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Baltimore, or the neighbouring mills. Elkton consists chiefly of one street, in which are about 100 houses, a court-house, academy, and jail. Besides these, there are a great number of small towns and villages, containing from 100 to 1,000 inhabitants; but none of them are of sufficient importance to require a particular description. The Roman catholics, who were the first settlers, are the most numerous religious sect in Maryland. There are also episcopalians, English, Scotch, and Irish presbyterians, German Calvinists, and Lutherans, quakers, baptists, methodists, mennonists, Nicolites, and unitarians. All these sects live together in friendship and good will ; worshipping God according to the rites of their respective churches, and agreeably to the dictates of their own consciences, without disputing or interfering concerning each others religious opinions. . The inhabitants of this state, except in the towns and villages, live on their plantations, often several miles distant from each other; you therefore observe little of that cheerfulness of look and action which is the offspring of social intercourse. As the negroes perform all the manual labour, their masters are left to saunter away life in sloth, and too often in ignorance ; and there is apparently a disconsolate wildness in their countenances, and an indolence in their whole behaviour, which are evidently the effects of solitude, and of the existence of slavery. Notwithstanding these observations, which a regard to truth imperiously demand, yet national advancement have kept pace with the prosperity and wealth of the people; and the rising towns, cultivated farms, bridges and roads, are all so many proofs that the citizens of Maryland are not behind their brethren in public spirit and general improvement. Considerable funds are appropriated to the support of education ; there are five colleges, and a number of very respectable academies in the state, and common schools are established in every county.
Trade, manufactures, and agriculture.--In point of foreign trade this state ranks the fourth in the Union, and as the greater part of it centres in Baltimore, it must necessarily add greatly to its wealth and importance. A great portion of the export trade is flour, much of which is received from the state of Pennsylvania; and the citizens have a brisk trade in importing and reshipping foreign articles, particularly West India produce, rum, sugar, and coffee. To Europe and the West Indies they export tobacco to a great amount; besides large quantities of wheat, pig iron, lumber, beans, and flax-seed. The total foreign exports for the year 1817 amounted in value to 3,046,046 dollars; and to the other states, to 5,887,884 dollars. The principal part of the imports are manu factured goods from Britain, and having to supply the demand of an immense back country, this is an increasing trade. It has been already stated, that mines of iron are numerous in this state. Furnaces for running this ore into pigs and hollow ware, and forges to refine pig iron into bars, have been erected in a number of places in the neighbourhood of the mines. The iron is of a remarkably tough quality, and the utensils made of it, as pots, kettles, &c. though cast much thinner than is usual in England, will admit of being pitched into carts, and thrown about, without any danger of being broken. The forges and furnaces are all worked by negroes, who seem to be par. ticularly suited to such an occupation, not only on aceount of their sable complexions, but because they can sustain a much greater degree of heat than white persons, without any inconvenience. In the hottest days in summer they are never without fires in their huts. In addition to the iron manufacture, the following are carried on to a considerable extent, viz. ships, cordage, paper, saddlery, boots and shoes, hats, wool and cotton cards; and an immense quantity of wheat made into flour for exportation. This is the first state in which there is a material difference of agriculture from the northern states; still, however, the staple crop is wheat; but they raise a considerable quantity of tobacco, and some cotton, though the latter is not an article of export. All the other grains, grasses, and roots that grow in the states to the eastward, flourish here; and the sweet potatoe, a root belonging to a warm climate, comes to censiderable maturity,
Constitution.—The civil government of this state is vested in a governor, senate, and house of delegates, all chosen annually. The senators are elected in the following manner: on the first of September every fifth year, the freemen choose two men in each county to be elector” of the senate, and one elector for Annapolis and ano ther for Baltimore. The efectors must have the qualifications
necessary for county delegates. They meet at Annapolis on the third Monday in September, and elect by ballot fifteen senators out of their own body, or from the people at large. Nine of these must be residents on the western shore, and six on the eastern ; they must be more than twenty-five years of age, must have resided in the state more than three years next preceding the election, and have real and personal property above the value of £1,000. In case of death, resignation, or inability of any senator, during the five years for which he is elected, the vacancy is filled by the senate. The senate choose their president by ballot. The house of delegates is composed of four members from each county, chosen annually in October; Annapolis and Baltimore send each two delegates. The qualifications of a delegate are, full age, one year's residence in the county where he is chosen, and real or personal property above the value of £500. The election of senators and delegates is vica voce, and sheriffs the returning officers, except in Baltimore town, where the commissioners superintend the elections and make the returns. Every free white male citizen of the state, above twenty-one years of age, having resided twelve months in the election district, next before the time of the election, may vote for delegates to the general assembly and electors of the senate. On the second Monday in November, annually, a governor is appointed by the joint ballot of both houses, taken in each house respectively, and deposited in a conference room, where the boxes are examined by a joint committee of both houses, and the number of votes severally reported. The governor cannot continue in office more than three years successively, nor be elected until the expiration of four years after he has been out of office. The qualifications for the chief Imagistracy are, twenty-five years of age, five years residence in the state, next preceding the election, and real and personal estate above the value of £5,000, one-fifth of which must be freehold estate. On the second Tuesday of November, annually, the senators and delegates elect, by joint ballot, five able discreet men, above twentyfive years of age, residents in the state three years next preceding the election, and possessing a freehold of lands and tenements above the value of £1,000, to be a council for assisting the governor in the duties of his office. Senators, delegates, and members of council, while such, can hold no other office of profit, nor receive the profits of any office held by another. Ministers of the gospel are excluded from civil offices.
History—Maryland was granted by king Charles I. to Cecilius Calvert, baron of Baltimore, in Ireland, June 20th. 1632. The government of the province was by the charter vested in the proprietor; but it appears that he either never exercised these powers alone, or but for a short time; for we find that in 1637, the freemen rejected a body of laws drawn up in England, and transmitted by his lordship, in order to be passed for the government of the province. In the place of these they proposed fortytwo bills to be enacted into laws, by the consent of the proprietor. These, however, were never enacted, at least they are not on record. The hon. Leonard Calvert, lord Baltimore's brother, was the first governor, or lieutenantgeneral. In 1638, a law was passed, constituting the first regular house of assembly, which was to consist of such representatives, called burgesses, as should be elected pursuant to writs issued by the governor. These burgesses possessed all the powers of the persons electing them; but any other freemen, who did not assent to the election, might take their seats in person. Twelve burgesses or freemen, with the lieut.-general and secretary, constituted the assembly or legislature. This assembly sat at St. Mary's, one of the southern counties, which was the first settled part of Maryland.
In 1642, it was enacted that ten members of the assembly, of whom the governor and six burgesses were to be seven, should be a house; and if sickness should prevent that number from attending, the members present should make a house. Two years afterwards, one Ingle excited a rebellion, forced the governor to fly to Virginia for aid and protection, and seized the records and great seal; the last of which, with most of the public papers, were lost or destroyed. From this period to the year 1647, when order was restored, the proceedings of the province were involved in obscurity. In 1650, an act was passed dividing the assembly into two houses. The governor, secretary, and any one or more of the council, formed the upper house ; the delegates from the several hundreds, who now represent the freemen, formed the lower house. At this time there were in the province but two counties, St Mary’s, and the Isle of Kent; but Ann Arundel was added the same session.
In 1654, during Cromwell's government, an act was passed restraining the exercise of the Roman catholic religion. This must have been procured by the mere terror of Cromwell's power, for the first and principal inhabitants were catholics. Iudeed, the power of Cromwell was
not established in Maryland without force and bloodshed; his friends and foes came to an open rupture, an engagement ensued, the governor was taken prisoner, and condemned to be shot. This sentence, however, was not executed; but he was kept a long time in confinement. In March, 1658, Josiah Fendall, esq. was appointed lieut.general of the province, by commission from Oliver Cromwell. He dissolved the upper house, and surrendered the powers of government into the hands of the delegates. Upon the restoration in 1660, the hom. Philip Calvert was appointed governor; the old form of government was revived ; Fendall, and one Gerrard, a counsellor, were indicted, found guilty, and condemned to banishment, with the loss of their estates; but upon petition they were pardoned.
In 1689, the government was taken out of the hands of lord Baltimore by the grand convention of England, and in 1692, Lionel Copley, esq. was appointed governor by commission from William and Mary. This year the protestant religion was established by law. In 1699, it was enacted that Annapolis should be the seat of government. In 1716, the government of this province was restored to the proprietor, and eontinued in his hands till the revolution, when, being an absentee, his property in the lands was confiscated, and the government assumed by the freemen of the province, who formed the constitution now existing.
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. *
Situation, Boundaries, and Eartent.
The district of Columbia, in which stands the city of Washington, is situated between 38° 48' and 38° 59' N. lat. and 7' E. and 7' W. long. The Capitol is about 77° 0' 22" W. from London. This district is bounded on the northeast, south-east, and partly north-west, by Maryland; and on the south-west and partly north-west, by Virginia. It is exactly ten miles square, being 100 square miles, or 64,000 aeres; it was eeded to the United States by the states of Virginia and Maryland, and in the year 1800 beSome the seat of general government. Columbia is beautifully situated on both sides the Potomac river, and