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proach and enter the main stream only thirteen miles apart from each other. East Tennessee is watered by the Holston, Notachuky, French Broad, Tellico, Richland, Clinch, Great Emery, and Hiwasee rivers ; all head branches of the Tennessee. West Tennessee is watered by Cumberland, Tennessee, Buffalo, Elk, Duck, Swan, Wolf of Cumberland, Oby, Forked Deer, Obian, Hatchy, and Wolf of the Mississippi.
The Tennessee is one of the largest rivers in the western country, being nearly as long and broad as the Ohio, of which it is the principal branch. It enters the Ohio fifty-seren miles above the mouth of that river, and is navigable for large boats 1,100 miles; vessels of great burdeu can proceed as far as the Muscle shoals, 250 miles from its mouth. At this place it is about three miles broad, full of small isles, and only passable in boats or batteaux; from these shoals to the Whirl, or Suck, where the river is contracted to the breadth of seventy yards, and breaks through the Cumberland mountain, is 250 miles, and the navigation for large boats all the way excellent: boats easily ascend the Whirl, being towed, and from thence the river is pavigable to the distance already stated.
Cumberland river rises in Cumberland mountain, Virginia, and after a long and winding course, falls into the Ohio 1,113 miles below Pittsburgh, and seventy miles above the mouth of the Ohio. It is navigable for large vessels to Nashville, 120 miles from its mouth, and from thence to Oby river, 170 miles farther. At Nashville it is 200 yards wide, and 300 at its junction with the Ohio. From the falls in Kentucky to the place where it crosses the line into Tennessee, is more than 100 miles, thence to Nashville is 200, and from thence to the Ohio 120; it is therefore navigable 420 miles for vessels of burden, and a considerable way further for boats. Many of the tributary streams of the Tennessee and Cumberland, are also large rivers which can be navigated to a great distance.
Cumberland mountains, already mentioned, run through the state from north to south, and spurs or lateral branches extend west to the vicinity of Nashville, Their summits, between Wolf river and the Great Emery, are dreary and precipitous in certain places, and bear frequent evidences of the action of water, even on the highest peaks. Approaching the head branches of Wolf and Oby, the soil becomes deep and fertile, even on the knobs and ridges where the ascents and declivities are so steep as to render it impracticable to travel on horseback. Upon these hills, ar rather small mountains, are found tulip, beech, and
sugar-maple trees of the largest dimensions, with little or no underwood, but abundance of genseng and other me. dicinal plants. Between the mountains are coves of ten, fifteen, or twenty arches, similar to those in Wayne county, Kentucky, already described, with the best freestonewater, and covered with the largest trees and çanebrakes. No situation can be more lonesome and dreary than those secluded and gloomy retreats, when found at the distance of fifty or sixty miles from the residence of a human being. The north-easterly part of this chain of mountains form the dividing line between Virginia and Kentucky. The ridge is generally about thirty miles broad; but in Tennessee it enlarges in width to fifty miles, and with so level a surface, in many places, that it may be called the high lands. In other parts, the mountain consists of the most stupendous piles of craggy rocks, and is inaccessible for miles, even to the Indians on foot. In one place particularly, near the summit of the mountain, there is a most remarkable ledge of rocks of about thirty miles in length, and 200 feet high, shewing a perpendicular front to the south-east. Besides the great Cumberland ridge, the other principal mountains in this state are Stone, Yellow, Iron, Bald, and Unaka, adjoining to one another, which form the eastern boundary of the state, and separate it from North Carolina ; and Clinch, which divides the waters of Holston and Clinch rivers. But it would require a volume to describe the mountains of Tennessee, one half of which is covered by those that are perfectly uninhabit, able.
Aspect, of the country, climate, soil, productions, &e, The surface and soil of this state, west of the Cumberland mountains, are nearly similar to the southern counties of Kentucky, and to the northern parts of the states of Mississippi and Alabama. The greater part of the country is broken, free from swamps, and remarkably healthy. 'The fertile cotton lands produce forest trees of an extraordipary growth ; and cane abounds in the valleys and on the rich hills. Three-fourths af Tennessee may be justly called mountainous or hilly, and the east section is occupied by what can be strictly termed the nucleus of the Allegany mountains; the ridges, indeed, are less elevated than in some other places, but they extend over a much wider surface than in any other part of the United States. West Tennessee is more flat than the eastern district; the mountains, after their course to the west, gradually de
cline, and before they reach the Mississippi, entirely disappear. The hills also become, in approaching the Ohio and Mississippi, more rounded, less elevated, and, like the mountains, are by degrees lost before reaching the extreme depression of the valley in which they are situated. From so many concurrent causes, the changes of temperature between the eastern and western extremities of Teunessee, are almost as great as would be found, in many situations in North America, in an equal distance along a meridian line.
The climate of this state forms a medium between the warmth of the south and the cold of the north; it may be correctly viewed as the middle climate of the United States, and proves peculiarly congenial to porthern constitutions. There is no country in America where diseases are so rare, where physicians have so little employ, and where children are more robust and healthy. The following authenticated facts will tend to prove the purity of the air, and the general salubrity of the climate : About thirty years ago half a dozen families removed from New York and fixed in Overton county in this state. The unprecedented health and increase of one of these families (Simon Barber's) deserves to be recorded. He left New York with a wife and eight children, five girls and three boys: his daughters are all married. The eldest has ten children, the second ten, the third eleven, the fourth ten, and the fifth five; the eldest son ten, the second seven, and the third three; making a total of SIXTY-SIX, all perfectly formed, and living in May, 1816. They have enjoyed uninterrupted health. Old Mr. Barber has six or seven great grand-children, which makes the increase from one family upwards of seventy souls. Not a single death occurred in the different branches of the family, until two of the sons removed into Indiana, in 1816, when two of the children died of the whooping-cough. Mr. Barber was then seventy-seven years of age, and his wife seventy-four, and both possessed an uncommon degree of activity, with much bodily and mental vigour. The old man thinks nothing of walking fifteen or twenty miles, and labours occasionally in his fields. None of the other families which accompanied him, have had the same rapid increase of numbers; but they have all enjoyed an equal degree of health, and perfectly concur in representing the country as healthy beyond example. Indeed, from experience and observation, the country between Cumberland and Tennessee rivers, is incomparably the most healthy of any part of the western country, from the great lakes to the gulf of Mexico. Perhaps the country south of Tennessee river, from the French Broad to the Mississippi, as far south as the junction of the Black Warrior and Tombigbee rivers, might with justice be included in the salubrious region. The southeru half of the states of Mississippi and Louisiana, are not generally unfavourable to health, bui locally so. The same remark also applies to the states of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, and the Michigan, North-Western, and Missouri territories.
The soil of Tennessee, like its climate, is very different in quality in the respective parts of the state. In East Tennessee the land is good along the banks of the rivers, and in the valleys; the mountains are poor in soil, but they afford good pasture for sheep and cattle, In the middle part the soil is pretty similar to that of Kentucky, and the low lands in the western parts are composed of a rich, black, vegetable earth. In general the land is luxuriaut, and will afford erery production, the growth of any of the United States. The usual crop of cotton is 800lbs. to the acre, of a long and fine staple, and of Indian corn from sixty to eighty, and sometimes 100 bushels. It is asserted, however, that the lands on the small rivers that empty into the Mississippi have a decided preference to those on Cumberland river, for the produce tion of cotton, rice, and indigo.
Of trees, the general growth is poplar, hickory, black and white walnut, all kinds of oak, beech, sycamore, black and honey locust, ash, hornbeam, elm, mulberry, cherry, sugar maple, &c. The undergrowth, especially on low lands, is cane, some of which are upwards of twenty feet high, and so thick as to prevent any other plant from growing. Of herbs, roots, and shrubs, there are Virginia and Seneca snakeroot, genseng, angelica, spicewood, wild plum, crab apple, sweet anise, ginger, spikenard, wild hop, and grape vines. The glades are covered with wild rye and oats, clover, strawberries, and pea vines. On the hills at the head of rivers, and in some high cliffs of Cumberland, are found majestic red cedars; many of these are four feet in diameter, and forty feet clear of limbs. The animals are such as are found in the neighbouring states. The rivers are well stocked with all kinds of fresh water fish, among which are trout, perch, buffalo-fish, eels, cat-fish, &c.; some of the latter have been caught which weighed upwards of 100lbs. The western waters being more clear and pure than the eastern rivers, the fish are in the same degree more firm and savoury to the taste,
There are no stagnant waters in this state, and this is certainly one of the reasons why the inhabitants are not afflicted with those bilious and intermittent fevers which are so frequent, and often fatal, near the same latitude on the coast of the southern states. The great business of the inhabitants is agriculture; and cotton forms a sort of staple commodity, particularly in West 'Tennessee. The other products are generally the same as Kentucky.
The whole of the people throughout the state are clothed in domestic manufactures, which have been encouraged by premiums from the legislature. There are no cotton manufactories upon a large scale, but the subject will doubtless be attended to, as the cotton here is of a very superior quality, and being far from a market, it would be attended with great benefit to the state to fabricate it into different sorts of goods, by machinery. The principal exports in West Tennessee are by the Mississippi to New Orleans, and consist of cotton, tobacco, flour, iron, lumber, pork, &c. From the eastern part they carry considerable quantities of cattle to the Atlantic ports; also fine saddle and cart horses, genseng, deer skins and furs, hemp and flax.
Of cultivated vegetables, the most important produced in Tennessee is Indian corn. In no part of the United States does that valuable plant grow in such perfection as in the rich bottoms of Cumberland, Tennessee, and their branches. Much of this grain in the ear, and also ground into meal, is transported from these rivers to Natchez and New Orleans. Wheat, rye, oats, barley, and buckwheat, are also raised in considerable quantities, both for consumption and exportation. Hemp is amongst the staples of the state, but is not at present so extensively cultivated as it was a few years past. Flax is reared for home use, but not in very large quantities. Tennessee may be with propriety considered, in respect to fruits, as the most favoured situation in the United States. indeed, very few fruits cultivated in the valley of the Misissippi and Ohio, but what are concentrated in this state. Apples, pears, peaches, and plums, are reared in great variety, and of excellent quality: the two kinds of potato grow in abundance. Of mineral productions found in Tennessee, iron and salt are the most important. Several iron works are, and have been many years in operation, both in East and West Tennessee ; castings and iron are made both for domestic use and exportation. Several salt springs are found, but not in general use ; the state is generally supplied with that very necessary article from