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abounds with elegant prospects; that part of it which lies west of the Potomac is subject to the laws of Virginia, and east of the river, to those of Maryland ; but the whole is under the special direction of the government of the United States, and the internal police of Washington is managed by a corporation, of which the president of the States appoints the mayor: the other members are elected by the people.
Rivers, aspect of the country, &c.-The rivers which water this district are the Potomac, Tiber creek, Reedy creek, Rock creek, and Four-mile-run. The first only, merits a particular description. The Potomac rises from a spring on the north-west side of the Allegany mountains, and after running in a meandring direction for upwards of 400 miles, falls into Chesapeak bay by a mouth seven miles wide. Sixty miles from its source, and 105 above the city of Washington, stands fort Cumberland, here it makes a bend, and by a serpentine course, nearly southeast, runs eighteen miles to where it receives the southwest branch. It then turns north-east, and after a winding course of forty-five miles, in which it receives several tributary streams, reaches Hancock's-town, ninety-nine miles west of Baltimore. From thence it runs in a southeast direction for nine miles, where it is joined by Licking creek, and passes the North mountain into a fine limestone valley, which it waters for about 45 miles. In this valley it receives many small streams, particularly Conecoheague creek, at Williamsport, in the middle of the valley. At the extremity it is increased by the waters of the Shenandoah from Virginia; and, by a singularly grand passage, issues through the Blue mountain. It then passes on about 30 miles, where, by two different falls, in the course of eight or ten miles, it descends above 140 feet to the level of tide-water, which it meets at Georgetown. The river now increases to a mile broad, and, passing Alexandria and Mount Vernon, rups a southerly course to thirty-five miles below Alexandria, where it makes a great bend of fifteen miles to the north-east. Its breadth now gradually increases, and running fifty miles below this bend, flows into Chesapeak bay, as above described.
It is navigable for ships of any burden to Alexandria, a distance of 100 miles, and about 180 from the Capes of Virginia ; and from thence for vessels of considerable burden to Georgetown, at the head of tide-water. Round the first falls, there is a lock navigation constructed with
great labour and expense. Considerable improvements have been made further up the river, and it is presumed, that by following up these improvements, the river can be made navigable to Cumberland, the elevation being 700 feet above the level of the sea. From Cumberland to Brownsville, on the Monongahela, a distance of seventytwo miles across the mountains, a road has been made, on which the angle of ascept is no where more than five degrees. From Brownsville there is an easy navigation to Pittsburgh, distance thirty-three miles. · The face of the country on the road from Baltimore to Washington, especially when approaching the latter city, appears somewhat rough and uneven, and the soil not very fertile, but rather poor and sandy. The climate is the same as the middle district of Maryland; and if an opinion may be formed from the countenances of the people, it cannot be healthy. The land is high and dry; but the whole flat country of Virginia and North Carolina lies to the south of it, and when the wind blows from that quarter, it must waft a great deal of marsh eflluvia along with it, of which the people in this district will receive a large share.
Civil divisions, population, &c.--Columbia is divided into two counties, one on each side the Potomac, and contained by the last census 24,023 inhabitants, of whom 5,395, were slaves. But by the enumeration of 1817 the population is stated to amount to 37,892, being upwards of 378 to the square mile. Counties, &c.
Population. · Washington county, exclusive of the city and : Georgetown......
2,315 Ditto city ........
....... 4,948 Alexandria county ..
1,325 Ditto city ........
7,227 · Washington city is situated in the centre of the district, and is bounded on the south-east by the eastern branch of the Potomac river, to the south-west by the western branch, to the north-west by Rock creek, and to the north-east by the open country. The plan of this city appears to contain some important improvements upon that of the best planned cities in the world; combining, in a remarkable degree, convenience, regularity, elegance of prospect, and a free, circulation of air. Its extreme length from north-west to south-east is little more than four miles and a half, and its medium breadth from northeast to south-west about two miles and a half; being nearly the dimensions of London and Southwark. In the plan of the city which has been published, there are thirty-seven squares, seventeen grand avenues, named after different states, and 103 streets crossing each other at right angles, and running the whole length and breadth of the city. The positions for the different public edifices, and for the several squares and areas of various shapes as they are laid down, were first determined on the most advantageous ground, commanding extensive prospects, and from their situation, susceptible of such improvements as either use or ornament may hereafter require. The capitol is situated on a most beautiful eminence of seventy-eight feet, from which there is a fine view of every part of the city, and of a considerable part of the country around. The president's house, a stately mansion, stands on a rising ground, possessing a delightful water prospect, together with a commanding view of the capitol, and the most material parts of the city. On the one side of the president's house, is the treasury-office, and on the other side a similar building which accommodates the officers of state, and the war and naval departments.
These elegant buildings were burnt in the late war; but the last mentioned offices have been rebuilt, and the capitol and president's house are repairing, and will soon be more splendid than ever. The foundations of two new buildings for public offices were laid in 1818; and the centre building of the capitol is also begun, and great activity used in preparing the marble columus wbich are to decorate the house of congress. The other public buildings are three places for public worship, viz. one each for Roman catholics, baptists, and episcopalians; a jail, a general post office, and three market-houses, which are tolerably well supplied ; but every article is dear, the prices being one-third higher than at Philadelphia.
The whole country round is handsomely settled, with elegant houses ; and the prospect is terminated to the west, south-west, and north-west with high lands. To the south is the river Potomac, with Alexandria, at seven miles distance, pleasantly situated upon its banks. The navy-yard and shipping, and the barracks, are seen to the south-east and eastward ; and to the west the president's house, about a mile distant, beyond which stands Georgetown, about three miles from the capitol.
The principal manufactures are those calculated for domestic consumption, boots, shoes, hats, &c. There is a considerable retail trade, but very little of any other; the shipping business is carried on at Alexandria, and the inland trade at Georgetown. The inhabitants are a col. lection from all parts of the Union, and there are many foreigners among them. They are reputed to be orderly and correct in their morals, and have bent their attention very much to the subjects of education and general improvement.
Georgetown is pleasantly situated upon the side of a hill, on the northern bank of the Potomac, and is bounded eastward by Rock creek, which separates it from Washington city. It contains upwards of 300 brick houses, and several of them are elegant. The public buildings are five places for worship, an academy, and a bank. The Roman catholics have established a college here, for the promotion of general literature, which is in a flourishing state. The town is regularly laid out, and compactly built, and is a place of considerable trade, which, in consequence of the rapid settlement of the back country, is daily increasing.
Alexandria is situated on the west bank of the Potomac, in the south-east corner of the district of Columbia ; its situation is elevated and pleasant, and the soil clayey. It is laid out on the plan of Philadelphia, the streets crossing one another at right angles, and they are broad and airy, commodious and well paved. The public buildings are a court-house, and jail, a bank, and an episcopal church. The inhabitants carry on a considerable commerce, principally in flour and tobacco; but when the navigation of the Potomac is completed, this city, in consequence of its vicinity to the seat of government, bids fair to be one of the most prosperous commercial places in the United States,
It has been, indeed, supposed by some, that Alexandria and Georgetown will draw the greater part of the country trade to themselves, to the prejudice of the federal city; and this opinion is founded upon the large quantities of produce that are sent down the Potomac to each of these towns, and the supply of foreign manufactures sent back in return. But there cannot be a doubt that in a few years Washington will completely eclipse the other two; for though Georgetown can furnish the people of the back country with European manufactures, it is at second-hand only, from Baltimore and Philadelphia. Alexandria, it is true, imports from Europe, but it is on a very contracted scale : more than one half the goods which are sent from
thence to the back country, are procured in the same man. ner as at Georgetown. Besides, the establishment of the national bank, the residence of the government, and the removal of many merchants of great capital to Washington, will afford the people of that city a decided advantage over Alexandria and Georgetown. Added to all this, both these towns being in the district of Columbia, which is subject to the laws and regulations of congress alone, so far as relates to trade and manufactures, it may be therefore naturally supposed, that encouragements will be held out by government to those who settle in the metropolis, which will be denied to such as fix in any other part of the district. Although Alexandria and Georgetown, then, may rival Washington while it is in its infancy, yet it cannot be imagined that either of them will be able to cope with it in the end.
This state is situated between 36° 30' and 40° 43' N. lat. and 1° 40' E. and 6° 20' W. long. It is bounded on the north by Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Ohio; south, by North Carolina and Tennessee ; east, by Maryland and the Atlantic ocean; and west, by Kentucky and Ohio. Its length from east to west is 370 miles, and its breadth from north to south 220 miles, forming an area of about 64,000, square miles, or 40,960,000 acres; being nearly as large as the island of Great Britain.
Rivers and mountains. James river is one of the most important in this state. It rises near the Allegany mountains, nearly 200 miles west of Richmond, and receives. the waters of the Appomatox, about twenty-five miles below that city. From thence it takes a crooked course of about serenty miles, and falls into Chesapeak bay, fifteen miles to the westward of Cape Henry; its whole length, ipcluding its windings, being upwards of 300 miles. The principal tributary streams to this river are the, Riyappab,