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as salt as sea water, from the month of June to November. On the Osage river coal can be raised in any quantity. The country abounds in medicinal plants, from among which the Indians select some that are capable of curing the most inveterate venereal complaints. The natives also cure the bite of the rattlesnake, likewise rheumatisms of long standing, and are remarkable for their successful treatment of gun-shot wounds: the Great Osage Indians are most skilled in medicine. Agriculture is not sufficiently attended to, although the country is extremely fertile. One acre of land will produce 100 bushels of prime Indian corn, fifty do. of wheat, sixty pounds to the bushel, and 1,000 lbs. of Carolina cotton in the seed. Hemp, flax, and every article of husbandry, except tobacco, which does not thrive well, (though none of the farmers can tell the reason,) can be raised in greater abundance, than in any county near the same latitude in the United States. A public road has been opened from Potosi (the lead mines in Washington county) which will greatly facilitate the intercourse with the states. The air in this part of the country is less liable to sudden changes than in the eastern sections of the territory. Chilling cold is seldom experienced, except when the north-west winds break across the vast extent of prairies which lie towards the northern regions; that wind, however, seldom continues longer than eight hours. The spring season opens about the middle of March with heavy rains, which continue at intervals until the end of April, and from that time to the first of August there is but little rain: weather hot, with frequent thunder and lightning. Diseases are but little known in this agreeable climate; those most frequent are remittent fevers; but the most troublesome disorder is the influenza, well known, and often fatal, in Great Britain, about the year 1783. It is probable, however, that diseases will be introduced with wealth and dissipation. The place selected for a town is nearly in the centre of the largest body of rich land in this territory, and is situated in about 38° 43' N. lat. It is 150 miles west of St. Louis; 158 from the mouth of the Missouri by land, 180 by water; from St. Charles, 130; from Grand river,” which falls into the Missouri, twenty-four; from the Great * Near the mouth of Grand river will stand, at some future day, the capital of the Missouri country. It is in the centre of the level lands, and is the most delightful situation in the western territory. From this spot to the Mississippi, at Osage town, 100; the same distance from the Mississippi; and 130 from the town of Potosi. The principal articles of trade are salt, live stock, beef, pork, beaver, tallow, bees-wax, honey, peltries, saltpetre, and grain. The inhabitants are composed of different religious persuasions. At present the state of education is at a very low ebb; but as the people are only in the first stage of their political existence, it may be reasonably expected that they will soon emerge from their darkness and obscurity. Between Boone's Lick and the fort, the land south of the river is one extended prairie, except about 100 sections of good woodland, extending about twenty miles down the river from the fort. One or two creeks pass through this tract, sufficient for small machinery or grist mills. The prairie lies well, and is scarcely inferior in point of soil to the river bottom. The fort is in N. lat. 39° 5', and stands on the brow of a hill within 100 yards of the river. It commands a full view of five miles east, down, and two miles north up the river. From the fort to the Osage river, seventy-six miles, the land is altogether prairie, except some little spots on the creeks, not any where sufficient for a settlement. A great proportion of the land, so far, is of good quality and lies well. On the north side of the Osage river there is a very extensive bottom of the finest quality, and on the south side another of secondary quality. Upon the latter plain stand some high mounds of earth, from one of which a view may be taken of 500 square miles of land, nearly all of the first rate; timber and springs only are wanting to make this one of the finest parts of the world. About 130 miles further, in the same direction, the woody country begins, and the land becomes poorer as you approach it. Here are found the first running streams, except the Osage; they all run west, and are waters of the grand river Arkansaw : after entering the timbered land, there is little more prairie to be seen. At the distance of 200 miles is the head water of the Buffalo fork of White river; 254 miles brings you to the river Arkansaw, about sixty miles above the Cherokee village. The wood land through this distance is poor, stony, and approaching to mountainous; game plentiful, but no buffalo until near the waters of White river. The same kind of soil and surface continues down to the Cherokee village ; from thence for about twenty miles east, to the mouth of the Quadrant, the land somewhat improves, though it is still rather poor. The river bottom is generally rich, though not very extensive, and somewhat subject to inun-dation. From the Quadrant, by the usual route to St. Louis, the soil is mostly poor, and the country broken; yet there is some very good bottom land on the tributary streams of White river and St. Francis, and many spots might be selected fit for cultivation, though not enough to give a character to the country. The late general Pike describes the district round the Osage villages, as one of the most beautiful the eye ever beheld. The three branches of the river, viz. the east, middle, and northern forks, all wind round and pass the villages, affording the important advantages of wood and water; while the extensive prairies, crowned with rich and luxuriant grass and flowers, gently diversified by rising swells and sloping lawns, present to the warm imagination the future seats of husbandry, and the numerous herds of domestic animals, which are no doubt destined to crown with joy these happy plains. From the Osage towns to the source of the Osage river, in lat. 36° N., there is no difference in the appearance of the country; except that on the south and east, the view on the prairies becomes unbounded, and is only limited by the shortness of our sight. The waters of the White river and the Osage, are divided merely by a small ridge on the prairie, and the dry branches appear to interlock at their head; from thence to the chief branch of the latter river, the country appears to be high and gravelly ridges of prairie land. On the main White river is large timber, and fine ground for cultivation; but from the Verdigris to the Arkansaw, the country is composed of gravelly hills and extensive prairies, in some places well watered, but deficient in timber, except for a limited number of inhabitants for a few years: salt springs and iron ore in abundance. All the country between the forks of Kanzas river, a distance of 160 miles, may be called prairie, notwithstanding the borders of woodland which ornament the banks of those streams; but are no more than a line traced on a sheet of paper, when compared to the immense tract of meadow country. Approaching the Arkansaw, the land is low and swampy for the space of fifteen or twenty miles; from thence about half way to the mountains, is a continued succession of low prairie hills, badly watered, and nearly destitute of timber. The banks of the Missouri are lined with vegetable riches. The northern shore, as far up as the mouth of the Gasconade, above 100 miles, is generally a low, rich bot...toul, from one to two miles wide, covered with ash,
the nearest point, is only eighty-four miles across a beautiful country, dry, open, and pleasant.
sycamore, black walnut, &c. On the south hills, rivulets and a number of small creeks, with a rich soil, fine timber, grape vines, and a luxuriant growth of cane. From the Gasconade to the entrance of the Osage, thirty-three miles, the south side of the river is hilly, but well timbered. Thus far the soil is well suited to the cultivation of the grain and agricultural products of the middle and western states: the timber is various, but the cotton-wood predominates. To give a precise idea of the incalculable riches scattered along the sides of the Missouri, would require unlimited knowledge. The low bottoms are covered with large trees, especially the poplar and cotton trees, large enough for the first rate canoes; the sugar maple, red and black walnut, so useful to joiners; red and white elm, the three-thorned acacia, of which impenetrable hedges can be made; the osier, the red and black mulberry, lime-tree, horse-chesnut, all of which are very plentiful; red and, white oak, fit for vessels; and on the Rocky mountains, cedar is a common production. It is impossible to enumerate all the trees, which are yet unknown in other countries; and with those whose uses and qualities we are as yet unacquainted. The smaller plants are still more numerous. The Indians know the virtues of many of them ; some are used to poison arrows, 9thers for dyeing colours, some again to heal wounds, and to cure diseases. They conceal with great care, a plant which renders them for some instants insensible to the most vehement fire; and by means of which they can hold red hot iron in their hands for several seconds, without injury. The lands in the neighbourhood of the Missouri are excellent, and when cultivated are capable of yielding all the productions of the temperate climates, and even some of the hot ones; such as wheat, maize, and every kind of grain; common and sweet potatoes; hemp, which seems to be an indigenous vegetable; even cotton succeeds here, though not so well as further south; and the raising of it answers a good purpose for the families already settled on the river: for, from a field of about two acres, they obtain a crop sufficient to clothe a family. The natural prairies are a great resource for them. These afford excellent pasture, and require but little labour to clear them. After one year's exertion, a man may enjoy his fields duly prepared for crops. Brick and potter's earths are very common, and the true Chinese Kaolin is reported, by good judges, to be here, that substance to which porcelain owes its peculiar firmness. And there. exists on the borders of this river, salt springs, which will furnish salt in abundance for the country when it shall become inhabited. Saltpetre is found very abundantly in numberless caverns near the Missouri. The rocks are generally calcareous; though there is one which is peculiar to this river; it is of a blood-red colour, compact, yielding to a tool, hardening in the air, and receiving the neatest polish. There are also quarries of marble. The bottoms of the Mississippi afford suitable situations for settlement, from the mouth of the Missouri to the falls of St. Anthony, except at certain bluffs, where the soil is too barren to invite settlers. The alluvial bottoms are generally composed of a rich, sandy soil, yielding a pretty heavy growth of pecan, poplar, sugar-maple, honeylocust, ash, cottom-wood, black walnut, and cucumber. The prairies in many places approach close to the river; they are sometimes visible through the skirts of the woods. Above the Wabisapenem, the land bordering the river is three-fourths prairie, or rather bold hills, which instead of running parallel with the river, form a continual succesion of high, perpendicular cliffs, and low valleys; they appear to head on the river, and to traverse the country in an angular direction. These hills and valleys give rise to subtime and romantic views. But this irregular scenery is sometime interrupted by a wide extended plain, which brings to mind the verdant lawn of civilized life; and wóuld almost induce the traveller to imagine himself in the centre of a highly cultivated plantation. The timber above this, is chiefly ash, elm, cotton-wood, birch, and sugar-maple. Above the falls of St. Anthony, the pine country commences; this timber borders all the streams, j occasional tracts of sugar-maple, basswood, and ech. Of the minerals found in the Missouri territory, lead is the most abundant; and might be raised in sufficient quantity to supply the whole world. The principal mines are upon the rivers Merrimack and Gouberie, both of which fall into the Mississippi between the mouth of the Ohio and that of the Missouri. These mines extend through a great district of country, being above fifty miles long and twenty-five broad; but the lead reaches far beyond those limits, having been found at the confluence of the Gasconade with the Missouri, 100 miles above St. Louis, and many are of opinion that it extends to the mines belonging to the Saukee and Fox Indians, which are situated on the Mississippi, 600 miles above St. Louis. These mines are known to extend over a space of eighty