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fHistory.—The first settlers of New Jersey were a number of Dutch emigrants from New York, who came over between the years 1614 and 1620, and settled in the county of Bergen. The next settlers were a colony of Swedes and
inns, who, in 1627, fixed themselves upon the river Dela
ware. They afterwards purchased of the natives the land on both sides that river, (then called New Swedeland stream;) and by presents to the Indian chiefs, obtained the territory in a peaceable manner. The Dutch and Swedes, though not in perfect harmony with each other, kept possession of the country for many years. In 1683, the Dutch had a house devoted to religious worship at Newcastle; the Swedes at the same time had six. The present Swedish churches in Philadelphia, and in Gloucester county, New Jersey, are descendants of these first settlers.
Charles II. having, in 1634, granted all the territory, named by the Dutch New Netherlands, to his brother the duke of York; in June, 1664, the duke granted that part now called New Jersey to lord Berkley and sir George Carteret, jointly: who, the year following, agreed upon certain concessions with the people for the government of the province, and appointed Philip Carteret, esq. their governor. He purchased considerable tracts of land from the Indians, for trifling considerations, and the settlements increased.
In 1672, the Dutch conquered the country; but it was restored by the peace of Westminster, two years afterwards. . In consequence of the conquest made by the Dutch, and to obviate any objections that might be made on account of it against the former grant, a new patent was issued to the duke of York for the same country; and, in 1674, the province was divided, and West Jersey granted by the duke to the assigns of lord Berkley, and East Jersey to sir George Carteret.
In 1675, West Jersey, was sold to John Fenwick, in trust for Edward Bylinge ; and Fenwick went over with a colony, and settled at Salem, near Delaware river, thirty-five miles from Philadelphia: these were the first English settlers in West Jersey. In 1676, the interest of Bylinge in West Jersey was assigned to William Penn, Gavin Laurie, and Nicholas Lucas, as trustees, for the use of his creditors. Mutual quit claims were executed between sir George Carteret and the trustees of Bylinge; and this partition was confirmed in 1719, by an act of the general assembly of the Jerseys. In 1678, the duke
of York made a new grant of West Jersey to the assigns of lord Berkley.
Agreeably to sir George Carteret's will, East Jersey was sold, in 1682, to twelve proprietors, who, by twelve separate deeds, conveyed one half of their interest to twelve other persons, separately, in fee simple: this grant was confirmed to these twenty-four proprietors, by the duke of York, the same year. These shares, by sales of small parts of them, and by these small parts being again divided among the children of successive families, became at last subdivided in such a manner, as that some of the proprietors had only one 40th part of a 48th part of a 24th share West Jersey was in the same condition. These inconveniences, aided by other causes of complaint, which had been increasing for several years, and were fast advancing to a dangerous crisis, disposed the proprietors to surrender the government to the crown, which was accordingly dome, and accepted by queen Anne, on the 17th of April, 1702. Till this time the government of New Jersey was proprietary; it now became royal, and so continued till the memorable 4th of July, 1776.
This state was the seat of war for several years during the bloody contest between Great Britain and her American colonies. Her losses both of lives and property, in proportion to the population and wealth of the state, was greater than that of any other of the thirteen states, When general Washington was retreating through the Jerseys, nearly forsaken by all others, her militia were at all times obedient to his orders; and, for a considerable length of time composed the strength of his army. There is hardly a town in the state, that lay in the progress of the British army, that was not rendered signal by some great action or enterprise. At Trenton, on the night of Christmas day, 1776, (see page 158) the British received a check which may be said with justice to have turned the tide of the war; and at Princeton, the seat of the muses, they received another, which, united, obliged them to retire with precipitation, and to take refuge in winter quarters. Indeed, throughout the revolutionary war, the many gallant atchievements performed by the Jersey soldiers, give this state a very high rank in a military point of view, and entitle her to a share of praise that bears no proportion to her size, in establishing the inder pendence of the United States. The militia of New Jersey is still a fine body of troops; and by the returns for the year 1818, amounted to 35,169 effective men.
STATE OF PENNSYLVANIA.
Situation, Boundaries, and Eartent.
THIS fine state is situated between 39° 43' and 42° N. lat. and 2° 20' E. and 3° 30' W. long. It is bounded on the north by the state of New York and lake Erie; on the south, by the states of Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia; east, by New York and New Jersey; and west, by Ohio and Virginia. Its length, from east to west, is 273, and its breadth, from north to south, 153 miles; forming an area of 42,500 square miles, or 27,200,000 acres.
Rivers.--This country is remarkably well watered. Lake Erie is situated on the north-west, and Delawarebay on the south-east, by both of which there are fine outlets, the one affording direct and speedy communication with the Atlantic ocean, the other communicating with it by the more circuitous course of the river St. Lawrence; while it forms a link in the chain of an inland navigation, extending through the lakes upwards of 1,000 miles. To the south-west the state communicates with the river Ohio, having by this means an outlet through the Mississippi to the gulf of Mexico, and another passage from its centre through the Susquehannah river to Chesapeak-bay. There are six considerable rivers, which, with their numerous branches, peninsulate the whole state, viz. the Delaware, Schuylkill, Susquehannah, Yohogany, Monongahela, and Allegany.
Delaware river, as has been already noticed, rises in the
state of New York, and running a south-west course, enters Pennsylvania in latitude 42°; thence flowing southwardly, it divides that state from New York, until it strikes the north-west corner of New Jersey, in lat. 41° 24′; and thence passes off to the sea through Delaware-bay. In its progress it separates the two latter states upwards
of 100 miles to Trenton, where there are falls, but of no
great height. From hence it increases in breadth during a course of thirty-six miles to Philadelphia, where it is nearly a mile broad. As it proceeds downwards it gradually widens, and at Newcastle, forty miles below Philadelphia, it exceeds two miles in width. It is navigable for a 74-gun ship as far up as Philadelphia; for sloops and other small craft to Trenton-falls, and above them for
boats more than 100 miles. The Delaware is generally frozen one or two months in the year, so as to prevent navigation. w The river Schuylkill rises north-west of the Kittatinny mountains (a ridge of the Alleganies) through which it passes into a fine champaign country, and runs from its source upwards of 120 miles in a south-east direction, and passing through the limits of Philadelphia, falls into the Delaware about six miles below the city. It is navigable from Reading, eighty-five or ninety miles, to its mouth. The canal now forming between this river and the Susquehannah, will bring by water to Philadelphia the trade of a most fertile country of about 1,000 square miles, or 6,000,000 acres of land. When this is completed, an inland navigation may be easily made to the Ohio and to lake Erie, which would at once open a water communication with above 2,000 miles extent of western country, viz. with all the great lakes, and with the immense and fertile regions which lie on the waters of the Mississippi, Missouri, and all their branches. The canal between Schuylkill and Susquehannah, which is the main-spring of all these improvements, will be about sixty miles, as the navigation must go, though the distance on a line is only forty miles. The Susquehannah is a very fine river, and rises in lake Otsego, in the state of New York. Passing into Pennsylvania, it makes a remarkable bend, called the “Big Bend;” it afterwards stretches into the state of New York about forty miles, from thence back into Pennsylvania, running such a winding course as to cross the boundary line of these states three times. After forming a junction with Tioga river at the town of Athens, 150 miles northwest of Philadelphia, it runs a south-east course about seventy miles, when making a sudden bend, at a right angle, it runs southwesterly eighty miles, and unites with its western branch at Sunbury, 132 miles from Philadelphia. Here the river is half a mile wide, and flows through the mountains, nearly a southerly course of forty miles, to where it receives the Juniata river, about fifteen miles above Harrisburgh, and 115 from Philadelphia. From thence it makes a considerable bend to the eastward, and running about ten miles, it emerges from the mountains, and keeps a south-east course about eighty miles, when it falls into Chesapeak-bay, by a mouth above a mile in breadth, a little below Havre-de-Grace, nearly thirty-so miles north-east of Baltimore, and sixty-sive south-west of Philadelphia. The western branch of the Susq"*
hannah, is formed by many streams beyond the Allegany mountains; some of them rising near the head waters of the river St. Lawrence, and others within a few miles of the waters of the Ohio and Mississippi, and runs a very circuitous course upwards of 200 miles, principally among the mountains, to its junction with the eastern branch at Sunbury. The entire length of the Susquehannah, from Chesapeak-bay to the head of the eastern branch, to which it is navigable for boats, is upwards of 450 miles; and the whole river, including its branches, waters a country nearly 200 miles square. It is navigable for sea vessels only a few miles, and there are many islands, rocks, and falls, which obstruct the navigation even for small craft; but those obstructions are about to be removed, and, by the assistance of canals and locks, it is intended to open the river to the very source of the eastern branch. The quantity of wild fowl that is seen on every part of the Susquehannah is immense. Throughout the United States the wild fowl is excellent and plentiful; but there is one duck in particular found on this river, and also on Potomac and James rivers, which surpasses all others: it is called the white or canvass-back duck, and is held in such estimation in America, that it is frequently sent as a present for hundreds of miles. The several branches of Yohogany river rises on the west side of the Allegany mountains, and after running a short distance, unite and form a large and beautiful river. About thirty miles from its mouth, it passes through the Laurel mountain, where it makes a fall of twenty feet in perpendicular height, the river being about eighty yards wide. At this place its course is to the south-west, but presently winds round to the north-west, and continuing in that direction for about forty miles, loses its name by uniting with the Monongahela, which comes from the southward, and contains, perhaps, twice as much water. The whole length of the Yohogany from its source is about 100 miles. On its banks the land is in general uneven, but in the valleys the soil is extremely rich; all the country abounds with coal, which lies almost on the surface of the ground. The Monongahela rises at the foot of the Laurel mountain in Virginia, and running a winding course of about 120 miles, passes into this state; soon after which it receives the waters of Cheat river, which is 200 yards wide at its mouth. From thence it continues by a serpentine course, but nearly in a northern direction, about sixty miles, where it forms a junction with the Yohogany, (its