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the same qualifications, and be elected in the same manner as the governor. The council consists of nine persons, chosen from the senators by joint ballot of the senators and representatives. -

History.—By referring to page 12 of this Work, it will be seen, that in the year 1628, in consequence of a purchase trom the New England council, Mr. Endicot planted a small colony in Massachusetts,” at the place now called Salem. A few months afterwards, about 200 persons, furnished with four ministers, came over and joined this colony; and the next year they formed themselves into a regular church. This was the first church gathered in Massachusetts, and the second in New England; the church at Plymouth had been collected eight years before. In 1630, seventeen ships from different ports in England arrivedin Massachusetts, with more than 1,500 passengers, among whom were many persons of distinction. lncredible were the hardships they endured, from the cruelty of the Indians, the want of provisions, and other ealamities; so that before the end of the year, 200 of their number were carried off by sickness. About this time settlements were made at Charlestown, Boston, Dorchester, Cambridge, Roxbury, and Medford. The first general court of Massachusetts, was held on the 19th of October, 1631, not by representation, but by the freemen of the corporation at large ; 109 freemen were admitted at this court. By the resolutions passed on this occasion, the freehmen were in future to choose the assistants, and the latter, from among themselves, were to elect the governor and deputy-governor; the court of assistants to have the power of making laws and appointing officers. At the next general court, in the same year, the freemen passed a most extraordinary law, “that none but church members should be admitted to their freedom ;” and this absurd and unjust law continued in force until the dissolution of the government. In 1632, and the year following, great additions were made to the colony, and such was the rage for emigration to New England, that the king thought fit to issue an order to prevent it. The order, however, was not strictly obeyed, for this year came over Messrs. Cotton, Hooker, and Stone, three of the most famous pillars of the church; Mr. Cotton settled at Boston, and the other two at Cam.

"The ludian word is, Mais-tehusaeg, signifying the country on this side the hills.

bridge. Two years after this period, at a meeting of the general court, some of the principal inhabitants appeared as representatives of the body of freemen, and resolved, “That none but the general court had power to make laws, &c.; that four general courts should be assembled yearly, and not be dissolved without the consent of the majority; and that the freemen of each plantation had a right to send representatives to the said general court.” Thus was established the legislative body, which, except reducing the number of court meetings to only two in the year, continued the same as long as the charter lasted. In 1636, Mrs. Hutchinson, a very extraordinary woman, who had joined the colony four years before, made great disturbances in the churches. Two capital errors with which she was charged, were, “That the Holy Ghost dwells personally in a justified person; and that nothing of sanctification can help to evidence to believers their justification.” Disputes ran high about the covenant of works and the covenant of grace, and involved both the civil and religious affairs of the colony in great confusion. The result was, that a synod was held at Cambridge, in 1637, which was attended by both ministers and magistrates; when, after three weeks disputing, they condemned as erroneous above eighty points or opinions, said to have been maintained by some one or other of the colonists. In consequence of this, Mrs. Hutchinson and several of her followers were sentenced to banishment; and she, with her husband and family, settled at Aquidnick, Rhode Island, where, in 1642, Mr. Hutchinson died. She afterwards removed to the Dutch colony beyond Newhaven, and next year, she and all her family, being sixteen souls, were murdered by the Indians, except one daughter, who was carried into captivity. The year 1637 was distinguished by the Pequot wars, in which were slain 5 or 600 Indians, and the tribe almost destroyed; this struck such terror into the natives, that for forty years they never openly attacked the English. The following year was rendered memorable by a very great earthquake throughout New England. In 1640, the importation of settlers ceased; the motives for emigrating having been removed by a change in the affairs of England. Up to this period, there had arrived in 298 ships, 21,200 passengers, men, women, and children; probably about 4,000 families. It was judged that they had, at this time, 12,000 neat cattle, and 3,000 sheep; the charge of transporting the families and their substance; was computed at £192,000 sterling. Next year, the In

dians united under Miantinomo, a leader of the Narraganset tribe, for the extirpation of the English; but the confederaey was fortunately discovered in its infancy, and produced no mischief. In 1646, the colony was disturbed by some of its principal inhabitants, who had conceived a dislike to certain of the laws, and to the government. Several of these disafsected persons were imprisoned, and the rest compelled to give security for their future good behaviour. An epidemic disease passed through the country the next year, and swept away many of the English, French, and Dutch inhabitants. In 1648, we have the first instance of the infatuation respecting witchcraft, which for some time prevailed in this colony. Margaret Jones, of Charlestown, was accused. of having so malignant a quality, as to cause vomiting, deafness, and violent pains, merely by her touch: she was accordingly tried, condemned, and executed | Happy

would it have been, had there been no other instance of

this miserable infatuation; but why should we wonder at the magistrates of New England, when we find the celebrated lord chief-justice Hale, and others of high-rank, in Old England, shortly after, chargeable with as great delusion. The fact is, that the same spirit prevailed at this time in the mother country, and was brought from thence, as were most of the laws and customs of the first settlers in America. In 1665, a distemper, like that which happened eight years before, went through the plantations; but was not attended with a great mortality. In the year following, began what has been generally called the persecution of the Quakers. The first persons who openly professed the principles of this sect in Massachusetts, were Mary Fisher and Ann Austin, who came from the West Indies in July of this year: a few weeks after, nine others arrived from London. Upon the 8th of September, they were brought before the court of assistants, for having affirmed that they were sent by God to reprove the people for their sins. On being questioned how they could make it appear that God sent them 2 after pausing for a time, they answered, that they had the same call that Abraham had to go out of his country: to other questions they gave rude and contemptuous answers, which is the reason assigned for committing them to prison. A great number of their books, which they had brought for distribution among the people, were seized and condemned to the fire. Soon after this, on a Sunday, as the governor was

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returning from church, in company with several gentlemen, Mary Prince called to him from a window of the prison, railing. at and reviling him, saying, “Woe unto thee, thou art an oppressor;” and denouncing the judgments of God upon him : not content with this, she wrote a letter to the governor and magistrates, filled with abusive language. The governor then sent for her from the prison to his house, and took much pains to persuade her to desist from such extravagancies. Two of the ministers were present, and with great moderation and tenderness, endeavoured to convince her of her errors; to which she returned the grossest railings, reproaching them as hirelings, deceivers of the people, Baal's priests, the seed of the serpent, of the brood of Ishmael, and the like. At this time there was no saw for the punishment of the Quakers; but in virtue of a law which had been made against heretics in general, the court passed sentence of banishment against them all. Afterwards other severe and unjust laws were enacted, among which were the following:—Any Quaker, after the first conviction, if a man, was to lose one ear, and for the second offence, the other; a woman to be each time severely whipped, and the third time, whether man or woman, to have their tongues bored through with a red-hot iron. But, as ever has been, and ever will be the case, religious persecution increased the number of the persecuted. Thus it was with the Quakers; the spectators first pitied their suffer. ings, and then adopted their sentiments, till their growing numbers induced the legislature to pass a law, punishing with death all Quakers who should return after banishment. Under this impolitic and tyrannical law, four persons only suffered death; and these had, in the face of prudence as well as of law, returned after having been banished: it may be here added, that it was with reluctance that this unnatural edict was carried into execution. But it must be confessed, that the conduct of some of these infatuated people at this time, was such as rendered them proper subjects for a mad-house; and it is to be lamented that ever any greater severities were used. One or two instances of their behaviour may be mentioned, which clearly manifests a species of madness:–Thomas Newhouse went into a place of public worship at Boston, with a couple of glass bottles, and while he broke them before the congregation, declared with a loud voice, “Thus will the Lord break you into pieces.” Another

time, M. Browster came in with her face smeared as black as a coal ; and Deborah Wilson went through the streets of Salem naked as she was born | While we condemn the severity with which the Quakers were treated on the one part, we cannot avoid censuring their imprudent, indelicate, and fanatical conduct on the other. These unhappy disturbances continued, until the friends of the Quakers in England interposed, and obtained an order from the king, dated September 9th, 1661, prohibiting all capital or corporal punishments of his subjects called Quakers. From this time the Quakers became an orderly, peaceable people, and have been long distinguished for their exemplary morals, benevolence, and attachment to civil and religious liberty; but particularly for their unwearied exertions to procure the abolition of Negro slavery. In 1660, in consequence of complaints against the colonists, Charles II. demanded that agents should be sent by them to answer to the charges. These agents were favourably received, and returned with letters from the king, commanding an alteration in some of the laws and customs, and directing the administration of justice to be in future in his name. The king's orders not being strictly obeyed, and new complaints coming to his ears, four commissioners were dispatched to the colony, in 1665, with absolute authority to hear and determine every cause. This new power met with merited opposition, and the commissioners left the country dissatisfied and enraged. Their report, however, occasioned no trouble from England, on account of the jealousies of government which then prevailed there; together with the misforfortunes of the plague and the fire of London. The colony now attained a more prosperous condition than it had hitherto known; a spirit of industry and economy pervaded the people, and many of the magistrates and merchants became opulent. The war, commonly called Philip's war, which continued several years, occasioned the next disturbances in the colony. The Indians having meditated the general destruction of the English, were numerously engaged in this contest, and much cruelty was exercised on both sides, until a period was put to hostilities by the death of Philip, the Indian chief, in 1676. In the height of the distress occasioned by the war, complaints were renewed in England, which struck at the power of the colonial government; an inquiry was instituted, and continued from time to time till 1684, when judgment was given against the charter.

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