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tion of the whole to Massachusetts, on condition that the inhabitants should enjoy the same liberties with their own #. and have a court of justice erected among them. he property of the whole patent of Portsmouth, and of one-third that of Dover, and of all the improved lands therein, was reserved to the lords and gentlemen proprietors and their heirs for ever. These reservations were acceded to on the part of Massachusetts; and, what is extraordinary, a law of Massachusetts, declaring that none but church members should sit in the general court, was dispensed with in their favour. After this union, they had to struggle with many difficulties; one while involved, together with Massachusetts, in a bloody war with the Indians; and repeatedly disturbed with the warm disputes occasioned by the ineffectual efforts of Mason's heirs to recover the property of their ancestor. These disputes continued until 1679, when Mason's claim, though never established in law, was patronized by the crown, and New Hampshire was erected into a separate government. The first commission issued for the government of it was given to Mr. Cutt, as president of the province, on the 18th of September, 1679. In the year 1691, Mason's heirs sold their title to their lands in New England to Samuel Allen, of London, for £2,750. This produced new controversies concerning the property of the lands, which embroiled the province for many years. The year following the purchase, colonel Samuel Allen was commissioned governor of New Hampshire; eight years afterwards he went over to America to prosecute his claim, but died before the affair was concluded. About this time, the inhabitants suffered severely from the barbarity of the Indians. Exeter, Dover, and the frontier settlements, were frequently surprised in the night, the houses plundered, and burnt, the men killed and scalped, and the women and children either inhumanely murdered, or led captives into the wilderness. In 1737, a controversy, which had long subsisted between the two governments of Massachusetts and New Hampshire, respecting their divisional line, was heard by commissioners appointed by the crown for that purpose. These commissioners determined that the northern boundaries of Massachusetts should be a line three miles north from the river Merrimack, as far as Pantucket falls, then to run west 10° north, until it meets New York line. Although Massachusetts felt aggrieved by this decision, and attempted several ways to obtain redress, the line has never been altered, but is at present the divisional line between the two states. Douglas mentions “that the governor of Massachusetts, for many years, was also governor of New Hampshire, with a distinct commission.” This must have been many years after New Hampshire had been erected into a separate government in 1679. He adds, “that New Hampshire entered a complaint to the king in council against the joint governor, relative to settling the boundaries between the two provinces. This complaint was judged by the king to have been well founded, and therefore a separate governor for New Hampshire was commissioned in 1740.” But although this province was under the jurisdiction of the governor of Massachusetts, yet it had a separate legislature. Its inhabitants ever bore a proportionable share of the expenses and levies in all enterprises, expeditions, and military exertions, whether planned by the colony or the crown. In every stage of the opposition that was made to the encroachments of the British parliament, the people, who ever had a high sense of liberty, cheerfully bore their part. At the commencement of hostilities, indeed, while their council was appointed by royal authority, their patriotic ardour was checked by these crown officers; but when freed from this restraint, they flew eagerly to the American standard, when the voice of their country declared for war, and their troops had a large share of the hazard and fatigue, as well as the glory of accomplishing the revolution.
STATE OF VERMONT.
Situation, Boundaries, and Eartent.
VERMONT is situated between 40°42' and 45° N. lat. and 3° 35' and 5° 27' E. long. It is bounded on the north by Lower Canada; east by New Hampshire, from which it is separated by Connecticut river; south by Massachusetts; and west by the state of New York. Its extent from north to south is 152 miles, and its breadth from east to west sixty miles; containing 8,700 square miles, or 5,586,000 acres. No part of this state is nearer than seventy or eighty miles to any part of the ocean.
Lakes and rivers.-Besides lake Champlain, which separates this state from New York on the west, there are three other lakes of minor importance deserving of notice. Lake Memphremagog, forty miles in length and three wide, lies chiefly in Canada, and communicates with the St. Lawrence by the river St. Francis. Willoughby lake, six miles long and one wide, discharges its waters into Memphremagog by the river Barton. This lake furnishes fish resembling bass, of an excellent flavour, weighing from twenty to thirty pounds. They form a delicious feast for the new settlers; and people travel twenty miles to procure a winter's stock of this fish. Boumbazine lake is situated in the township of Castleton, Rutland county, and is eight miles long. All the rivers in Vermont rise among the Green Mountains; about thirty-five of them have an easterly direction, and fall into Connecticut river; about twenty-five run westerly into lake Champlain. Two or three running the same course, fall into Hudson's river; and four or five incline northerly, and slow into lake Memphremagog. The most considerable rivers on the west side of the Green Mountains, are Otter creek, Onion river, La Moille, and Michiscoui. On the east side of the mountains the rivers are not so large as those on the west, but they are more numerous. The largest are West river, White river, and Poousoomsuck; the latter, which is 100 yards wide, and noted for the quantity and quality of its salmon, is settled twenty miles up, and waters some of the best townships in the state. Besides these lakes and rivers, there are several other springs, ponds, and collections of water, which are, in general, remarkably clear, and afford abundance of trout, perch, and other fresh water fish.
Mountains, minerals, and curiosities.—This state takes its name from a range of high mountains, which, from being covered with pine, spruce, hemlock, and other evergreens, have obtained the appellation of Per Mons, (Green Mountain,) hence the name of Vermont. They divide the state nearly in the centre between Connecticut river and lake Champlain ; and extending through Massa. chusetts and Connecticut, terminate at New Haven; their whole length being not less than 400 miles. These mountains are generally from fifteen to twenty miles in breadth, and the height of land from twenty to thirty miles distant from the river, and about the same distance from the lake, Kellington Peak, the highest of this range, is about 3,454 feet above the level of the ocean, and is sometimes covered with snow till the beginning of June. The Green Moun
tains abound with elegant views and grand scenery, and are interspersed with many beautiful and fertile valleys, finely watered with springs and rivulets. Iron and lead ores of several kinds; copperas; marble, white, grey, and variegated, in vast quantities; and pipe-clay, have been found in various parts of this state. In the township of Tinmouth, in Rutland county, on the side of a small hill, is a very curious cave. The chasm at its entrance is about four feet in circumference: entering this, you descend 104 feet, and then enter a spacious room, twenty feet in breadth, and 100 in length; the angle of descent being about forty-five degrees. The roof of this cavern is composed of rock, through which the water is continually filtering ; and the stalactites which hang from the roof, appear like icicles on the eves of houses, and are continually increasing in number and magnitude. The bottom and sides are daily incrusting with spar and other mineral substances; and on the sides of this subterraneous hall are tables, chairs, benches, &c. which appear to have been artificially carved. This richly ornamented room, when illuminated with the candles of the guides, has an enchanting effect upon the eye of the spectator. At the end of this cave is a circular hole of a conical form, fifteen feet deep, and at the bottom a spring of fresh water in continual motion, like the boiling of a pot; its depth has never been sounded.
Climate, aspect of the country, soil, and produce— The climate differs little from that of New Hampshire, and is extremely healthy. The earth is generally covered with snow from the middle of December till the end of March; but the winter season may be said to continue from the beginning of November till the middle of April, during which the inhabitants enjoy a serene sky and a keen cold air. The ground is seldom frozen to any great depth, being covered with a great body of snow, in some high lands to the depth of four or five feet, before the severe frosts begin. In this way the earth is enriched and moistened, and in the spring vegetation advances with great rapidity; but since the country has been cleared and cultivated, the winters are considerably milder, and spring commences sooner: the summer is delightful.
The face of the country exhibits very different prospects; in general, this state is hilly, but not rocky. Northward to the Canada boundary, it is flat, and adjoining to the rivers there are the wide extensive plains of a fine level country. At a small distance from them, the land rises into the chain of high mountains already described, intersected with deep and long valleys. The heavy growth of timber, which is common throughout the state, evince the strength and fertility of the soil; elm, black birch, maple, ash, and bass wood, grow in the moist low ground, and the banks of the rivers are timbered principally with white pine, intermingled with vales of beech, elm, and white oak. For the most part, the soil is deep, and of a dark colour, rich, moist, warm, and loamy. It bears Indian corn, wheat, rye, barley, and oats, in large quantities, in the proportion of thirty bushels to an acre, as soon as it is cleared of the wood, without any ploughing or preparation; and after the first crops, naturally turns to rich pasture or meadow. The expenses occasioned by clearing the land, are always covered by the produce of pearlashes, extracted from the ashes of trees which they burn; and there are even persons who undertake to clear it on the sole condition of having the pearl-ashes for their labour. This kind of economy, however, seems peculiar to Vermont; for in all the other eastern states the trees are burnt at a certain loss. Flax is raised in considerable quantities, and latterly, a portion of hemp, for which the soil is well adapted. Potatoes, and all kinds of garden roots and vegetables, grow here in great plenty. Sugar to a large amount, of a good quality and flavour, is manufactured from the sugar-maple.
Civil divisions, chief towns, population, religion, and character.—This state is divided into thirteen counties and 242 townships, which are generally six miles square.
Counties. Tournships. Population. Chief Towns. Population.
* Laid out since the last census was taken.