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shipping, and affords a most charming walk. On a summer's evening it is crowded with people, as it is open to the breezes from the sea, which render it particularly agreeable at that season. There is a triangular piece of ground, called the Park, in front of the public buildings, which is very ornamental; and these are all the public walks to be found in New York.
The public buildings are numerous and handsome. The first in importance is the city hall, fronting the Park; it is built of white marble, and is said to be the most elegant building in America : indeed it is surpassed by very few in Europe. The others are, federal hall, custom-house, college, coffee-house, mechanics' hall, theatre, hospital, state prison, and bridewell. There are forty-six places of public worsbip, viz. five Dutch reformed churches, six presbyterian, three associated reformed ditto, one associated presbyterian, one reformed ditto, five methodist, two for black people, one German reformed, one evangelical Lutheran, one Moravian, four trinitarian baptist, one universalist, two catholic, three quaker, eightepiscopalian, obe Jews synagogue, and a small congregation who dispepse with a priest entirely; every member following what they call the apostolic plan of instructiog each other, and “ building one another up in their most holy faith.”
The city is accommodated with five public markets, of which the Fly-market is the principal; and these are well supplied with wholesome provisions, in neat and excellent order; which are generally sold at reasonable rates. The following is a list of the prices, in English money, at the beginning of the year 1819: beef, mútton, and veal from 4d. to 6d. per Ib.; ham and bacon 8d. to 10d.; dried beef, 9d.; fowls,* 18. 8d. to 28. 7d. a pair ; ducks, 28. 4d. to 28. 8d. a pair; geese, 28, 3d. to 3s. 10d. each; turkeys, 38. 4d. to 58. 8d.; pork, 6d. to 8d. per lb.; fresh butter, 16d. to 20d, ; eggs, pine for 6d. ; cheese, old, 9d. new, 6d. ; cheese imported, 1ld. to 15d.; that manufactared in the United States is of bad quality; potatoes 38.5d.
a bushel ; green peas, (in the season) 7d. to 9d. per peck; · turnips, 28. 3d. per bushel; cabbages, 2d. each ; milk, 6d. per quart; fish, 2d. to 3d. per lb., except salmon, which sells from 13 d. to 38. 5d.; salt, 10d. a peck; brown soap, 7d. per lb. ; refined do. 9d.; candles, 8d.; mould do. lld.; superfine flour, per barrel of 196 lb. 468. to 50s.; good common do. 368. to 418.; rye, do. 318.; Indian fiour, 388. to 418.; wheat, 8s. to 98. per bushel ; rye and barley, 6s. 6d.;
• Fowls of every descriptica are dearly one half larger in America than in Great Britain ; but they are not superior in quality.
oats, 28.; hops, 208. a pound; feathers imported, 14d. per pound; American do. 38.; a loaf of bread seventeen ouncesweight, 3 d.; ditto thirty-four ounces, 7d.; mustard, 38. 6d. per lb.; common ale, 5 d. per quart; best do. 7d.; apples, 10d. a peck; lobsters, 2d. per lb. ; onions, 3d. a rope; cucumbers, 2d. each ; common brown sugar, 7d. per Ib.; lump do. 13d.; best do. 16d, ; raw coffee, lld.; souchong tea, 4s. 6d. to 58. 7d. ; hyson, 58. 7d. to 68. 2d.; gunpowder do. 10s. The quality of the provisions is excellent, except mutton, which is somewhat inferior; candles are not so good as they are with us, soap is superior.
House rent is extravagantly high, in respectable streets that are eligible for business. In the skirts of the town, a small house, one story high, the front rooms of a moderate size, the back rooms less, but suited for beds, is from £18 to £14
per annum. A mechanic who has a family can have two small rooms for £18 a year. About half a mile out of the city, a small two story house, with two rooms on the first floor, and two closet bed-rooms on the same, one room in the garret, and the use of the kitchen, has been let for £24 10s. the landlord paying the taxes. A very small house, in a situation inconvenient for business, containing six rooms, is worth from £75 to £80 a year; a similar house in a better situation, £95 to £105; a ditto in a good street for business, £130 to £140; a ditto in a first rate retail situation, £160 to £200 per annum : it is to be observed that this is the smallest class of houses. A house containing a kitchen and servant's bed-room underground, a dining-room, small parlour, and closet on the ground floor, å drawing-room and large bed-room on the first floor, three bed-rooms on the second, three in the attic, and a small back yard, the rent is £202 108. and the taxes £11 58. A similar house to this, in a first rate private house situation, would be £300 to £350 per annum; were it appropriated to business, the rent would be higher. In Broadway, the rent of a shop and cellar only is £292 108.; the upper part of the house sets for £247 108. Two moderate-sized houses in Wall-street were lately taken on lease, for the purpose of being converted into an inn, at a rent of £1,417 108. per annum; but not answering the expectations of the tenant, he put up at public auction a nine years lease, which was knocked down for £2,587 108. per annum! Ground lots for building, eren in the suburbs, are enormously dear.
Persons who are not housekeepers generally live at boarding-houses or hotels. A mechanic pays for his board and lodging 138. 6d. a week, or, for better accommodation,
158. 9d.; for which he has three meals a day, coffee with fish or fiesh meat for breakfast; a hot dinner; and tea (called supper) in the evening ; at which last the table is filled with cheese, biscuits, molasses, and slices of dried beef. Boarding in one of the genteel houses is eight dollars a week, for such as remain only a short time; but at the same house, five or six dollars for a three or six months residence. Prices vary from eight to fourteen dollars a week, according to situation, respectability, and accommodation. Mrs. Bradish's boarding-house in State-street, is the best in New York, or perhaps in the United States; the rent of this house is £540 sterling per annum, with taxes to the amount of £18.
Mechanics have good wages in this city; but are not always certain of employment. House carpenters and masons are in greatest request, and better paid than most other callings; the former receiving 78. 10 d. per day, and the latter 8s. 5d. English money. Tailors can earn from 368. to 54$..; but their trade is much injured by the employment of women and boys, who work from twenty-five to fifty per cept. cheaper than the men. A man that can cut out will be occasionally very well paid; the women not being cleverin this branch of the business, makes men more necessary. When a journeyman works by the piece, for making a common coat he receives 188.; a best do. 278.; if he finds the trimmings, he is paid for a superfine coat 458. to 518.; for making trowsers, 98. To carry on this trade as a master, with a prospect of success, will require a capital of from £500 to £2,000; the profits are large, but long credit is given. The price of a coat made of best cloth is from £7 48. to £8 2s. There are large quantities of clothing imported from England, and many persons have their regular London tailors. Black and coloured Chinese crape, black stuff, white jean, white drill and Nankin, are worn for trowsers; all of which are made by women.
Boot and shoemakers are numerous, some of them extensive. The price of sole leather is 11d. to 14d. ;, of dressed upper ditto, 118. 3d. to 158. 9d. ; Wellington boots at the best shops are charged 408. 6d. ; shoes, 138. 6d. Spanish leather is much used for uppers; the shoes are made with taste, the workmanship appearing to be fully equal to that of London, and the American workmen not inferior to the English. A capital of from 500 to 1,000 dollar is requisite in a moderate concern; but it is not probable that a master shoemaker would be benefitted by moving to New York, though a journeyman would; a first rate workman is capable of earning 458. a week,
Cabinet-making is a good business in this city, and indeed throughout the United States. When in full employment the earnings of a journeyman may amount to 548. a week; but a safe average is 368. Cabinet shops are numerous, particularly in Greenwich-street;
containing a variety of articles, but not a large stock. They are generally small concerns, apparently owned by journeymen wbo have l'ately commenced on their own account. The retail price of a three feet six inch chest of drawers, well finished, and of good quality, is £3 168. 6d.; of a three feet ten, with brass rollers, £5 88. A table, three feet long, four and a half wide, £3 7s.6d.; ditto with turned legs, £458. 6d.; three and a half long, four and a half wide, (plain) £3 128.; ditto, better finished, £4 108.; ladies' work tables, very plain, 188. Chests of drawers are chiefly made of St. Domingo mahogany, the inside faced with box wood; but shaded veneer and curled maple (a native and most beautiful wood) are also used for tbis purpose. Cabinet work in general is light and elegant; and there is some decorated with cut glass instead of brass ornaments, which has a beautiful effect. A good cabinet-maker, who should have no more than £100, after paying the expenses of his voyage, would obtain a comfortable livelihood; as would also an active speculating house carpenter or mason, under the same circumstances. A greater capital would, of course, be more advantageous. Mahogany is used for doors, cupboards, banisters, &c.; that imported from Hon. duras sells
from 51d. to 7d. per superficial foot, and that from St. Domingo, from 91d. to 17 d. Oak boards are £5 128. 6d. per 1,000 feet; shingles (a substitute for tiles or slates) £1 28. 6d. per 1,000 feet, to which is to be added á duty of fifteen per cent.
A timber merchant should have a capital of at least £1,000, as he ought to pay cash for his stock, with the exception of mahogany; yards containing this article are generally separate concerns. Building, as before observed, is very brisk in this city, and is for the most part performed by contract. A person intending to have a house erected, contracts with a professed builder; the builder with a bricklayer, and he, with all others necessary to the onder. taking: In some cases, a builder is a sort of head work. man, for the purpose of overseeing the others; receiving for his agency seven pence per day from the wages of each man; the men being employed and paid by him. But there are some instances in which there is no contract, every thing being paid for according to measure and value. The builder is sometimes his own timber-merchant;
indeed all men here koow a portion of, and enter a little into ever thing.
Chair-making in New York, and at the town of Newark, ten miles distant, is an extensive and profitable business, The retail price of wooden chairs is from 4s, 6d. to 98.; of curi maple with rush seat, lls.; of ditto with cane seat, 138. 6d. to £1 2s. 6d. ; of ditto most handsomely finished, £] 98.; sofas, of the several descriptions above mentioned, are the price of six chairs. Journeymen's wages fully equal to that of cabinet-makers.
There are here several large carvers' and gilders' shops, and glass mirrors and picture-frames are executed with taste and elegance; but still the most superior are imported from England : carved decorations are general, though some composition ornaments are used. Plate glass is im., ported from France, Holland, and England; the latter bearing the highest price: silvering looking-glasses is a separate trade; but though there is only one silverer in New York, he is not constantly employed. Carvers and gilders are paid 8 d. per hour; the latter would probably not succeed here: the former might do better : but neither trades are of the first rank, as to facility of procuring employment.
The oil and colour business would probably be success. ful, and might be combined with that of a tallow-chandler; wbo is prohibited from carrying on the operation of melting contiguous to the thickly inhabited parts of the city. The rest of a house to suit an oil business, would be £135. to £150 per annum; and a capital of from £800 to £1,000. would be sufficient. For a journeyman or shopman it is a bad trade; they are paid 48. 6d. to 58. 7d. per day, the chief work being done by apprentices. The wholesale prices of foreign tallow is 6d. to 7d, with a duty of įd.; of American, 7d.; of Castile soap, 8d. to 9d. ; turpentine, 5 d., with a duty of lid. In the eastern states there is abundance of native tallow, in the south it is scarce ; and as barilla is not used, American ashes are substituted, which cost from 8d. to Ild. per bushel.
A dyer is a tolerably good business, and would not require a capital of more than £200 to £500; a few jour, Deymen are employed, who earn 458. per week. From the state of the manufactures in America, the profession of a dyer is very different in that country to what it is in England; and approaches nearer to that of an English scourer. The price of dyeing black or brown woollens is 38. per yard, six-quarter wide; red or yellow, 28. 6d. ; scarlet, 208. a pound There is no silk dyed in the skein
bad trade; hicient. Fora capital ofsiness, would he city