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invite the poor Georgians to come over Savannah river, and settle in Carolina, being convinced that they could never succeed under such impolitic and oppressive restric. tions. After the representation and memorial from the legis. lature of Carolina had reached Britain, the nation considered Georgia to be of the utmost importance to the British settlements in America, and began to make still more vigorous efforts for its speedy population. The first embarkations of poor people from England, being collect. ed from towns and cities, were found equally idle and useless members of society abroad, as they had been at home. An hardy and bold race of men, inured to rural labour and fatigue, they were persuaded, would be much better adapted both for cultivation and defence. To find men possessed of these qualifications, they turned their eyes to Germany and the Highlands of Scotland, and resolved to send over a number of Scottish and German labourers to their infant province. When they published their terms at Inverness, an hundred and thirty Highlanders immediately accepted them, and were transported to Georgia. A township on the river Altamaha, which was considered as the boundary between the British and Spanish territories, was allotted for the Highlanders, on which dangerous situation they settled, and built a town which they called New Inverness. About the same time 170 Germans embarked with James Oglethorpe, and were fixed in another quarter; so that, in the space of three years, Georgia received above 400 British subjects, and about 170 foreigners. Afterwards several adventurers, both from Scotland and Germany, followed their country. men, and added further strength to the province, and the trustees flattered themselves with the hopes of soon seeing it in a promising condition. Their hopes, however, were vain. Their injudicious regulations and restrictions, the wars in which they were involved with the Spaniards and Indians, and the frequent insurrections among themselves, threw the colony into a state of confusion and wretchedness, too great for human nature long to endure. Their oppressed situation was re. presented to the trustees by repeated complaints; till at length, finding that the province languished under their care, and weary with the complaints of the people, they, in the year 1752, surrendered their charter to the king, and it was made a royal government. In consequence of which, bis majesty appointed John Reynolds, an officer of the navy, governor of the province, and a legislature, similar
to that of the other royal governments in America, was established in it. Great had been the expense which the mother country had already incurred, besides private benefactions for supporting this colony; and small had been the returns yet made by it. The vestiges of cultivation was scarcely perceptible in the forests, and in England all commerce with it was despised. At this time the whole annual exports of Georgia did not amount to £10,000 sterling. Though the people were now favoured with the same liberties and privileges enjoyed by their neighbours under the royal care, yet several years elapsed before the value of the lands in Georgia was known, and that spirit of industry broke out in it, which afterwards diffused its happy influence over the country. In the year 1740, the Rev. George Whitfield founded an orphan-house academy in Georgia, about twelve miles from Savannah. For the support of this, in his itinerations, he collected large sums of money of all denominations of Christians, both in England and America. A part of this money was expended in erecting proper buildings to accommodate the students, and a part in supporting them. In 1768, it was proposed that the orphan-house should be erected into a college. Whereupon Mr. Whitfield applied to the crown for a charter, which would have been readily granted, on condition that the president should, in all successions, be an episcopalian of the church of England. Several letters passed between the archbishop of Canterbury and Mr. Whitfield on the subject, in which the archbishop insisted on this condition. But Mr. Whitfield, though himself an episcopalian, declined it, alleging to his grace, that it would be unjust to limit that office to any particular sect, when the donations for the foundation of the institution had been made and entrusted to him, by the various religious denominations, both in England and America. In consequence of this dispute, the affair of a charter was given up, and Mr. Whitfield made his assignment of the orphan-house in trust to the countess of Huntingdon. Mr. Whitfield died at Newbury Port, in New England, in October, 1770, in the 56th year of his age, and was buried under the presbyterian church in that place. Soon after his death, a charter was granted to his institution in Georgia, and the Rev. Mr. Percy was appointed president of the college. Mr. Percy accordingly went over to execute his office, but, unfortunately, on the 30th of May, 1775, the orphan-house building caught fire, and was entirely consumed, exeept the two wings, which are still remaining. The American war soon after came on, and put every thing into confusion, and the funds have ever since lain in an unproductive state. From the time Georgia became a royal government, in 1752, till the peace of Paris in 1763, she struggled under many difficulties, arising from the want of credit, from friends, and the frequent molestation of enemies. The good effects of peace were sensibly felt in the province of Georgia. From this time it began to flourish, under the fatherly care of governor Wright. To form a judgment of the rapid growth of the colony, we need only attend to its exports; which have been already given. During the revolutionary war, Georgia was over-run by the British troops, and the inhabitants were obliged to flee into the neighbouring states for safety. The suffer. ings and losses of her citizens were as great, in propor. tion to their numbers and wealth, as in any of the states. Since the peace, in 1783, the progress of the population of this state has been astonishingly rapid.
This fine state is situated between 38° 30′ and 42° N. lat. and 3° 32' and 7° 43' W. long.; bounded north by Michigan territory and lake Erie; south and south-east by the river Ohio, which separates it from Kentucky and Virginia; east by Pennsylvania and the Ohio, river; and west by Indiana. Its length from north to south is, according to the latest and best geographers, 228 miles, and its breadth from east to west 200 miles; containing an area of 40,000 square miles, or 25,000,000 acres.
Rivers, hills, minerals, &c.—The principal rivers of this state are the Ohio, Great Miami, Little Miami, Scioto, Hockhocking, Muskingum, Cayahoga, Ashtabula, Sandusky, Grand river, and Miami-of-the-lakes. The Ohio forms the south-eastern boundary of the state, from Georgetown in Pennsylvania, to the mouth of the Great Miami, a distance of 412 miles by the windings of the river, viz. from Georgetown to Big Sandy river, the Ohio river divides Virginia from the state of Ohio; and from the mouth of Big Sandy river to that of the Great Miami, it separates Kentucky from the state of Ohio. That part of this beautiful stream which we are now describing, contains the most pleasing part of its scenery, and the most fertile of its shores. It is in reality difficult to conceive of any river in the world winding through a valley more rich in the bounties of nature, or more elegantly chequered with hill and dale ; and many charming islands contribute not a little to the beauty of the scene. In a distance of upwards of 400 miles, not one bend of the river but what presents a new landscape entirely different from any other. The bottoms are from a quarter to a mile wide, having generally a perceptible slope backwards to the base of the hills. There are various modes of travelling on this river, which the traveller must attend to, according to the state of the weather. In spring and fall the river is high, and can be navigated with ease by any vessel; the spring freshes commence about the end of February, and continue for upwards of three months: in the fall, the water begins to rise in October, and continues high till near the end of December; but considerable variations take place in different years, according to the wetness or dryness of the seasons. The principal vessels used for descending the Ohio are canoes, Kentucky and New Orleans boats, keel-boats, barges, and latterly, steam-boats. Canoes are the most simple of all vessels, and consist of a large log of wood shaped into a long boat, and excavated in the middle, so as to accommodate passengers and their baggage; these sell from one to three dollars each. Skiffs are built of all sizes, and used with or with: out sails, and can be had from five to thirty dollars. Kentucky and New Orleans boats are flats, with sides boarded like a house, about six or seven feet high, over which there is an arched roof. They are of various sizes, but generally large enough to contain 400 barrels of flour: and sell from 4s. 6d. to 6s. 9d, sterling a foot in length. Keel-boats are constructed to draw but little water, are strongly manned, and ply both upwards and downwards; next to the steam-boats, they are the best passage vessels on the Ohio. Barges are well known, and also sail up and down the river; but they are principally used below Cincinnati and the falls of Louisville. Steam-boats have been already described, pages 377 and 382, and those employed upon the western rivers are nothing inferior in convenience and elegant accommodation, though several of them are much larger in size; one in particular, measur' ing 700 tons burden.