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swamps commence from a quarter to half a mile from the margin of the stream. The soil is extremely fertile, and valuable, where elevated sufficiently for the purposes of agriculture; the timber gigantic, and extremely abundant. The Mississippi forms the boundary of this state, following the winding of the stream, for upwards of 500 miles. A particular account of this magnificent river having been already given in page 23, any further description in this place is therefore rendered unnecessary. The placid Illinois has its source in Indiana, and traverses this state in a south-western direction, receiving in its course a number of rivers from 20 to 100 yards wide, which are navigable for boats from fifteen to 180 miles. This noble river is formed by the junction of the rivers Theakaki and Plein in N. lat. 41° 48' ; and unlike the other great western rivers, its current is mild and unbroken by rapids, meandring at leisure through one of the finest countries in the world. It enters the Mississippi about 214 miles above its confluence with the Ohio, moist. miles above the mouth of the Missouri (not twelve miles, as stated in page 23.) It is upwards of 400 yards wide at its mouth, and its whole length about 390 miles. This river abounds with beautiful islands, one of which is ten miles long; and adjoining, or near it, are many coal mines, salt ponds, and small lakes: 210 miles from its mouth, it passes through Illinois lake, which is twenty miles in length and four in breadth. The banks of the Illinois are generally pretty high, yet much of them are liable to annual inundation, and of course rendered unfit for culture. The general surface of the country is prairie, part of which is very fine land; though too much does not deserve so favourable a character.—There are five tributary rivers which fall into the left side of the Illinois, and seven enter by the north or right bank. Of these the most important are Fox river, which heads near the sources of Rocky river, and falls in nearly equidistant between Illinois lake and the junction of the Plein and Theakaki rivers, and is navigable 130 miles. The Plein interlocks in a singular manner with the Chicago, running into lake Michigan: sixty miles from its head it expands and forms lake Depage, five miles below which it joins the Theakaki from the north-east. These streams united, are to the Illinois what the Allegany and Monangahela are to the Ohio. Kaskaskia is the next river in magnitude; it rises in the prairies between the Illinois and Wabash, is about 150 miles in length, and enters the Mississippi ninety miles
above the mouth of the Ohio, and 124 below the Illinois. It is navigable about 130 miles.
In addition to the rivers already described, the eastern part of the state is watered by several respectable streams running into the Wabash. There are many small lakes in this state, and several of the rivers have their sources in them. They abound with wild-fowl and fish, and on their margins are delightful plantations.
Nature has been eminently bountiful to Illinois, in bestowing the means of internal navigation without the expense of cutting canals, perhaps no where else to be found in the world. The courses of the principal rivers, with their branches, are not less than 3,000 miles; viz. 2,000 internally, and 1,000 on the frontiers. A small comparative expense will unite the river Iliinois with the Chicago, which, as before observed, falls into lake Michigan. Then the lead of Missouri and the cotton of Tennessee will find their way to Detroit, and to Buffalo on lake Erie. The distance, by water, from the mouth of the Illinois to. New Orleans is 1,222 miles, and to Buffalo, through the lakes 1,400. From Shawannoe-town, a short distance from the mouth of the Wabash, the route by water, to Buffalo, is 1,200 miles, and from the same place to New Orleans 1,130. Thus is there an immease internal water commu. . Inication, and also directly with the ocean, unknown in any other part of the globe,
General aspect of the country.—The face of the country is very much assimilated to that of Indiana; but towards the south the surface becomes very level, and the point of land between the Mississippi and Ohio rivers is frequently overflowed. There are no mountains in this. state, or hills of any great height. Part of the country is composed of hill and dale; but by far the greater portion of it is flat prairie, or the alluvial margin of rivers. The soil is very various, and may be divided into six different kinds: 1st. Bottoms, bearing a profusion of trees, which denote a very fertile soil: this land is always of an excellent quality, and may be found in greater or less proportions on all the rivers of the state. It is inexhaustible in fecundity, as is proved by its present fertility, where it has been annually cultivated, without antinure, for more than 100 years. 2nd. This kind of land is always found at the mouths and confluences of rivers; it produces sycamore, cotton wood, water-maple, water-ash, elm, willow oak, willow, &c. and is covered in autumn with a luxuriant.
growth of weeds. These bottoms are subject to inundations. There are many thousand acres of this land at the mouth of the Wabash, and the confluence of the Mississippi. It would be unsafe for the settler to locate himself upon this soil. 3rd. Dry prairie, bordering all the rivers, lies immediately in the rear of the bottoms, and from thirty to 100 feet higher. It is from one to ten miles wide, being a dry rich soil, well adapted to the purposes of cultivation, as it bears drought and rain with equal success, This soil is in some places black, in others of the colour of iron rust interspersed with a light white sand. These prairies are destitute of trees, unless where they are crossed by streams and occasional islands of woodland. The prairies of the Illinois river are the most extensive of any east of the Mississippi, and have alone been estimated at 1,200,000 acres. 4th. Wet prairie, which are found remote from streams, or at their sources, the soil is generally cold and barren, abounding with swamps, ponds, and covered with a tall coarse grass. 5th. Timbered land, moderately hilly, well watered, and of a rich soil. 6th. Hills, of a sterile soil and destitute of timber, or covered with stinted oaks and pines. Between the mouths of the Wabash and the Ohio, the right bank of the Ohio, in many places presents the rugged appearance of bold projecting rocks. The banks of the Kaskaskia and Illinois in some places present a sublime and picturesque scenery. Several of their tributary streams have excavated for themselves deep and frightful gulfs, particularly those of the Kaskaskia, the banks of which near the junction of Big-hill creek, present a perpendicular front of 140 feet high, of solid limestone. The north-western part of the state is a hilly, broken country, in which most of the rivers emptying into the Wabash from the north, have their heads. A great part of the state is open prairie, some of which are of such vast extent that the sun apparently rises and sets within their widely extended borders. The large tract of country through which the Illinois river and its branches meander, is not be exceeded in beauty, levelness, richness, and fertility of soil, by any traot of land, of equal extent, in the United States. From the Illinois to the Wabash, excepting some little distance from the rivers, is almost one continued prairie, or natural meadow, intermixed with groves, or copses of wood, and some swamps and small lakes. The east shore of the Mississippi, from the mouth of the Missouri to that of the Illinois is bordered by hills from eighty to 100 feet high; they are of gentle ascent, alternately presenting beautiful cedar cliffs and distant ridges. The bottoms afford many eligible situations for settlements. Above and below the mouth of Rocky river are beautiful prairies. The oak species may be said to be the prevailing forest tree of Illinois. There are four species of white oak; two of chesnut oak, mountain and Illinois; three of willow oak, upland, swamp, and shingle, the latter species is so called from its being an excellent material for shingles, which are used instead of tiles or slates. It is found on all the rivers of this state, from forty to fifty feet in height. Black jack, black oak, swamp oak, scarlet oak, so called from its scarlet coloured leaves in autumn ; it grows to the height of eighty feet, and is useful for rails. The honey locust is found in all the bottoms and rich hills of the west, from the lakes to the latitude of Natchez. It invariably rejects a poor soil, and grows to the height of from forty to sixty feet. The black walnut is found on the bottoms and rich hills; it often rises to the height of seventy feet; the wood is light and durable. Butternut is a companion of the black walnut. Besides all the species of hickory found on the northern states, the pecan or Illinois nut grows plentifully in the rich swails and bottoms; the nuts are small and thin shelled. The banks of the Illinois are the favourite soil of the mulberry, and of the plum. Sugar maple, blue and white oak, black locust, elm, basswood, beech, buckeye, hackberry, coffeenut tree, and sycamore, are found in their congenial soils, throughout the state. White pine is found on the head branches of the Illinois. Spice wood, sassafras, black and white haws, crab apple, wild cherry, cucumber, and pawpaw, are common to the best soils. The forests and banks of the streams abound with grape vines, of which there are several species; some valuable. The herbage of the woods varies little from that of Kentucky, Ohio, and Indiana. Copper and lead are found in several parts of the state. There is said to be an alum hill a considerable distance up Mine river. The French while in possession of the country, procured mill-stones above the Illinois lake. Coal is found upon the banks of the Au Vase or Muddy river, and also upon the Illinois, fifty miles above Peoria or Illinois lake : the latter mine extends for half a mile along the right bank of the river. A little below the coal mines are two salt ponds 100 yards in circumference, and several feet in depth ; the water is stagnant, and of a yellowish colour. The French inhabitants and Indians make good salt from them. Beds of white clay are found on the rivers Illinois and Tortue. The prevailing stone is lime.
Civil, divisions, towns, population, &c.—Whilst Indiana remained a territory, lllinois formed a western part thereof; but when the former became a state, the latter was created a separate territorial government, divided into three court districts. In 1810, the population of Illinois amounted to 12,282, including 168 slaves; in 1817, it had increased to 24,520, and in 1819, the number of inhabitants had so greatly augmented, as to entitle them to form a state constitution, and to be admitted into the Union. This state is now divided into nine counties; but there are very few towns. The bulk of the population is settled upon the Mississippi, and Kaskaskia and its branches. There are several settlements on the Wabash, Ohio, and Illinois, The principal towns are as follows: Kaskaskia, the present seat of the state government and chief town of Randolph county, is situated upon the river of the same name, eleven miles from its mouth, six, in a direct line, from the Mississippi, 150 south-west from Wincennes, and 1,000 from the city of Washington. It contains about 300 houses, some of them of stone, and 1,000 inhabitants, most of whom are French. They raise large stocks of horned cattle, horses, swine, poultry, &c. Here is a post-office, a land-office for the sale of public lands, and a printing-office, which issues a weekly newspaper entitled the “Illinois Herald.” The surrounding lands are in a good state of cultivation. Cahokia is situated on a small stream, about one mile east of the Mississippi, and four miles below St. Louis. It is pleasantly situated, and contains about 160 houses, inhabited chiefly by French people. This town contains a post-office, and a Roman catholic chapel; and is the seat of justice for St. Clair county. Shawannoe-town, so called from being the site of an Indian village of the Shawannoe nation, is situated about nine miles from the Saline river, and 307 (by water) from Louisville. It is a small place containing about thirty or forty houses, principally log buildings; and has a landoffice. The inhabitants are principally engaged in the salt trade. Prairie du Rochers is situated twenty miles below St. Philip, and contains about 350 inhabitants, chiefly French,