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in virtue of their powers, engaged the famous Mr. Locke
to frame for them a constitution and body of laws. The
constitution, consisting of 120 articles, was aristocratical,
and though ingenious in theory, could never be success-
fully reduced to practice. Three classes of nobility were
to be established, viz. barons, cassiques, and landgraves.
The first to possess twelve, the second twenty-four, the
third forty-eight thousand acres of land, which was to be
unalienable.
In 1669, William Sayle being appointed first governor
of this country, embarked with a colony, and settled on
the neck of land where Charleston now stands. During
the continuance of the proprietary government, a period of
fifty years, reckoning from 1669 to 1719, the colony was
involved in perpetual quarrels. Oftentimes they were
harassed by the Indians, sometimes infested with pirates,
frequently invaded by the French and Spanish fleets, con-
stantly uneasy under their injudicious government, and
quarrelling with their governors. But their most bitter
dissentions were respecting religion. The episcopalians,
being more numerous than the dissenters, attempted to
exclude the latter from a seat in the legislature. These
attempts were so far successful, as that the church of

• England, by a majority of votes, was established by law.

This illiberal act threw the colony into the utmost confusion, and was followed by a train of evil consequences, which proved to be the principal cause of the revolution. Notwithstanding the act establishing the church of England was repealed, tranquillity was not restored to the colony. A change of goverument was generally desired by the colonists. They found they were not sufficiently protected by their proprietary constitution, and effected a revolution about the year 1719, and the government became regal. In 1728, the proprietors accepted £22,500 sterling from the crown, for the property and jurisdiction, except lord Granville, who reserved his eighth of the property, which has never yet been formally given up. At this time the constitution was new modelled, and the territory, limited by the original charter, was divided into North and South Carolinas. From this period the colony began to flourish. It was protected by a government, formed on the plan of the English constitution. Under the fostering care of the mother country, its growth was astonishingly rapid. Between the years 1763 and 1775, the number of inhabitants was more than doubled. No one indulged a wish for a change in their political constitution, till the memorable stamp act, passed in 1765; from which time till 1775, various attempts were made by Great Britain to tax her colonies without their consent. These attempts were invariably opposed. The congress, who met at Philadelphia this year, unanimously approved the opposition, and on the 19th of April war commenced. During the vigorous contest for independence, this state was a great sufferer. For three years it was the seat of the war. It feels and laments the loss of many of its noble citizens. Since the peace it has been emerging from that melancholy confusion and poverty in which it was generally involved by the devastations of a relentless enemy. The inhabitants are fast multiplying by emigra. tions from the other states, the agricultural interests of the state are reviving, commerce is flourishing, economy is becoming more fashionable, and science begins to spread her salutary influences among the citizens. South Carolina, from her natural commercial and agricultural advantages, and the abilities of her leading characters, promises to become one of the richest states in the Union. The damages which this state sustained in the revolutionary war, are thus estimated: the two entire crops of 1780 and 1781, both of which were used by the British, The crop of 1782 taken by the Americans, about 25,000 negroes, many thousand pounds worth of plate, and household furniture in abundance, the villages of Georgetown and Camden burnt, the loss to the citizens directly by the plunderings and devastations of the British army, and indirectly by American impressments, and by the depreciation of the paper currency, together with the heavy debt of £1,200,000 sterling, incurred for the sup: port of the war, in one aggregate view, make the price of independence to South Carolina, exclusive of the blood of its citizens, upwards of £3,000,000 sterling.

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STATE OF GEORGIA.

Situation, Boundaries, and Eartent.

This state is situated between 30° 30' and 35° N. lat. and 3° 50' and 9° 5' W. long. It is bounded on the north by North Carolina and Tennessee; north-east, by South Carolina; south, by Florida; east, by the Atlantic ocean; and west, by West Florida and the Alabama territory. Its

length from north to south is 300 miles, and its breadth .

from east to west 240 miles; forming an area of about 58,000 square miles, or 37,120,000 acres.

Rivers, mountains, and general aspect of the country.— Georgia is remarkably well supplied with rivers and small streams. The Savannah river is one of the most important in America, and has been already noticed as forming a part of the divisional line which separates this state from South Carolina. Its head waters consist of two small rivers, the Tugulo and Keowee, which rise near the mountains, and form a junction about 220 miles from the sea; from thence it runs a south-east course, and falls into the Atlantic ocean seventeen miles below the town of Savannah, to which place it is navigable for ships of 250 tons burden, and for boats of 150 feet keel to Augusta, 123 miles distant (by land.) After a fall just above this town, it can be navigated eighty miles higher, in small boats, to the mouth of Tugulo river. The flood was so great in Savannah river in February, 1796, that the water rose thirty-five feet above its ordinary level, and above nine feet higher than ever was known before: in Augusta the streets were plied by boats which could carry fifteen tons. It may be remarked, that through the medium of this fine river a considerable part of the produce of South Carolina is carried to Savannah market.

The Altamaha, about sixty miles south of Savannah river, is formed by the junction of the Okonee and Okemulgee branches, the former of which rises near the mountains, about 300 miles from Savannah, and running a south-east course, is joined by the Apalachy and afterwards by a great number of tributary streams, till it forms a junction with the Okemulgee, 100 miles from the ocean. From thence the Altamaha runs east-south-east, and falls into the Atlantic below the town of Darien, to which it is navigable for large vessels. The Okemulgee is a large river, rising near the Apalachy, from whence to its confluence with the Okonee it runs upwards of 200 miles. The little Ogeeche is a considerable river, and falls into the Altamaha, from the northward, after this junction.

The Chatahouchy is a very large river, and forms the western boundary of Georgia from the Florida line, 125 miles up the country. It rises at the foot of the mountains, near the head of Savannah river, and runs southwardly above 200 miles, to where it forms the state line. From thence it pursues a course a little east of south, to Florida river, where it forms a junction with Flint river, and assumes the name of Apalachicola; it then runs a south-east course eighty miles, to the gulf of Mexico, which it enters by several mouths. Flint river is about 300 yards broad, and twelve or fifteen feet deep. It rises near the Okemulgee river, and runs, with a clear gentle current, a course to the west of south upwards of 200 miles. St. Mary's river rises in Okefanoke swamp, and running about 100 miles by a very crooked course, but rather eastwardly, forms the boundary line between the United States and East Florida, during its whole passage, and falls into the sea at St. Mary's, where it forms a good harbour. Its banks afford immense quantities of fine timber, suited to the West India market.—Besides these there is Turtle river, Great Sitilla, Little Sitilla, Crooked river, and the Ogeche. All these rivers are stored with a great variety of fish, as rock, mullet, whiting, shad, trout, drum, bass, catfish, bream, and sturgeon; and the bays and lagoons are filled with oysters, and other shell fish, crabs, shrimps, &c. This state, like the Carolinas, is maturally divided into two districts, the upper and the lower ; of which the boundaries are remarkably well defined. The eastern part, between the ocean and the mountains, and the rivers Savannah and St. Mary's, a tract of country more than 120 miles from north to south, and forty or fifty east and west, is entirely level, without a hill or stone. At the distance of about fifty miles from the sea shore, the lands begin to be more or less uneven ; the ridges gradually rising one above another into hills, and the hills succes. sively increasing in height till they finally terminate in mountains. That vast chain which commences with Cats. kill, near Hudson's river, in the state of New York, known by the name of the Allegany mountains, terminate in this state, about sixty miles south of its northern boundary. From the foot of this mountain spreads a wide extended plain, of the richest soil, and in a latitude and climate favourably adapted to the cultivation of most of the East India productions, and those of the south of Europe. The state has a sea-coast of 100 miles, which is indented with bays and inlets, and studded with islands, well known by the name of Sea Islands These islands are surround: ed by navigable creeks, between which and the main land is a large extent of salt marsh, fronting the whole state, not less than four or five miles in breadth, intersected with creeks in various directions, admitting, through the whole, an inland navigation, between the islands and the main land, from the north-east to the south-east corners of the state. Among these islands are the entrances of the rivers from the interior country, winding through the low salt marshes, and delivering their waters into the sounds, which form capacious harbours of from three to eight miles wide, and which communicate with each other by parallel salt creeks. In the southern part of the state lies a portion of Okefanoke swamp, one of the most remarkable in the world. It is situated between Flint and Okemulgee rivers, and is nearly 300 miles in circumferenee. In wet seasons it appears like an inland sea, and has several large islands of rich land; one of which the Creek Indians represent as the most blissful spot upon earth. The rivers St. Mary and Sitilla, which fall into the Atlantic, and the beautiful little St. Juan, which empties into the bay of Apalachy, in the gulf of Mexico, flow from this lake.

About ninety miles from the sea in a direct line, as you advance towards the mountains, is a very surprising bank of oyster shells of an uncommon size. They run in a direction nearly parallel with the sea-coast, in three distinct ridges near each other, which together occupy a space seven miles in breadth ! The ridges commence at Savannah river, and have been traced to the northern branches of the Altamaha. This remarkable phenomenon cannot be accounted for in any other manner than by supposing that the sea-shore was formerly near this immense bed of shells; and that the ocean has, by the operation of certain causes not yet fully investigated, receded within its present bounds. These shells are an inexhaustible source of wealth to the neighbouring inhabitants, who carry them away in vast quantities for the purpose of making lime.

Climate, soil, productions, &c.—The climate in many parts of this state cannot be esteemed healthy, at particular seasons of the year. In the low country near the rice swamps, bilious complaints and fevers of various kinds are pretty universal during the months of July, August, and September, which, for this reason, are called the sickly months. The disorders peculiar to this climate originate. chiefly from the badness of the water, which is generally brackish, and from the noxious putrid vapours which are exhaled from the stagnant waters in the rice swamps. Besides, the long continuance of warm weather produces *general relaxation of the nervous system; and as the

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