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Io 1686, a commissioner arrived, appointing a president and divers gentlemen of the council, to take upon them the power of government; but this administration was short, and productive of no grievanoes. In December, the same year, arrived sir Edmund Andros, with a commission from kiog James for the government of New Englaud; Con necticut, however, was not included in his charge. From his kind professions, the people anticipated much good; but he soon exhibited his real character, and, together with his couneil, did many arbitrary acts to the oppression of the inhabitants, and the enrichment of himself and fol. lowers. The press was restrained, public thanksgiving, withont an order from the orown, was prohibited, fees of all officers were increased, &c. &c. The colony was greatly disquieted by these and similar tyrannical proceedings; and when news arrived of the accession of William III. to the throne of England, in 1689, the governor and about fifty others were seized and conficed, and afterwards sent home, and the old magistrates reinstated in their offices.
The affairs of the colony were now conducted with prudence, according to the old charter, until 1692, when they received apd adopted a new one. This new charter comprehended all the territory of the old one, together with the colony of New Plymouth, the province of Maine and Nova Scotia, and all the country between the latter proyince and the river St. Lawrence ; also Elizabeth islands, and the islands of Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard. By the new charter the appointment of the governor was in the crown, and every freeholder of forty shillings sterling a year, and every inhabitant of forty pounds sterl. personal estate, was a yoter for representatives.
The French of Quebec instigating the Indians, and joining with them to plunder and kill the English, and the French of Acadia (now Nova Scotia) infesting the coasts, and taking many vessels, the general court, in the winter of 1689, meditated an attack upon Port Royal, now called Annapolis Royal, and upou Quebec, But the season was so far advanced, the French so superior in pumber, the weather so tempestuous, and the sickness so great among the soldiers, that this expedition was attended with greatloss. While the troops were gone out of the colony, a truce was concluded with the neighbouring Indians; but hostilities were soon renewed.
In 1692, the spirit of infatuation respecting withcraft was again revived in New England, and raged with great violence. Several hundreds were accused, many were
condemned, and some executed. That the odium of this tragic conduct may not rest upon the New Englanders alone, it must here be observed, that the same infatuation was at this time current in England. The law by which witches were condemned was a copy of the English statute; and the practice of the courts was regulated by precedents there afforded.
In 1711, some ships and soldiers being sent over, the colony troops joined them, and an attempt was made upon Canada, in which the greater part of them perished. This disaster was very grievous to the people of New England, and many persons, in consequence of it, abandoned every expectation of conquering Canada. Frequent excursions on the frontiers immediately followed ; but as soon as the peace of Utrecht was known, the Indians of the various tribes requested to be at peace with the English, asked pardon for their breach of former treaties, and engaged for the future to demean themselves as good subjects of Great Britain: articles of a general treaty were drawn up and signed by both parties. But the prospect of a long peace, wbich this treaty afforded, was interrupted by the plots, of one Ralle, a French Jesuit, who instigated the Indians to make fresh incursions on the borders of the colony in 1717; nor was there any real cessation of hostilities until the death of Ralle in 1724.
In 1725, a treaty was made with the Indians, and a long peace succeeded it; but the length of the peace is to be attributed to the favourable acts of government, made soon after its commencement, respecting the Indian trade. About this time, the small pox made great havock in Boston and the towns adjacent; of 5,889 who took the disease in Boston, 844 died. Inoculation was introduced on this occasion, in direct opposition to the minds of the inhabitants in general; nor would any of the physicians, except Dr. Boylston, practise the operation. To shew his confi. dence of success, he began with his own children and servants, and succeeded with them all. Many pious people were struck with horror at the idea, and were of opinion, that if any of his patients should die, he ought to be treated as a murderer.
In 1745, according to a proposal and plan of the goverpor of this colony, Louisburg, the capital of Cape Breton, was besieged and taken. The possession of this place appeared necessary for the security of the English fishery, and prevented an attack upon Nova Scotia, which the French had meditated and threatened. The reduction of Louisbnrg by an English colony, surprised Great Britain
and France, and occasioned both powers to form important plans for the next year. The British government had in view the reduction of Canada, and the expulsion of the French from the northern continent. The French ministry intended the recovery of Louisburg, the conquest of Nova Scotia, and the destruction of the English sea-coast from Nova Scotia to Georgia. Great preparations were accordingly made by both nations, and a very formidable French fleet sailed for the American coast, where a British squadron was long expected to oppose them, but expected in vain. The colonies were now in immediate and immi. nent danger; but, fortunately for them, the French fleet was so much damaged by a violent storm, that the ships were obliged to return to France, or retire to the West Indies to refit. By the time the fears of the colonists, which had been excited by the French armament, were removed, the season was too far advanced to prosecute the Canada expedition ; but the inactive prosecution of the war in Europe at this time, on both sides, indicated peace to be near, which in the next year was effected.
Here governor Hutchinson ends his history of Massachusetts, from which the preceding account has been abstracted. Several of the important events which have occurred since that period, may be found in the history of the United States, between pages 140 and 281 of this Work.
DISTRICT OF MAINE.
Extent, Boundaries, and Situation. The district of Maine is politically connected with the state of Massachusetts, and is of considerable extent; being in length, from north to south, 216 miles, and in breadth, from east to west, 162 miles ; containing about 31,750 square miles, or 19,720,000 acres. It is situated between 43° 5' and 47° 45' N. lat. and 5° 55' and 10% E. long. ; and is bounded on the north and north-west by Lower Canada; south-east, by the Atlantic ocean; east, by New Brunswick; and west, by New Hampshire.
Bays, lakes, rivers, &c.-The sea-coast of this district is indented with numerous bays, the principal of which áre, Penobscot-bay, in Hancock county, which is about
forty-eight miles wide, and incloses Fox, Haut, Long, and Deer islands, besides a number of small isles and rocks, On a fine peninsula in this bay the British built a fort, and made a settlement, which is now the shire town of the county of Hancock, and is a very commodious place for the lumber trade. Broad-bay is situated about twelve miles westwardly, and lies on the line of Lincoln and Hancock counties ; being bounded by Pleasant-point on the east, and Pemaquid-point on the west, the latter of which projects considerably into the sea. Casco-bay lies between Cape Elizabeth and Cape Small-point, and averages twenty-five miles in width by fourteen in length; it forms the entrance into Sagadahok river, and has sufficient depth of water for vessels of any burden. This is a very handsome bay, and contains pot less than 300 small islands, some of which are inhabited, and nearly all more or less cultivated; the land on these islands, and on the opposite coast, being the best for agriculture of any near the sea-shore of this country. Wells-bay, in York county, lies between Capes Porpoise and Neddick, which are twenty-one miles apart. Besides the bays here described, there are Saco, Machias, and Passmaquoddy, the latter of which separates the British province of New Brunswick from the United States. The lakes, or rather ponds, are, Sabago pond, twenty miles north-west of Falmouth, Massachusetts ; Cobbesconte ponds, in Kennebeck county ; Mousom ponds, in York county, and a few others.
The whole interior of the country is watered by many large and small rivers, the principal of which are Penobscot, which empties into the bay of that name, and is navigable to the falls, about forty miles from the sea. It rises from some ponds in the centre of the country, and in its course encloses above sixty islands, making in the whole about 12,000 acres of land. Kennebeck is a fine river, and has two sources, one from lake Megantic, in the highlands, which divides Canada from the United States, the other from Moosehead lake, in Lincoln county, Maine. In its course it receives Sandy river from the west, and Sebastacook and several others from the east, and passes to the sea by cape Small-point. It is navigable for vessels of 150 tons forty miles from its mouth. Androscoggin river is properly the main western branch of the Kennebeck, and rises in lake Umbagog, New Hampshire ; from thence its course is southerly till it approaches near to the White mountains, from which it receives Moose and Peabody rivers. It then turns to the east and south-east through Maine, and passing within two miles of the seacoast, wheels to the north, and running over Pejepshaeg falls into Merry-meeting bay, forms a junction with the Kennebeck twenty miles from the sea, and 146 from its source. From this bay to the sea, the confiuent stream was formerly called Sagadahok. Saco river rises in the White mountains, and running through New Hampshire into Maine, then makes a great bend to the north-east, east, and south-west, nearly surrounding the pleasant township of Fryburgh, in York county ; its course thence to the sea is about fifty miles north-east. Great and Little Ossa pee rivers fall into it from the west, making a great addition to the original stream, on the branches of which, as well as upon the main river, are a great many mills and other valuable works. The Saco is navigable up to the falls, six miles from the sea. Besides these are a number of smaller rivers, among which are, Stevens's, Presumscut. and Royal rivers, all running into Casco-bay. Kennebank and Mousum rivers extend some distance into the country, and fall into Wells-bay. York river runs up seven or eight miles, and has a tolerable harbour for vessels under 200 tons. Sheepscut is navigable thirty miles, and falls into the ocean at the same mouth with Kennebeck; on this river is an excellent port called Wiscasset, and at the head of navigation is Newcastle. Pemaquid and Damariscotta are small rivers; the former has a beautiful harbour, but is not navigable above its mouth.
Climate, face of country, soil and produce.-The winters are long and severe, with clear settled weather, which generally continues from the middle of December till the latter end of March; during which time the ponds and fresh water rivers are passable on the ice. There is scarcely any spring season; the summer is short, and extremely warm ; but autumn is in general pure, healthy, and pleasant. The elevation of the lands, the purity of the air, the limpid streams, which abundantly water this district, and the regularity of the weather, all unite to render this one of the healthiest countries in the world : many of the inhabitants attain the age of ninety years.
The district of Maine, though an elevated tract of country, cannot be called mountainous ; there being no eminence deserving the name of mountain, except Agamenticus, eight miles from York harbour, which is a noted land-mark for seamen, and a good directory for