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nor are there any silk weavers in the United States. Re-dyeing old silk is 6d. per yard; fast blue is not done. English allum is from 338. 9d. to 36s. per cwt., with a duty of 4s. 6d. ; brazilletto, 140s. to 1608. per ton; cochineal, 24s. 9d. per lb. with a duty of 71 per cent. ; logwood, 90s. to 112s. per ton. · Clerks or shopmen are not in demand, neither in New York nor elsewhere throughout the states; for as there are no very large concerns, most men are capable of attending to their
own business. A person of the above description would here find much difficulty in procuring a situation; and if one could be obtained, he would not receive more than from 158. 9d. to 318. 6d. a week exclusive of board and lodging. Printers are paid 458. a week, wher upon established wages; but employment cannot be depended on, a great portion of the work being done by boys. Stereotyping is also largely practised, to the great injury of the compositors, without benefitting the public in the most remote degree.
The Lancastrian system of education is practised in this city, as well as in many other parts of the United States; but it has not spread so rapidly as in England, because among the lower orders it was less wanted : there are 800 scholars in the school at New York. . Day schools are numerous, and some of them respectable ; but none of them large: an usher at any of these establishments is a situation not worth the attention of the poorest mar.
No species of correction is ever allowed; for children, even at home, are perfectly independent. The proprietors of these seminaries are chiefly emigrants from Scotland and Ireland; no English school master has yet established himself in the city. Two ladies from England have opened a boarding school for females, and have been tolerably successful; for an undertaking of this kind a capital of from £100 to £500 is necessary, for a day-school none is required. The charges at several seminaries are, for arithmetic, reading, and writing, per annum £9 sterling; for geography, philosophy, and the French language, £13 10s.; for Greek, Latin, and the mathematics, £18: these charges are exclusive of board.
The foregoing account of trades and professions in New York, and of the prospects of emigrants to that celebrated city, cannot be better concluded than by the observations of a late intelligent and judicious traveller, to whom we are indebted for much information on these interesting topics. The capitalist may manage to obtain seveu per cent., with good security; the lawyer and
cceed, the fine arust stare may be
doctor will not succeed, though an orthodox minister would. The proficient in the fine arts will find little encouragement; the literary man must starve. The tutors' posts are preoccupied. The shopkeeper may do as well, but not better than in London; unless he be a man of superior talents and large capital : for such requi. sites there is a fine opening. Mechanics whose trades are of the first necessity, will do well; those not such, or who understand only the cotton, linen, woollen, earthenware, glass, silk and stocking manufactures, cannot obtain employment in this city. The labouring man will prosper; particularly if he has a wife and children, who are capable of contributing, pot merely to the consuming, but to the earning also of the common stock.'
It is estimated that there are 1500 spirit-shops in New York, and the quantity of malt liquor and spirits used by the inhabitants, greatly exceeds the amount consumed by the same extent of English population ; still there are no drunkards to be seen in the streets, the beastly drinker being a character unknown here. Yet but too many throughout the day are under the influence of liquor; a state too common among the labouring classes and blacks. The source of this evil is by some attributed to the extremes of the climate ; but the principal cause is, that a number of the lower orders are emigrants from Europe, and particularly from Great Britain and Ireland. . These people carry their profligate habits along with them, and being much better paid for their labour in America than they were in their own country, and liquors being considerably cheaper, they are enabled to indulge in their former practice of drunkenness, and to a much greater extent. All spirits are commonly drunk mixed with cold water, without sugar; and the price per glass, at the lowest grog shops is 2d.: here the liquor is of a very inferior quality. At the more respectable places, for a superior quality, 3 d.; at what are called taverns and porter. houses, 7d. ' This city is remarkably well situated for trade; and is esteemed the most eligible commercial port in the United States. Having a spacious harbour, an easy access to the ocean, and being a central situation, it must necessarily always command a large share of the foreign trade of the country. Possessing the navigation of Hudson's river, 'which, with its branches, is navigable upwards of 200 miles, and the East river, with Long Island sound, it almost unavoidably commands the trade of one half of New Jersey, most of that of Connecticut, and part of that of Massacbusetts; besides the whole of the fertile interior country, which, on the other hand, furnishes New York with every kind of produce and provisions by an easy water carriage, and at a reasonable rate. The merchants of this city import most of the goods consumed between a line of thirty miles east of Connecticut river, and twenty miles west of the Hudson, which is 130 miles, and between the ocean and the conGnes of Canada, about 400 miles ; a great portion of which is better peopled than any other part of the Union. The whole yalue of exports for the year 1817, amounted to the sum of 18,707,433 dollars ; being above £4,200,000 sterling. The following is a correct statement of the number of vessels entered and cleared out of this port in the same year:
Ships. Brigs. Sloops. Schooners, others. From Foreign ports.... 291 361 42 266 6 966 Coastwise ................. 81 166 1,284 935 3 2,469 Cleared out.--Foreign 279 312 36 240 4 871
Coastwise ....... 137 219 1,587 883 2 2,828 Since that period the shipping trade of New York has greatly increased ; during the last week of August, 1818, to less than fifty square rigged vessels from Europe entered the harbour
The city of New York is 230 miles dorth-east of Washington, 91 north-east of Philadelphia, 232 south-west of Boston, 191 north-east of Baltimore, 364 from Pittsburgh, 701, from Lexington, Kentucky; 421 from Montreal, Lower Canada ; 774 from Charleston, South Carolina ; and 1564 (by land,) 2205 (by water) from New Orleans. · The city of Albany is the seat of government for the state, and is situated on the west side of Hudson's river, 170 miles from New York, to which it is next in rank; being a place of considerable trade, and fast rising into importance. By the last general census, taken in 1810, the population was 9,356; at the commencement of 1819 the number of inhabitants amounted to upwards of 12,000. Albany is unrivalled for situation, being nearly at the head of sloop navigation, on one of the noblest rivers in the world. It enjoys a pure air, and is the natural emporium of the increasing trade of a large extent of country west and north; and when the Grand Western and Northern capals are completed, it will become the greatest commercial inland town in the United States, or perhaps in the world. In the old part of the towu the streets are very narrow, and the houses mean, being all built in the Dutch taste, with the gable end towards the
street, and ornamented, or rather disfigured, on the top with large iron weathercocks; but in that part which has been lately erected, the streets are commodious, and many of the houses are handsome. The public buildings are an elegant Dutch church, one for episcopalians, two for presbyterians, one for Germans, one for methodists, and one for Roman catholics; an hospital, city hall, and a handsome prison. The building in wbich the state legis. latore meet, is called “The Capitol ;” it stands on an elevation at the end of the main street, and presents a fine appearance. The inhabitants of this city, a few years since, were almost entirely of Dutch extraction, and it had then the character of being a very unsocial place ; but now strangers from all quarters are settling in it, and liberal sentiments, hospitality, and good manners, are rapidly gaining ground.
The rent of a house and shop in Albany, in a good situation, is from 5 to 700 dollars per annum, and the taxes about twenty dollars. There are many small wooden houses, which are from 50 to 150 dollars a year, according to size and situation, Mechanics are paid the same here as at New York; their board and lodging is three dollars a week. The markets are well supplied with excellent provisions; beef, mutton, and veal, are 5d. to 6d. per lb.; geese, 28, 3d. each ; ducks, 13d.; fowls, 8d. to 9d.; but ter, 14d. a Ib.; potatoes, 20d, a bushel; best flour, 458. & barrel (196 lb.); fish, 3d. to 6d. a lb.; rum and gin, 4s. 6d, a gallon; brandy and hollands 98. 6d. - The conveyance by water between this city and New York has been brought to the highest degree of perfection. It is performed by packets, which carry horses, &c., and by steam-boats, for the convenience of passengers.
One of these vessels, the - Chancellor Livingstone,” is probably equalled by none in the world; she may properly be termed a floating palace, affording all the elegant accommodations of a first-rate hotel. Her length is 175 fee and breadth 50, and she is propelled by a steam-engine of eighty-horse power; there are beds for 160 persons, and settees provided for forty more: the ladies have a separate cabin, entirely distinct from the gentlemen, On deck there are numerous conveniences, such as baggagerooms, smoking-rooms, &c.; and on the descent to the cabins are placed cards of tradesmen, and of taverns and hotels in the chief cities, and also religious tracts in great abundance.
The fare between the two cities is eight dollars, including board ; and an excellent table is at all
The city of Hudson is situated on the east side of Hudson river, thirty miles south of Albany, and 130 north of New York. It has had the most rapid growth of any place in the United States, except Baltimore; for though only laid out in 1784, such has been its surprising progress, that by the last census the number of inhabitants amounted to 4,048, and at present the population is estimated at upwards of 6,000. It is surrounded by an extensive and fertile back country, is a place of very considerable trade, and is rapidly increasing in wealth and, importance. The town is planned in squares, formed by spacious streets, crossing each other at right angles; each square contains thirty lots, two deep, divided by a twenty feet alley, and each lot is fifty feet in front, and 120 in depth. The inhabitants are plentifully supplied with, water, brought to their houses in wooden pipes from a. spring two miles distant. It stands upon an eminence, from which are extensive and delightful views, consisting of hills and valleys, variegated with woods and orchards, corn-fields, and meadows, with the noble river, which is in most places a mile broad, forming a number of fine bays and creeks. From the south-east to the south-west, the city is screened with hills, at different distances, and west.afar off over the river and a large valley, the prospect is bounded by a chain of stupendous mountains, called the Catskill, being the first part of the Allegany chain of mountains, which adds magnificence and subli-, mity to the whole scene.'
Schenectady, sixteen miles north-west of Albany, is a handsome, well-built city, on the Mohawk river, and by the last census contained 5,909 inhabitants. It is a place of brisk trade, and has a bank, a college, and three places, for public worship, viz. a Dutch, a presbyterian, and an episcopal church. The annual expence of education at the college, including board, is less than 100 dollars., The chief business of this town is to receive the mer.. chandise from Albany, and put it into batteaux to go up. the river, and forward to Albany the returns from the back country.
The other most important towns and villages are New. burgh, Poughkeepsie, Troy, Lansinburgh, and Waterford, on the Hudson; Utica, Herkimer, and Rome, on the Mohawk; and Seneateless, Geneva, Canandaigua, and Buffalo, to tbe westward. Of these, Buffalo, delightfully, situated near the margin of lake Erie, 327 miles from Albany, and 22 from the falls of Niagara, promises to be à place of great importance. It was laid out for a village