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streets generally forty feet wide, crossing each other at
right angles. In 1803, the number of inhabitants was
about 9,000; at the commencement of 1819, the popula-
tion amounted to between 36 and 40,000, and it is rapidly
increasing by accessions from all the states in the Union,
and from almost every kingdom in Europe. A great num-
ber of new buildings were erected in the last two years,
distinguished for size and improved style of the architec-
ture. The hurricanes to which this country is subject,
will not admit of the houses being carried up several
stories; but they have terraces and walks on their tops
according to the French fashion. The public buildings
consist of three banking houses, two handsome churches,
custom-house, town-house, market-house, arsenal, con-
vent, jail, theatre, and governor's palace, built by the
Spanish government. The Place des armes is a beauti-
ful green, which serves as a parade. Most of the houses
in the suburbs have fine gardens, ornamented with orange
groves. The general style of living is luxurious, and the
private dwellings are elegantly furnished.
The markets are plentifully supplied with the neces-
saries of life, and the luxuries of every country; but pro-
visions are excessively dear. Hams and cheese from
England, and potatoes, butter, and beef from Ireland,
are common articles of import. Cabbages sell from 6d.
to 10d. a head, and turkeys from three to five dollars
each; all other articles of food in proportion; rents are
also higher than in any other part of the United States.
There are five newspapers printed in this city, three in
the English language, and two in French and English:
indeed the French tongue is spoken by more than half of
the inhabitants.
It is upon the levee fronting the city that the universe
is to be seen in miniature; it is crowded with vessels from
every part of the world, and with boats from a thousand
different places in the upper country. In one year 594
flat-bottomed boats, and 300 barges, arrived from the
western states and territories, with the following articles
of produce, viz. apples, 4,253 barrels; bacon and hams,
13,000 cwt. ; bagging, 2,579 pieces; beef, 2,459 barrels;
beer, 439 do.; butter, 509 do.'; bear skins, 2,000; candles,
358 boxes; cheese, 30 cwt. ; cider, 646 barrels; cordage,
400 cwt. ; cordage bailing,4,798 coils; Indian corn, 13,775
bushels; do. meal, 1,075 barrels; cotton, 37,371 bales;
flaxseed oil, 85 barrels; flour, 97,419 do.; genseng,957 do;
hay, 356 bundles; hemp yarns, 1,095 reels; hides, 5,000;
hogs, 500; horses, 375; lead, 5,500 cwt.; white do., 188

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barrels; linens (coarse) 2,500 pieces; lard, 2,458 barrels; oats, 4,065 bushels; paper, 750 reams ; , peltries, 2,450 packs; pork, 9,725 barrels; potatoes, 3,750 bushels; gunpowder, 294 barrels; saltpetre, 175 cwt. ; soap, 1,538 boxes; tallow, 160 cwt. ; tobacco, 7,282 hhds. ; do. manufactured, 711 barrels; whisky, 320,000 gallons. Besides a great quantity of horned cattle, iron castings, grindstones, indigo, muskets, paean nuts, peas, beans, &c. &c. The schedule of the above produce is independent of what is furnished by the state of Louisiana, consisting of cotton, corn, indigo, molasses, masts and spars, planks, rice, sugar, shingles, soap, taffia, tallow, timber, beeswax, &c. which are generally brought to market in planters' crafts, or taken from off the plantations by foreign bound vessels. The city of New Orleans will at no very distant period, become to the United States, what Alexandria formerly was to Egypt, the great emporium of its commerce, its wealth, and its political greatness, in relation to the rest of the world; but it will also become the hot-bed of contagion, luxury, effeminacy, crime, treachery, and civil discord. The more we contemplate the present and prospective resources of New Orleans, the more must we be convinced of its future greatness; being built in the form of a crescent, the curve of the river constitutes a safe and commodious harbour, in which there were in May, 1818, 250 sail of vessels; it is defended on one side by the river, and on the other by a swamp that no human power can drain, and no effort can penetrate, the city can only be approached through a defile three quarters of a mile wide, which being protected by a breast-work, manned by 5,000 men, (for a greater number could not act) New Orleans, in point of strength, is another Gibraltar, and bids defiance to the most powerful and best disciplined invaders. In the year 1818, the citizens of the states of Mississippi and Louisiana vended at this port cotton and sugar to the amount of 2,000,000 of dollars, the fruit of their industry the preceding year; besides vast quantities of rice, indigo, &c. It is not uncommon for a planter in either of those states to receive an annual income of 30,000 dollars from his farm ; there are instances of some whose income amounts to 80,000, and a few to 120,000 dollars. The humbler labourer, whose all consists in eight or ten mules, has been known to make 100 dollars a day, during the winter of 1817, by dragging cotton from the river to the war-to- usually about 200 yards, N

for which he is paid the extraordinary sum of one dollar per bale. . The aggregate increase of the commerce of this port during the year 1818, was more than one-fifth. Where the earth is thus bountiful, where industry is thus rewarded, what human foresight can six bounds to the prosperity of the country? Though already a rallying point for the luxuries of the world and the theatre of enterprize for people of all tongues and nations; and though the ships of every nation are proudly pressing forward, in competition for her commerce, New Orleans is but the mere germ of what she must one day inevitably become.—Distance from the city of Washington 1449 miles; from Pittsburgh 2,188; from St. Louis 1,179; and from the city of Mexico (by land) 1,549 miles. Lat. 29° 57' N. long. 12°53' W. The other towns of this state being little more than mere villages, are entitled to no further notice than what arises from the admirably chosen situations of some of them, which promise at a future day to become places of great wealth and importance. Natchitoches stands upon the west bank of Red river, in N. lat. 33°46’ W. long. 16° 7' ; 170 miles from Natchez; and 356 from New Orleans. This town, or rather military post, was established in January, 1717. The first buildings were erected about a mile to the south of the present village ; the remains of the old fort and of the gardens still remain visible. Natchitoches now is, and must continue, a place of considerable consequence. Before the revolution commenced in Texas, in 1811, an extensive inland trade was carried on through this town, between the people of Louisiana and those of the Spanish internal provinces; this traffic will be at a future day revived. A few troops are stationed here, which, with the Indian trade, still gives a lively business to this place. This is the largest town in Louisiana, west of the Mississippi; and, it should not be forgotten, lies on the direct road from New Orleans to Mexico. Madisonville is handsomely situated on the west bank of the Chefuncti, two miles above its entrance into lake Pontchartrain, and about twenty-six south-east of New Orleans. It lies more convenient for the necessary supplies and materials for repairing and building vessels; and such are the local advantages of this place, that government have fixed on the site of a navy.yard near the mouth of the Chefuncti, where a frigate is now building, intended for the defence of the lakes. This is a more healthful place, aud less infected with musketoes than New Orleans. The country above Madisonville is peculiarly adapted to the rearing of hogs and cattle; for they neither require salt, nor attention in winter; and no where in the United States are they raised in greater numbers, than in the district under review. Alexandria has been already noticed ; it is only necessary farther to observe, that it stands at the head of barge navigation, in N. lat. 31° 19 W. long. 15°.28, and is sixty-three miles from Natchitoches, and 344 from New Orleans. The settlements round this town are flourishing and wealthy; and it is generally supposed that Rapides has more valuable land in proportion to its extent, than any other parish in the state. The inhabitants of Louisiana are chiefly descendants of the French and Canadians; though there are a considerable number of English and Americans in New Orleans. ' The two German coasts are peopled by the descendants of settlers from Germany, and a few French mixed with them. The three succeeding settlements up to Baton Rouge, contain mostly the descendants of people from Nova Scotia, banished from that country by the English. The district of Baton Rouge, especially the east side, is composed partly of Nova Scotians, a very few French, and a great majority of Americans; on the west side they are mostly from Nova Scotia; as they are at Point Coupee and Fausee river, with many French mixed among them. Of the population of the Atacapas and Opelousas, a considerable part is American ; Natchitoches contains but a few Americans, and the remainder of the inhabitants are French ; but the former are more numerous in the other settlements on that river; viz. Avoyelles, Rapides, and Ouacheta. At Arkansas they are mostly French, and at New Madrid Ameríoans. At least twofifths, if not a greater proportion, of all the settlers on the former Spanish side of the Mississippi, in the state of Illinois, are likewise supposed to be Americans. Below New Orleans, the population is altogether French, and the descendants of Frenchmen. Many of the people of this state, particularly in the southern parts, are gay and lively; their manners pretty wnuch the same as the French. They have a turn for mechanics and the fine arts: but their system of education has been long so badly attended to, that but little real science has been yet obtained. The citizens of Louisiana, by the fulfilment of the severest duty mankind can perform, have shown themselves worthy of all the protection and eneouragement that the nation can give. In the

hour of alarm the Louisianians were at the station of duty, and, in the day of battle, stood firm at the post of honour. Their gallantry aided in giving the United States a name, that time may render venerable, but can never destroy. Except domestic manufactures, which do not appear to be carried on to a great extent, there are no material establishments of that kind in this country; and in all probability the trade of Louisiana will continue for a long time to be an object of solicitude to the manufacturing districts, particularly Pittsburgh, and Lexington, in Kentucky, . On the other hand, from the increase of cotton and sugar, a great trade will always be supported between New Orleans and the cities on the Atlantic. The exports of this state, even at this early period, exceed those of all the New England states by more than 150,000 dollars a year. Nearly 400 sea vessels arrive and depart annually; and in the last year, 937 vessels of all denominations cleared out from the bayou St. John alone, the tonnage of which amounted to 16,000 tons: these were chiefly employed in carrying the produce of that part of the Floridas annexed to Louisiana; consisting of barks, coals, cotton, corn, furs, hides, pitch, planks, rosin, skins, tar, timber, turpentine, sand, shells, lime, &c. The direct exports of 1810, amounted to 1,897,522 dollars; in 1817, they had increased to 9,024,812 dollars, of which 8,241,254 were domestic produce. The government of this state is nearly the same as that of Mississippi; and, in like manner, to accommodate the original settlers, who had slaves, slavery is continued on the same principle as in the southern states. The constitution guarantees religious and political freedom. Every citizen of the United States, who has resided in the country one year, and paid a state tax, or purchased public land, has a right to vote at the election of representatives for that county. The state sends two senators and one representative to the general congresss.

History of Louisiana as it eatisted under France and Spain.—The country of Louisiana was first discovered by Sebastian Cabot in 1497, and was visited fifteen years afterwards by De Leon, a Spaniard, who failed in endea;. vouring to establish a colony. Colonel Wood, who landed here in 1654, and captain Bolt, in 1670, appear to have done nothing more than examine a small portion of terri” tory. The next person who attempted to form a settlement in this country was M. de la Salle, who, having

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