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In some of the lower towns they have a large breed of dunghill fowls, which were imported from England several years since; but this breed has been permitted to mix with the common sort, by which means it will, in time, degenerate.

Civil divisions, population, religion, and character.— New Hampshire is divided into six counties, having 213 townships, of six miles square each. The names of the counties, with their chief towns and population, are as follow :

Counties. Townships. Population. Chief Towns. Population. Cheshire......35...... 40,988...... Keene tp."........... 1,646 Coos... ... .... 24...... 3,991...... Lancaster tp....... , 717 Grafton....... 35......28,462......Haverhill tp......... 1,105 Hillsborough 42 .....49,249...... Amherst tp.......... 1,554 Concord tp.......... 2,393

Rockingham,46......50,175... } Portsmouth tp...... 6,934 Exeter tp............ 1,759 Strafford......31......4.1,595...... Dover tp.............2,288

213 214,460

Besides the above towns there are Hanover, in Grafton county, containing above 2,000 inhabitants; Plymouth, in the same county, 1,900; Durham, in Strafford county, 1,200; and Charlestown, in Cheshire, 1,700; with a few others, containing from 500 to 1,000 each. Small villages and farm houses are numerous, and the country is pretty well supplied with good roads, and several elegant bridges.

Portsmouth is the metropolis of New Hampshire, and its only sea-port. It is considerably the largest town in the state, and is situated about a mile from the sea, on the south side of Piscataqua river. Its harbour is one of the best on the continent, having a sufficient depth of water for vessels of any burden. It is defended against storms by the adjacent land, in such a manner, that ships may securely ride there in any season of the year; nor is it ever frozen, by reason of the strength of the current, and the narrowness of the channel. Besides, the harbour is so well fortified by nature, that it would require very little art to render it impregnable; and its vicinity to the sea, renders it very convenient for naval trade. Several ships of war have been built here ; among others, the America, of 74 guns, launched in 1782, and presented by congress

* The letters tp. added to the name of a town, signify that the population of the whole township is given.

to the king of France. At present (1819) there are two 74-gun ships on the stocks. "All the export trade of this state, which is not considerable, centres at Portsmouth; in 1817, it did not amount to quite 200,000 dollars. Concord, the seat of government, is pleasantly situated on the west bank of Merrimack river; and from its central situation, and a thriving back country, has become a place . of considerable importance. A handsome bridge across the Merrimack, connects this town with Pembroke, in the same eounty. Concord is 57 miles from Portsmouth, 70 from Boston, and 546 from Washington. Exeter is fourteen miles south-west from Portsmouth, situated at the head of the navigation on Swamscot river, a branch of the Piscataqua. Formerly, ship-building was carried on here to a great extent, and the vessels were employed in the West Indian trade; at present it is much decreased, but several manufactures have been established, among which are saddlery, coarse linen, paper, iron, snuff, chocolate, and flour. Here is a celebrated academy, in: corporated in 1781, which educates about eighty students; there are besides a respectable English grammar school, and several private schools, chiefly for females. The principal denominations of Christians in New Hampshire are congregationalists, baptists, presbyterians, episcopalians, and quakers. Of these, the first are the most numerous, as they are in most of the eastern states; there are also some societies of Sandemonians and Univer. salists, Ministers contract with their parishes for their support; and no parish is obliged to have a minister; but if they make an agreement with one, they are compelled by law to fulfil it. Education has been particularly attended to since the revolution, Dartmouth, college, in the township of Hanover, is supported by 80,000 acres of land, and is in a flourishing state; and, besides the academy at Exeter, there are a number of others, and many schools and public libraries established. In noticing the character of the people of this state, hospitality, firmness, patience in fatigue, intrepidity, in danger, and alertness in action, are to be numbered among their native and essential qualities. Land being still easily obtained, and labour of every kind being familiar, there is: great encouragement to population. A good husbandman, with the savings of a few years, can purchase new land. enough to give his eldersons a settlement. The homestead, is generally given to the youngest son, who provides for his parents when age or infirmity incapacitates them for abour. An unmarried man of thirty years old, is rarely,

to be found in the country towns; and the women are grandmothers at forty. It is very common for a mother and daughter to have each a child at the breast at the same time; and for a father, son, and grandson, to be at work together in the same field, Thus, population and cultivation proceed together, and a vigorous race of inhabitants grows up, on a soil which labour and mature combines to render productive. In general, the people are very industrious, and allow themselves little time for diversion. Where husbandry is the employment of the men, domestic manufactures are carried on by the women; who spin and weave their own flax and wool, and their families are elothed in cloth of their own making. The people of Londonderry; thirty-six miles from Portsmouth, and the towns which are made up of emigrants from it, attend largely to the manufacture of linen cloth and thread, and make great quantities for sale. These people are industrious, frugal, and extremely hospitable; the men are sanguine and robust, the women of lively dispositions; and the native white and red complexion of Ireland is not lost in New Hampshire. There are no Indians in this state; the scattered remains of former tribes retired to Canada many years since. Slaves there are none. Negroes, who were never numerous here, are all free by the first article of the constitution. - . . y - • * * .

Trade and manufactures.—A great part of the surplus roduce of this state is carried to Boston, which prevents' it from making a great figure in the scale of exports. The staple commodities may be reduced to the following articles, viz. ships, lumber, provisions, fish, live stock, pot. and pearl ashes, and flax-seed. Most of these articles are carried either to Newbury-port, Salem, Hartford, or Boston; particularly to the latter: this arises from New Hampshire being seated in the bosom of Massachusetts, with a narrow strip of sea-coast, and no more than one. port. Her inland country extends so widely, as to cover a great part of the neighbouring states, and render a commercial connection with them absolutely necessary; hence the greater part of her merchandise is reckoned among the exports of those places from whence it is shipped. All the towns which are situate on the southern, and many of those on the western borders of the state, find it more convenient to carry their produce to the ports above named; while the towns on the river Saco, and the northern parts of Connecticut river, will necessarily com"

municate with the ports in the eastern division of Massachusetts. Therefore to attempt a particular detail of the number and value of articles of commerce produced in New Hampshire, and exported from the various parts of Connecticut and Massachusetts, is altogether impracticable.

The manufactures of this state are neither numerous, nor carried on to any great amount; ashes, maple-sugar, bricks, pottery, and iron ware may be reckoned among the principal. As masts and naval timber abound in the country, ship-building is still followed to a considerable extent; both for the merchants service and for government. The fisheries formerly employed a number of hands, but latterly it has greatly decreased; though it is still prosecuted in some parts of the state with tolerable success. Oil is manufactured from the liver of the cod-fish for the use of curriers; oil is also extracted from a large portion of the flax-seed raised by the farmers; the rest is exported. The manufacture of leather and shoes is not so extensive as to produce articles for exportation; but may be considered among the domestic manufactures. In most of the country towns considerable quantities of tow-cloth are made, a part of which is sold for home consumption, and the remainder sent to the southern states to clothe the negroes.

Constitution.—The government of New Hampshire is founded upon a bill of rights, declaring that all men are born equally free and independent, and that all government originates with the people; that every man has a right to worship God according to the dictates of his conscience: that elections ought to be free, and that every inhabitant of the state, properly qualified, has an equal right to elect, and be elected into office: that there shall be no hereditary rights, and that the press shall be fettered with no restrictions. The exercise of the government is vested in a legislature, consisting of a senate and house of representatives; a governor and council to execute the laws, and a judiciary to promote justice between man and man. The senate consists of thirteen members, chosen annually by the people; and the members must be possessed of a freehold estate of £200 sterling. The representatives are apportioned according to the population ; every town which has 150 rateable polls being entitled to one representative; having 450, they are entitled to two. They are also elected annually, and must be possessed of NO, XIII. 2 F

a freehold of £100 sterling: the governor is in like manner chosen yearly, and must be possessed of freehold to the amount of £500. Every male inhabitant of twenty-one years of age and upwards, in the district where he resides, may vote at the election of representatives and senators; except paupers, and persons excluded from paying taxes at their own request.

History.-Ry referring to page 12 of this Work, it will be found that the first settlement of New Hampshire by the the English took place in the year 1621 ; captain John Mason having obtained a grant of certain lands on the sea-coast. The next year, another grant was made to sir F. Georges and Mason jointly, of all the lands between the rivers Merrimack and Sagadahok, extending back to the great lakes of Canada. Under the authority of this grant, in 1623, a settlement was made at Little-harbour, near the mouth of the Piscataqua. In 1629, some planters from Massachusetts-bay purchased from the Indians, for a valuable consideration, a large tract of land between the rivers Piscataqua and Merrimack, drawn at the distance of about thirty miles from the seacoast, and obtained a deed of the same. The same year, Mason procured a new patent of all lands included within lines drawn from the mouths and through the middle of Piscataqua and Merrimack rivers, until sixty miles were completed, and a line crossing over land, connecting those points, together with all islands within five leagues of the eoast. This tract of land was called New Hampshire, and comprehended the whole of the above-mentioned Indian purchase. In 1635, the Plymouth company, from whom Mason and Georges had obtained the grants, resigned their charter to the king; but this resignation did not materially affect the patentees under them, as the several grants to companies and individuals were mostly confirmed, at some subsequent period, by charters from the crown. In 1640, four distinct governments had been formed on the several branches of Piscataqua. The people under these governments, unprotected by England, in consequence of her own internal distractions, and too much divided in their opinions to form any general plan of government, thought it is best to solicit the protection of Massachusetts. That goverment readily granted their reuest; and accordingly, in 1641, the principal settlers of iscataqua, by a formal instrument, resigned the jurisdie

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