and in north lat. 42 deg. it is joined by the Quisconsin. This river is highly important, as it approaches within two miles of Fox river, which falls into Lake Michigan. In lat. 39 deg. the Mississippi is joined by the Illinois river from the east, and twelve milés below the Missouri from the west ; being the main branch of the river we are describing, and by far the longest, having been navigated nearly 3000 miles. The waters above this are clear, but the Missouri is a muddy stream, and imparts its colour to the Mississippi. In lat. 37 deg. and about 190 miles below the mouth of the Missouri, the beautiful Ohio joins the Mississippi, of which it is the great eastern branch, as the Missouri is the western. About 350 miles below the Ohio, the White river falls in from the westward. Fourteen miles below the White river, the Arkansas pours in from the westward also. This is a very large and important river, having its sources in the mountains above Santa Fé. Below the Arkansas river, 190 miles, the Yazoo falls in from the eastward. The Black River likewise flows in the
same direction, and joins the Mississippi sixty-three miles by water, but only thirty in a direct line by land, below the Yazoo. The river now flows through a most interesting country, which will become the seat of great and important settlements, having Natchez, fifty-six miles from the Yazoo, for a central point, and about the same distance further down is Loftus Heights and Fort Adams. A short distance from this we pass the 31st degree of north lat. which forms the boundary between the states of Louisiana and Mississippi ; after which the river makes a remarkable bend to the westward, and receives the waters of Red River eighteen miles below Fort Adams. The junction of this river with the Mississippi is very singular. It would appear that they had been originally separate and distinct waters; the Mississippi passing to the sea by New Orleans, and the Red River through the river Atchafalaya. But in one of these numerous bends which the Mississippi has formed, it appears to have broken into the bed of the Red River, and they have made a temporary junction, but again receded, and resumed their original course towards the ocean. As the Mississippi receives no streams of importance after passing the Atchafalaya, which is indeed a continuation of Red River, it may considered as having reached its greatest magnitude ; and we may view it in its progress to the Gulf of Mexico, as being an average breadth of 800 yards ; the depth about 120 feet, and the mean volocity one mile an hour. Thus it flows on with majestic grandeur, and 240 miles below the Atchafalaya reaches New Orleans, where it makes a considerable bend to the south and east. Sixteen miles below the city the river makes another extraordinary bend, called the English Turn,*
* In the early settlement of Louisiana by the French, the English government sent out a small squadron for the purpose of exploring the Mississippi. The squadron succeeded in finding the mouth, and ascending the river to the bend now in question. A French officer met the ships, and had the address to persuade the English commander that the stream that he was then upon was not the great Canadian River, as it was then called, but another of far less importance ; and that the object of his search was farther westward. In consequence of this information, the British officer quitted the Mississippi, and went in search of it to the west; theo finally abandoned the enterprize, and returned to Europe,
after passing which, the next place deserving notice is Fort St. Philip, or Placquemines, distant fifty-four miles. From hence to the mouth of the river the distance is thirty-two miles. Some scattered clumps of trees are found, but the general surface of the little iand that rises above the water is a mere swamp. The aspect of the country is lifeless and dreary, and even the low grass-constructed cabins of the fishermen contribute to the melancholy appearance of the scene. The whole length of this mighty river is upwards of 2,600 miles, and its communication with the sea is by six outlets ; namely, the west, south-west, south, main, or north-east north, and Pass à la Loutre. The eastern extremity of the waters of this river is the head waters of the Allegany, which are situated in Pennsylvania, about 190 miles north-west of Philadelphia. --The western extremity is the head waters of Jefferson's river, about 540 miles from the Pacific ocean : the distance between these two extremities, in a direct line, is 1,700 miles. The Dorthern extremity is a branch of Missouri, in north lat. 50 deg. 42 min. 550 miles west by north of the Lake of the Woods. The southern extremity is the south pass into the Gulf of Mexico ; north latitude 29 deg. 100 miles below New Orleans : the distance between these two extremities, in a direct line, is 1,680 miles. Thus the river and its branches spread over nearly fifteen hun. dred thousand square miles, viz.Missouri Territory, two-thirds,
1,060,000 North-west Territory, one-half,
73,500 Illinois Territory, the whole,
50,000 Indiana, nineteen-twentieths,
39,000 Tennessee, ditto,
40.000 Mississippi, three-fifths,
29,660 Louisiana, two-thirds,
So that the Mississippi and its branches water considerably more than two-thirds of the United States territory; a great portion of it being still unsettled, and probably the finest land in the world.
The United States seem to have been formed by nature for the most intimate union; no part of the world being so well watered with springs, rivers, rivulets, and lakes.-By means of these various streams and bodies of water, the whole country is chequered into islands and peninsulas.-- The facilities of navigation render the communication between the ports of Georgia and New Hampshire far more expeditious and practicable, than between those of Provence and Picardy in France, Gallicia and Catalonia in Spain, or Cornwall and Caithness in Great Britian.— The canals opening between the Rivers Susquehanna and Delaware, between Pasquetank and Elizabeth Rivers in Virginia, and between the Schuylkill and Susquehanna, will form a communication from the Carolinas to the western counties of of Pennsylvania, and New York.--The improvement of the River Potomac will give a passage from the southern states to the western parts of Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, and even to the great northern lakes.
From the Town of Detroit, on Lake Erie, to Alex, andria in the district of Columbia, a distance of 560 miles, are only two carrying places, which together do not exceed forty miles.-The canals of Delaware and Chesapeak will open the navigation from South Carolina to New Jersey; Delaware, the most populous parts of Pennsylvania, and the midland counties of New York.-Other canals are also now cutting in Massachusetts and New Hampshire, and one between Ashley and Cooper Rivers in South Carolina. After what has been done the last twenty years, it cannot be venturous to predict, that thirty years more will not elapse before a water communication will extend from Lake Erie to New Orleans.
There is nothing in other parts of the globe, which resembles the prodigious chain of lakes in North America. - They may properly be termed inland seas of fresh water,
for even those of the second or third class in magnitude are of greater circuit than the largest lake in the eastern continent. The nine great lakes to be described in this place, are, the Lake-of-the-Woods, Long Lake, Lakes Superior, Huron, St. Clair, Erie, Ontario, Champlain, and Michigan ; through the first eight of these is drawn the boundary line which separates the United States from the British provinces : the last lies entirely within the territory of the United States.—The lakes of minor importance will be noticed in the description of the states to which they respectively belong.
The Lake-of-the-Woods, so called from a large quantity of wood growing on its banks, lies in 49 deg. 37 min. north lat. and 94 deg. 51 min. west long. from London. This lake forms the communication between Lakes Winnipeck, Bourbon, and Superior, and is the source of one branch of the River Bourbon. Its length from east to west is about seventy miles, and in some places it is forty miles wide. The Killistinoe Indians encamp on its borders to fish and to pursue game.
Long Lake lies east of the Lake-of-the-Woods, and is nearly a hundred miles long, and io no part more than twenty miles wide. Eastward of this lake lie several small ones, which extend in a line to the great carrying place, and thence into Lake Superior. Between these little Lakes are several portages, which render the trade to the north-west very difficult, and exceedingly tedious; as it requires no less than two years to perform one voyage from Michilimackinac, on Lake Erie, to these parts.
Lake Superior is so named from its vast magnitude, being upwards of 1500 miles in circumference, and is supposed to be the greatest body of fresh water in the world. A considerable part of the coast is bounded by rocks and broken ground, and the water of the lake, which is pure and transparent, appears to lie upon a bed of huge rocks. From the most accurate observations yet made, the situation of this lake lies between 46 deg. and