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. . 15,152 . . .
Chief Towns and Population.
Bedford . . 15 . . 15,746 . . . Bedford, 547
Clearfield . 1 . .
*Columbia, (from Northumberland) Danville
Crawford . 14 . 6,178 . . . Meadville, 457
Erie . . . 14 . . 3,758 . . . Erie, 394
Northampton&2 . .
- - 29 . . . Cowdersport *Pike . . . I . .
. . 11,284 . . . Somerset, 489
* Laid out since last census.
+ The present population is estimated at 120,000.
Counties. Townships. Population. Chief Towns and Population. Brought over 569 705,753 . *Susquehannah - - Mointrose Tioga . . . 2 . . 1,687 . . . Wellsborough *Union . . . New Berlin Venango . . 8 . . 3,060 . . . Franklin, I59
Warren . . 2 . . 827 . . . Warren
Fifty. 651 810,091
The city of Philadelphia is situated on an extensive plain between the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers, about four miles above their junction, and 120 from the sea. It was founded in 1683 by the celebrated William Penn, and first settled by a colony from England; which increased so rapidly, that in less than a century the city and suburbs were computed to contain 6,000 houses, and 40,000 inhabitants. It is laid out on a very elegant plan, with streets crossing each other at right angles, and extends between the two rivers, being upwards of two miles in length from east to west, and little more than one mile in breadth. There are large suburbs to the north and south, on the Delaware river, called the Northern Liberties, Kingston, and Southwark; and these extend upwards of a mile to the north, and half a mile to the south of the city, making the extreme length on the Delaware nearly three miles; but to the westward the city is closely built only about a mile, the building on the remaining part, towards the Schuylkill, being thinly scattered : it is, however, rapidly filling up in that direction. High, or Market-street, is I00 feet wide, and running the whole length of the city, is terminated by Schuylkill bridge, a very elegant structure of three arches, built of wood, supported by strong stone piers, and covered in on the top. The length of the bridge is 550 feet, besides the abutments and wing walls, which are 750 more. The span of the middle arch is 198 feet, and that of the other two 150 each. It is forty-two feet wide; the carriage-way, which is divided into two parts, being thirty-two feet, and the foot-way on each side five feet each. This fine bridge, which was six years in building, was lately finished, at the expense of 235,000 dollars. A street, 113 feet wide, called Broad. street, crosses Market-street in the middle, where there is
* Laid out since last census.
a large area named the Centre-square, on which the waterworks are built. The streets running parallel to High-street, take their names after various trees, said to have been found on the ground on which they are laid out. To the north are Mulberry, Sassafras, and Wine; to the south, Chesnut, Walnut, Locust, Spruce, Pine, and Cedar-streets. The cross streets are numbered according to situation from the rivers; thus, Front, Second, Third, and so on to Thirteenth-street on the Delaware side; and from Front to Eighth-street on the Schuylkill side: Mulberry-street is sixty feet wide, and all the rest are fifty. Many of the streets are planted on each side with Italian poplars of a most beautiful growth, which have an appearance truly elegant and rural ; and the effect is greatly increased by a handsome and cleanly pavement of red brick before the houses, for foot passengers, which is regularly washed every morning. Pumps erected on both sides, about fifty yards distant from each other, afford an abundant supply of water; upon the top of each is a brilliant lamp. It was the intention of the benevolent projector of Philadelphia, that Front-street on the Delaware should have been the eastern boundary, and the space between that and the river converted into public ground, useful and ornamental to the city; but this elegant plan has been forced to give way to commercial avarice and the greediness for gain, (as in most of the maritime towns in England,) and this spot is now thickly built up with wharfs, warehouses, &c. forming Water-street, which is no more than thirty feet wide, and is the only crooked and dirty street in the city. It was here that the malignant yellow fever broke out in the year 1793, which made such terrible ravages; and, until very lately, in the summer season, this street has been found to be extremely unhealthy. In the original plan also there were a great number of public squares; but several of them have been infringed upon, for the causes already given; though there are still many left, which are very ornamental to the city. The houses are almost wholly built of brick, covered with slate or shingles; and they are generally ornamented with marble steps, and with soles and lintels for the doors and windows, which form an elegant contrast with the brick, and add much to the beauty of the buildings. Some of the public edifices are entirely composed of marble, and others much ornamented with it, which gives this fine city a magnificent appearance. The public buildings are so very numerous, that the NO, XVIII. 3 G
bare mention of a few of them will be sufficient to convey an idea of the importance of this city:-The statehouse, with the court-houses and philosophical hall adjoining, the dispensary, alms-house, hospital, jail, carpenter's-hall, college, academy, library, two theatres, and four banks. The quakers, baptists, episcopalians, and Roman catholics, have each four houses for public worship; the German Lutherans six, presbyterians five, methodists three, black methodists two, and the Swedish Lutherans, Moravians, covenanters, universalists, unitarians, inde. pendents, Jews, and black episcopalians, one each; in all, forty; being six less than in the city of New York. The state-house, in Chesnut-street, is remarkable as being the place from whence the independence of the United States was first proclaimed; and, previous to the year 1800, when Philadelphia was the seat of the general government, the legislature of the Union held their meet. ings in the adjoining buildings. While the legislature of Pennsylvania continued in this city, they assembled in the state-house; but Laneaster having been appointed the seat of government, that building now contains Peale's museum, a very extensive collection of natural and other curiosities. There are three market-houses in the city, the principal of which is in High-street, and is perhaps exceeded by none in the world, in the abundance, neatness, and variety of provisions, which are exposed for sale every Wednesday and Saturday. The market-hours are from day-light to two o'clock from the 1st of April to the 1st of September, and from day-light to three o'clock the remainder of the year. The prices of different articles in English money may be taken as under: flour, 45s. per barrel of 196 lb.; beef (best quality) and veal, 5d. per lb.; mut. ton, 4}d.; pork, 5d. to 7d. ; bacon, 8d.; fowls, 1s. 5d. to 2s. 2d. each; ducks, 1s. 8d. to 2s. 8d.; geese, 3s. 4d. to 4s. 6d. i. turkeys, 5s. 6d. : fish, 3d. to 6d. per lb.; butter, (fresh) 1s. 4%d. to 1s. 7d.; American cheese, 9d.; English do. Is. 4d. ; potatoes and apples, 3s. 4d. per bushel; onions, 1s. 2d. per peck; cabbages, 2}d, each; tea, 4s. 6d. to 9s. per lb.; coffee, (raw) 10d. to 1s. 2d.; chocolate, 15. 'to 1s. 9d.; moist sugar, 7d. to 9d.; lump do., 1s. to 1s. 44; dipt candles, 10d. ; mould do. 12d.; soap, id. to 9d.; salt, from England, 3s. 4}d. per bushel. House rent is at least one-fourth lower than in New York. Mechanics board and lodging the same as in that city, with superior accommodations; but many of them board and lodge with their employers. Labourers are
paid 4.s. 6d. to 5s. 73d a day ; female servants, 4s. 6d. to 9s. a week, with their board; men servants, 54s. to 67s.6d. per month; house carpenters earn 31s. 6d. to 40s. 6d. per week, working hours from sun-rise to sun-set; cabinetmakers, 36s. to 40s. 6d., working generally by the piece; bricklayers, 31s. 6d. to 45s. ; tinmen, 27s. to 45s. ; shoemakers, 31s. 6d. to 40s. 6d. ; saddlers, 31s. 6d. to 45s. ; coachmakers, the same ; tailors, 31s. 6d. to 40s. 6d.; printers, (compositors and pressmen,) 31s. 6d. to 40s. 6d. ; employment uncertain, the greater part of the work being done by apprentices. The printing business, though rendered nugatory to the workmen by the cupidity and avarice of their employers, is yet better established here than in any other place in the United States; and gives employment to a great number of paper-mills, and all classes connected with the book trade: printers, typefounders, engravers, bookbinders, booksellers, &c. Wearing apparel does not differ materially from the New York prices, stated in page 371. A superfine cloth coat costs £8.2s. ; a surtout ditto, £11 4s. ; trowsers, 45s. to 54s. ; waistcoats, 26s. ; but clothes of an inferior quality may be had from one-fourth to one-half lower. Shoes are from 13s.6d. to 15s. 9d, a pair; Wellington boots, 38s. to 45s. ; Hessian ditto, from 42s. 6d. to 45s. ; jockey ditto. 67s.6d. ; ladies' shoes, 4s. 6d. to 5s. 7d. ; the best beaver hats are 40s. 6d. India and French silks, China crapes for ladies' dresses, and India handkerchiefs are one half cheaper than in England. Other articles of wearing apparel, and almost every thing used in domestic economy are imported from Great Britain. The manufactures of Philadelphia are rising into great importance; the principal of which are, leather of every description, a great variety of wood and iron work, particularly bar iron and steel in large quantities, fermented and distilled liquors, earthenware, tinplate, hats, hosiery, a vast variety of cloths, ropes, and ships to a large extent. The frame of a 74-gun ship has been put up in the spring of 1819, and the frames of another line of battle ship and a frigate are collecting in the same place, where there. are considerable deposits of timber, copper, iron, and other naval stores. This city is under great obligations to the friends, or quakers, who have given a happy bent to the manners of the people, different from what is to be found in most other places of equal extent. The citizens are industrious and sober, and though sufficiently commercial, they do not conduct their business in the same ostentatious