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· country, the weather is more settled, and, being free from
swamps, is healthy and agreeable. Among the mountains, · the climate is remarkably pleasant.
The soil of North Carolina is very little different from that of Virginia. The low part of the state, which is a considerable portion of it, is sandy and barren, abounding in pine trees; and the swamps, which are very large, produce bay trees and cedars. On the contrary, in the mountainous parts the soil is perpetually moist, and very fertile. This is demonstrated by the vegetable strength of the trees; among which are the red and black oak, the sugar maple, the ash, and particularly the chesnut, which grows to a prodigious height. The sides of these mountains facing the north is sometimes covered exclusively with the calico tree, from twelve to fifteen feet high. They frequently occupy spaces of 300 acres, which at a distance appear like a charming meadow. It is well known that this shrub excels every other in point of blossom,
In the great woods the surface of the soil is covered. with a species of wild peas, that rises about three feet from the earth, and serves as excellent fodder for the cattle. They prefer this pasturage to any other, and whenever they are driven from it they pine away, or make their escape to get to it again. These mountains begin to be populated rapidly.. The salubrity of the air, the excellence of the water, and more especially the pasturage of these wild peas for the cattle, are so many causes that induce new inhabitants to settle here. Estates of the first class are sold at from two to five dollars an acre, and the whole of the taxes do not amount to a penny an acre more. Indian corn, wheat, rye, oats, and peach trees, are the sole objects of culture. In the other parts of the state, not of a swampy nature, the soil in general is very indifferent; the woods are in a great measure composed of various kinds of oaks, the surface of the ground is covered with a coarse 'grass, intermixed with plants, and the plantations straggling five or six miles from each other, present a dreary and uncomfortable appearance.
Civil divisions, towns, population, religion, and cha-. racter.-North Carolina is divided into eight districts and sixty-two counties, containing by the last general census 555,000 inhabitants, including 168,824 slaves; but by the returns of the state census, in 1817, the population amounts to 701,224, of whom 50,387 are enrolled in the militia. The districts are classed in three divisions, viz.
the eastern districts, Edenton, Newbern, and Wilmington ; the middle districts, Fayetteville, Hillsborough, and Halifax; and the western districts, Morgan and Salisbury: the names of the counties are as follow : Counties.
Population. Chief Towns & Population.
5,965 . . C. H.
6,029, . Germantown Iredell .. 10,972 i Statesville Johnson . . .
6,867 . . Smithfield Jones . . . . 4,968 .. Trenton Lenoir . . . . 5,572 , . Kingston Lincoln . . . . 16,359 .. Lincolnton Martin . . . . 5,987 .. Williamston Mecklinburgh ... 14,272 . . Charlotte Moore . . . . 6,367 . . Alfordstown Montgomery . . 8,430 . Henderson Nash . . . . . 7,268 . . C. H.
Population, Chief Towns and Population.
9,169 . . Greenville Perquimans . •
6,052 . . Hartford
7,528 . . Lumberton, 208
Sixty-tron, 555,500 Raleigh, the seat of government of North Carolina, is situated in N. lat. 35° 56', and is nearly in the centre of the state, being 160 miles from the sea-coast. In 1791 the legislature appropriated £10,000 towards erecting the public buildings, and named the town after sir Walter Raleigh, under whose direction the first settlement in America was made. The state-house, a large handsome building, cost £6,000; but there are no other public buildings of importance, and a great part of the houses being of wood, the place exhibits no very flattering appearance. The plan is regular, the streets intersecting each other at right angles; but the remoteness of the town from navi. gation is a great disadvantage. Raleigh is 287 miles from Washington, 164 from Richmond, 388 from Milledgeville, the capital of Georgia, and 932 from New Orleans.
Wilmington, the chief town of Wilmington district, is situated on the east side of Cape Fear or Clarendon river, thirty-four miles from the sea and 100 southward of Newbern. The town is regularly built, and contains about 2,000 inhabitants, of whom nearly 1,000 are in slavery. The public buildings are a handsome episcopal church, a court-house, and a jail. The markets are well supplied with fish and all manner of provisions; and there is a considerable trade carried on to the West Indies and the adjacent states. This town has suffered severely from fire at various times. .
Newbern is situated at the confinence of the Neuse and Trent rivers, on a level point of land, somewhat resembling Charleston, South Carolina, and carries on a brisk trade with other places in the state, and with the West Indies. This is the largest town in the state, containing ·about 600 houses, mostly built of wood, except the palace, the church, the jail, and a few dwelling-houses, which are of brick. The palace was erected by the province before the revolution, and was formerly the residence of the governors. It is large and elegant, but much out of repair, and the only use to which this once handsome and wellfurnished building is now applied, is for schools. One of the halls is used for a school, and another for a dancingroom. The arms of the king of Great Britain still appear on a pediment in front of the building. The episcopalian church is the only house for public worship in the place. This town carries on a considerable trade to the West Indies and the different states in tar, pitch, turpentine, lumber, corn, &c.
Hillsborough, the chief town of Hillsborough district, is situated in a high, healthy, and fertile country, 180 miles north-west of Newbern. It contains about 100 dwelling houses, a court-house, jail, and an academy, in which are educated sixty or seventy students.
Edenton, on Albemarle sound, is one of the oldest towns in the state, and was formerly the seat of the royal governors. The public buildings are an ancient brick episcopal church, a court-house, and jail. Its situation is advantageous for trade, but unhealthy; which has doubtless tended to retard its prosperity. The other towns of most note are Tarborough and Washington on the Tar river, Halifax on the Roanoke, Salem on the Yadkin, and Beauford near Cape Lookout. The population of these places is about from 400 to 800; and there are many villages containing from 100 to 300.
The western parts of this state, which have been settled within the last sixty years, are chiefly inhabited by presbyterians from Pennsylvania, the descendants of people from the north of Ireland, who are greatly attached to the doctrines, discipline and usages of the church of Scotland : they are a regular and industrious people,
The Moravians have several flourishing settlements in the upper parts of the state. The friends or quakers have a settlement in New Garden, in Guilford county, and several congregations at Perqnimans and Pasquotank. The methodists and baptists are numerous and increasing. In 1789, the legislature passed a law incorporatiug forty gentlemen, five from each district, as trustees of the university of North Carolina; and the state has made handsome donations for the endowment of this seminary. There is a very good academy at Warrenton, another at Williamsburgh, and four or five more in the state, of considerable pote.
The state of society is somewhat similar to Virginia, and notwithstanding the establishment of a college and academies, the most important branch of education, that which has for its object the general diffusion of knowledge, has been shamefully neglected until of late. In 1808, however, an act passed the legislature to establish common schools throughout the state, which, if properly followed up, will be attended with the bappiest effects. The inhabitants are mostly farmers, and produce on their farms every necessary of life in abundance: many of them are wealthy, frank, and hospitable. The principal commodities for sale are tar, turpentine, pitch, rosin, timber, bees-wax, corn, cotton, and tobacco. Almost every family in the country manufacture their own clothing, so that the British trade to this state is not great, nor important. The greater part of it is carried on through the medium of Charleston, South Caroliua, or the northern states. The direct exports, in 1805, amounted to 779,903 dollars; in 1817, to 956,580 dollars, of which only 1,369 was foreign produce..
Constitution.--By the constitution of this state, which was ratified in 1776, the legislative authority is vested in a senate and house of commons, both dependent on the people, and styled the General Assembly. The senate is composed of representatives, one for each county, chosen apngally by ballot. The house of commons consists of representatives chosen in the same manper, two for each county, and one for each of the towns of Edenton, Newberp, Wilmington, Salisbury, Hillsborough, and Halifax. Senators must be possessed of 300 acres of land, representatives of 100. In this state, freeholders of fifty acres vote for members of the senate; all freemen of the age of twenty-one years, who have been inhabitants of the county