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census, amounted to 380,546, including 111,502 slaves, being about thirty-five to the square mile; but when the proportion of water is deducted, there will be above fortythree inhabitants to each square mile: a denser population than any state in the Union, excepting Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island.-By the state census of 1817, the population was returned at 502,710; being an increase of 122,164 in seven years.
Counties. ' Population. Chief Tourns and Population.
Allegany............ 6,909............ Cumberland
Annapolis (city) is the seat of government, and is situ. ated at the mouth of the Severn river, about two miles from its entrance into Chesapeak bay; thirty miles south of Baltimore, forty north-east of the city of Washington, and 132 south-west of Philadelphia. It is a place of little note in the commercial world; but being in a pleasant situation, and commanding a beautiful prospect of the Chesapeak and the shore on the other side of the bay," is the residenee of a great many people in genteel ciro. stances. The houses are about 306 in number, built of brick, and for the most part large and elegant, denoting great wealth. The state-house is one of the most sup” structures in the United States; the other public buildings are, a college, one episcopal and one methodistchurch,
a market-house, and a theatre. From the centre of the city, where the state-house stands, the streets diverge in every direction, like radii; and most part of the buildings are arranged aecording to this awkward plan. The city of Baltimore is situated on the north side of the Patapsco river, on a branch called the Bason, fifteen miles from Chesapeak bay, and 160 from the Atlantic ocean. No other town in the United States, except New Orleans, has made so rapid a progress in wealth and population as Baltimore. At the commencement of the war, in 1775, it was but an inconsiderable village; but such has been the astonishing rapidity of its growth, that it is now the third commercial city in the Union. The plan of the town is somewhat similar to that of Philadelphia, most of the streets crossing each other at right angles. The main street, which runs nearly east and west, is about eighty feet wide; the others are from forty to sixty feet: the houses are generally built of brick, and many of them very elegant. The principal public buildings are a courthouse, a jail, three market-houses, a work-house, an exchange, a theatre, an observatory, assembly rooms, library, and eighteen places for worship, belonging to Roman catholics, German Calvinists and Lutherans, episcopalians, presbyterians, baptists, methodists, quakers, Swedenborgians, Nicolites, or new quakers, and unitarians. The last-named sect have just erected (1819) a most superb church, which for external elegance and internal beauty far exceeds any similar edifice in the United States, Baltimore is divided into the town and Fell’s Point by a creek, over which are two bridges; at this place wharfs have been built, along side which vessels of 600 tons burden can lie with perfect safety. Numbers of persons have been induced to settle on this Point on account of the shipping; and regular streets have been laid out, with a large market-place. But though these buildings, generally speaking, are considered as part of Baltimore; yet they are a mile distant from the other part of the town. The whole city exhibits a very handsome appearance; and the adjoining country abounds in villas, gardens, and well-cultivated fields: towards the north and east, the land rises, and presents a noble view of the town and bay. This city, from its fine situation, must naturally continue to rise into great importance; and being forty-eight miles nearer to Pittsburgh than Philadelphia, will always be a great thoroughfare for people passing into the western country. The inhabitants of Maryland seem aware of this, and to secure a preference, are acting with a laudable zeal in making good roads; and the great national turnpike which is now constructing between Cumberland, 148 mics above Baltimore, and Wheeling, on the river Ohio, fifty-eight miles by land, and 100 by water below Pittsburgh, will be a powerful means of causing the great tide of emigration from Europe to the western states to pass through Baltimore. The inhabitants of this city are collected from most parts of Europe; but the English, Irish, Scotch, and French greatly predominate. Of these the Irish appear to be the most numerous; and many of the principal merchants of the town are in the number. With a few exceptions, the citizens are all engaged in trade, which is closely attended to ; their main object (in which, indeed, they are far from being singular) seems to be to make their fortunes in this world. They are mostly plain, sociable people, maintaining a kind and improving intercourse with each other, and are very friendly and hospitable to strangers. Baltimore is 39 miles distant from Washington, 100 miles from Philadelphia, 191 from New York, 423 from Boston, 228 from Pittsburgh, 584 from Charleston, 540 from Lexington, 436 from Chilicothe, 928 (by the Ohio) from Louisville, and 1224 from New Orleans. North lat. 39° 21'. . . Fredericktown is situated forty-two miles from Baltimore, on the Pittsburgh road, and is a flourishing place, carrying on considerable manufactures, and a brisk inland trade through a fertile and well-cultivated country. It contains a court-house, academy, market-house, jail, and seven places of public worship for German Lutherans, Calvinists, presbyterians, baptists, and methodists. The arsenal of the state of Maryland is placed here, the situation being secure and central. Elizabethtown (formerly Hagerstown) is situated beyond the first range of mountains, in a fertile valley, and carries on a considerable trade with the western country; The houses are principally built of brick and stone, and there are several streets regularly and handsomely laid out. The episcopalians, presbyterians, and German Lutherans have each a church. The court-house, and market-house are handsome buildings, and the jail is of stone, substantial and well built. Elkton is seated at the head of Chesapeak bay, thirteen miles from the mouth of Elk river, and fifty-six north: east of Baltimore. The tide flows up to the town, and it enjoys great advantages from the carrying trade; upwards of 300,000 bushels of wheat being collected hero annually, for supplying the markets of Philadelphia and