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produces, sugar, cotton, corn, and tobacco in perfection. On the south side of the river is a large body of rich land reaching to the Opelousas, which is watered and drained by two large bayous called Bayou Robert and Bayou Au Bæuf. Their waters are very clear, and take their rise in the high pine hills between Red river and the Sabine. These afford a safe communication with the gulf of Mexico, for an extensive range of country. It is believed that this body of land, which is about forty miles square, for richness of soil, growth of timber, excellence of water, salubrity of climate, extent and convenience of navigation, is not excelled by any tract of land in Louisiana,
From Holmes' Station to the Bayou Rapide is thirty miles. The lands on this bayou are nearly of the same quality with that on the bayous Robert and Au Bauf. l'hese lands feed vast herds of stock. This bayou has two mouths, which enter Red river about twenty miles apart, forming a curviture somewhat in the shape of a half-moon. A large creek of pure water enters the stream, upon which are several saw-mills, and groves of pine timber. Boats cannot pass round this curviture on account of obstructions formed by rafts of driftwood, but can ascend from the lower part more than half the distance. On both sides of the lower mouth of tbis bayou, are sitoated the richest part of the Rapide settlement. Few countries exhibit more beauty or greater indications of wealth. The plantations are in a high state of cultivation, the soil rich, and the cotton raised here is of the best quality in the state. The sugar cane flourishes. The cotton and tobacco are very good, as are all kinds of vegetables. The orange and figtrees grow luxuriantly; to complete these blessings, the climate is healthful and the inhabitants in a manner exempted from the diseases usaally incident to warm climatės. This country furnishes immense quantities of lumber for the New Orleans and West India markets; and is capable of continuing the supply for ages. From the Rapide to the Indian villages is about twenty-four miles; the bend is fine, and susceptie ble of every kind of cultivation the whole distance. These villages are situated on both sides of the river in a very productive soil.
A short distance above the Indian towns, the rich and populous settlement of Gillard's Station, commences. Six miles higher up is the Baloxa Indian village, where the river divides into two branches forming an island of fifty miles in length, and three or four in breadth, very fertile. The east stream is called Rigule de Bon Dieu ; on the left
hand is the boat channel to Natcbitoches. On this branch for forty miles, there are thick settlements, rich lands, and the inhabitants wealthy. This is called the river Cane settlement.
A little above this settlement, the river divides juto three channels, and forms the Brevel islands, the largest of which is thirty miles long and four wide. The central division is lined with settlements and is the boat channel ; the western channel, called Fausse Riviere, is navigable, but is uninhabited, owing to the lowness of the banks. This channel passes through lake L'Occasse, above which the three channels separate, where is situated the town of Natchitoc hes, and fort Claiborne, which stands on a hill elevated about thirty feet above the banks of the river.' The land has here a handsome swelling surface, yielding a rich and spontaneous pasturage to prodigious herds of cattle, and droves of horses, which give beauty and animation to the prospect, and croud the earth in every direction. Cattle can be purchased for 278. a head ; horses from £3 78. 6d. to £4 10s, each. Swine run wild, and are raised with little or no expense, in immense numbers. The planters commence their cultivation about the first of March. During the growth of vegetation they have sufficient rains to keep the earth moist, but in September and October, severe droughts are experienced. Although the dews are very heavy and powerful, yet the sun's rays lick up this moisture before it descends to the roots, and only gives it time to cool the withering stalk. The dew's are known to fall so profusely, as to be seep running in little streams on the ground.
From Natchitoches a road leads to the Sabine, Nacog. doches and San Antonio The Bayou Bon Dieu enters the river about three miles above this town. Another bayou communicates with Bon Dieu and lake Noiz; above this lake the river continues in one channel, passing through the fine settlement of Grand Ecorce, seven miles long; at the upper end of which comes into the river a bayou or decharge of Spanish lake. The river again divides a short distance above this lake ; after which, the course of the west branch is westerly for nearly eighty miles, when it turns to the eastward and communicates with the right branch, forming an island 100 miles long, and thirty wide. Boats cannot ascend by the west branch in consequence of collections of driftwood, which choke up its current, in several places. The French settlement of Bayou Pierre extends nearly the whole length of this branch; the land is of the best quality, and the inbabit
ants possess large herds of cattle, and are good livers. The face of this part of the country is agreeably hilly; and the water very good. On the main or eastern branch, are several settlements. The land on this brancb is very rich; but much cut up by bayous, lakes, and islands.
The bottoms are several miles wide. The plantations reach up to the commencement of driftwood bridges. Bayou Channo, leading into lake Besteneau, affords a pretty good navigation; and by passing through the lake and bayou Dacheet, boatmen gain several miles, as the meanders of the river are very tedious. The medium depth of this lake, is from fifteen to twenty feet, and never less than twelve, though the remains of cypress trees of all sizes, now dead, most of them with their tops broken off, are yet standing in the lake. From bayou Dacheet to the mountains, the river is free from obstructions. Eighty miles above Dacheet, is the Caddo Indian towns. The lands for this distance, are high, rich bottoms, widely extended from the river. Twenty miles below these towns, the river changes its direction, and turns to the west.
The great range of pine forests that occupy the space from the prairies of Opelousas to the Red river, wind along the Sabine. The general surface of this region rises gradually from prairies into hills; the principal range of which pursues nearly the same course as the Sabine, at the distance of twenty or twenty-five miles from the river, and divide the waters that flow into it from these that flow into the Red river and Calcasu. Along the creeks, through this tract of country, are found spots of productive soil. Pine and oak are the prevailing timber on such situations, and pasturage is abundant during the months of spring and summer ; but want of water during the dry seasons is the greatest defect of that district.
The prairie Grand Chevreuil begins between the overflown lands of the Atchafalaya and the Teche rivers, on the west of the former, following the direction of the Teche, nearly north, sometimes north-west, terminates eight miles east of Opelousas. Most of the prairie is extremely rich, particularly on the borders of the Teche.
The timber consists of several species of hickory, sycamore, sweet gum, black oak, willow oak, American elm, magnolia, sassafras, &c. with some live oak. The soil is a rich, friable, black loam, from a foot to eighteen inches deep; and though surrounded with swamps and lagoons · the climate is mild and healthful.
The country between the Mermentau and Atchafalaya, extending 115 miles along the gulf, and about pinety north,' is called the Attacapas. Within this there is a great prairie, bearing the same pame. Considerable tracts are subject to inundation, but many parts possess the highest degree of fertility. North and east of this lies the great Opelousas prairie, extending to the Sabine, and forming the south-west corner of the state. It has several large prairies, such as the Opelousas prairie; on the north of that the Grand prairie; the prairie Mamon; prairie Calcasu, and the Sabine prairie. The first of these contains upwards of 1,120,000 acres. Rich soil, and good timber are found along the southern and eastern parts of this district; but the rest is wild and the most of it barren, occupied only by great herds of cattle and buffalo..
There is no extent of land on the globe, possessing greater diversity of soil than the state of Louisiana. The southern part is mostly included in the delta* of the Mississippi: it is fiat, and where the surface can be preserved from inundation, extremely fertile ; the southwestern part is generally level prairie, and very productive; the north-western portion, a thick forest, and low alluvial soil, upon the rivers ; but at a distance from the streams, the land is high, broken, and sterile. This allavial soil of Louisiana, independent of its intrinsic fertility, finds in the annual floods a perpetual renewal of its strength, from the fertilizing slime and mud deposited by the overflowing current of the rivers, particularly of the Mississippi. The lands on the banks of this mighty stream, that have been under cultivation sixty or seventy years, without manure, are equally productive as when first planted. The country west of the delta of the Mississippi, offers an infinity of interesting views to the traveller and the emigrant. Only a few years haye elapsed since this region was opened to the inspection of civilized man. The immense length of Red and Arkansaw rivers, the fertility and variety of the lands from which their streams are derived, and the extraordinary features and productions of the great natural meadows of Louisiana, have at length arrested the attention of mankind; and will, no doubt, in a few revolving years, exhibit, upon a vast surface, cultivated society, where, from countless ages, the wild beasts of the forests
• As this term frequently occurs in this and other works treating of Louisiana, it may not be improper to give its explanation :--The estuary of the Nile, in Egypt, was called by the ancients, delta, from its resemblance to the Greek letters of that name. This was tolerably appropriate when applied to the Nile ; but could not apply to other rivers, whose mouths formed lands of very different outlines, It is now used to denote the alluvial tracts of land formed by the waters of any river, whose streams carry down and deposit great bodies of sediment on their banks, and pear their mouths.
were pursged by the prowling sarage. It is highly gratify ing to behold the emulation of industry and peace, to see new towns, farms, and manufactories, rising where silence aod desolation reigned twenty years since, and where only six years have elapsed since that silence was broken by the din of arms, and where cruel massacre stained the earth with the blood of the most innocent and helpless of the human race.
The great staple productions of this state are cotton, sugar, rice, and Indian corn. Tobacco and indigo could be as extensively cultivated as cotton; but neither of the former offers such alluring prospects to the planter as the latter. To new settlers, and to persons of moderate property, cotton presents a more easy source of revenue; even in places where the soil and climate will admit the culture of sugar. The best districts for cotton in the state of Louisiana, are the banks of Red river, Ouachitta, bayou Bæuf, the river Teche, and the Mississippi. Cotton land yields from 500 to 2,000 lbs. of seed cotton an acre; and one man will cultivate ten acres. The profits of a good slave may be reckoned at 240 dollars per annum. But though cotton succeeds best on the deep alluvial of the rivers, it is extremely profitable on the prairie land, distant from any considerable streams of water. On second rate land, which occurs on the small water-courses in the pine tracts, there are considerable bodies of land very favourable to cotton. This latter species of soil occurs extensively between the Red and Sabine, and between the Red and Ouachitta rivers; much of it is yet the property of the United States; though in December, 1818, and in February, 1819, there were very extensive sales of public land in Louisiana, each of which continued for three weeks.
Late experiments have proved that the sugar cane can be successfully cultivated in any part of the state, except in the swampy or unripe allurial soils. Sugar lands yield from one to two hogsheads of 1,000 lbs. weight each, and fifty gallons of rom an acre; the value is about 100 dollars a hogshead. In one season twenty-eight men have been known to make 200 hogsheads of sugar; and an old man, assisted by his two sons, carried thirty hogsheads to market, the produce of their own hands, in one season. The planters, in order to guard against the effect of an early frost, regularly finish, about the 15th of October, puilling up the canes intended for next year's planting. This is done by putting them into stacks, with all their loayes on, in such a manner as to expose the smallest