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rally speaking, light and sandy. In the interior there is a ridge of sandy hills, but there is no bold scenery; while the country abounds in many places with swamps and marshes to such a degree, as to render those particular spots very unhealthy. Having such an extensive seacoast, however, on which there are a great number of fine harbours, there are many choice situations for towns; and the whole country, if cleared, drained, and cultivated, would support a numerous population. There is a great deal of excellent alluvial land on the banks of the rivers, and the intervals between the hills are many of them rich, affording fine ranges for cattle. The eastern part of the province, near to and about St. Augustine, is by far the most unfruitful; yet even there two crops of Indian corn are annually produced. The interior country, which is high and pleasant, abounds with wood of almost every kind, particularly white, red, and live oak in such profusion, as would furnish all the maritime powers in the world with a constant supply of the best ship timber. The live oaks, though not tall, contain a prodigious quantity of timber. The trunk is generally from twelve to twenty feet in eircumference; it rises ten or twelve feet from the earth, and then branches into four or five great limbs, which grow in nearly a horizontal direction, forming a gentle curve. “I have stepped (says Bartram) above fifty paces, on a straight line, from the trunk of one of these trees to the extremity of the limbs.” They are evergreen, and the wood almost incorruptible. They bear a great quantity of small acorn, which is agreeable food when roasted, and from which the Indians extract a sweet oil, which they use in cooking rice. Besides the varieties of oak above mentioned, the country abounds with the beautiful laurel magnolia, pine, hickory, cypress, and cedar. The cypress is the largest of the American trees; being often eight, ten, or twelve feet in diameter, for forty or fifty feet shaft. The trunk: make excellent shingles, boards, and other timber; and when hollowed out, form durable and convenient canoes. The garden vegetables are in high perfection; the orange and lemon trees grow here, without cultivation, to a large size, and produce better fruit than in Spain and Portugal. Most of the oranges consumed in the southern states are brought from Florida, and particularly from the island of Anastasia, opposite St. Augustio. About sixty years ago the seeds were brought from India, and given to an inhabitant of this island, who so increa” ed them, that at his death, which happened a few ye"
since, he had a beautiful plantation of orange trees, between forty and fifty acres in extent, and of the finest quality. There seems to be but a small supply of minerals in this country. Limestone and iron ore are found on the banks of the Apalachicola river, and there are some mineral springs. Florida being nearly surrounded by the sea, and within the range of the trade winds, enjoys a comparatively temperate climate. The summers are generally pleasant, and the winters very mild. Frost and snow are never seen, except in the northern extremity, and there but seldom. Cattle graze in the fields all winter, and many places produce two crops in a year. The principal towns are St. Augustine, on the Atlantic, and Pensacola, on the Gulf of Mexico.—St. Augustine, the capital of East Florida, is situated about eighty leagues from the mouth of the gulf of Florida, and 316 miles south-west from Charleston, in South Carolina. It is of an oblong figure, and intersected by four streets, which cut each other at right angles. The town is fortified and defended by a castle called fort St. John : it has a church and monastery of the order of its name.-The breakers at the entrance of the harbour have formed two channels, whose bars have eight feet water each. N. lat. 30°, W. long. 4° 30' from Washington. Pensacola, the capital of West Florida, lies along the bay of that name, is about a mile in length, and a quarter of a mile in breadth, healthy and delightfully situated. While in possession of the British, it contained several hundred habitations; and many of the public buildings and houses were spacious and elegant: the governor's palace is a large stone building, ornamented with a tower, built by Spain. Since this town has been in the possession of the Spaniards, it has been on the decline. The exports, consisting of skins, logwood, dying-stuff, and silver dollars, amounted while in the possession of the British, to £63,000 annually: the average aunual value of exports for three years, from Great Britain, was £97,000. The town and fort of Pensacola surrendered to the arms of Spain in the year 1781, and with them the whole province. The old fortifications stood on some sand hills behind the town, too distant to yield any effectual protection. The harbour of Pensacola is on the north shore of the gulf of Mexico, thirty-three miles east of Mobile, and 474 west of the islands of Tortuga. It is a beautiful body 9f water, spacious, and safe from all winds, and has four fathoms water at its entrance, deepening gradually to seven or eight. The bar lies in N. lat. 30° 15', and admits of vessels drawing no more than twelve feet water. This harbour, and others on this coast, are infested with worms to such a degree, as to ruin vessels in two months, if care be not taken to prevent it. There are many small tribes of Indians scattered over the province, most of whom are able to procure the necessaries of life with little trouble, and live in a much more comfortable manner than the generality of their brethren. About seventy miles west from St. Augustine, the Alachua tribe had their residence, upon a level, green plain, above fifteen miles over, and fifty miles in circumference. It is encircled with high sloping hills, covered with waving forests, and fragrant orange groves, rising from a most fertile soil. In this extensive savannah is an inclosed plantation, which is worked and attended by the whole community; yet every family has its particular share, which is gathered and deposited in its private granary, setting apart a small contribution for the public store, which stands in the midst of the plantation. The ancient Alachua town stood on the borders of this savannah; but the Indians removed to Cuscowilla, two miles distant, on account of the unhealthiness of the former site, occasioned by the stench of the putrid fish and reptiles, in the summer and autumn, driven on shore by the alligators, and the noxious exhalations from the adjoining marshes. Though the horned cattle and horses bred in these meadows are large, sleek, sprightly, and fat, yet they are subject to mortal diseases; such as the water. rot, or scald, occasioned by the warm water they are obliged to drink; while those which range in the high forests are clear of this disorder. Cuscowilla, the present residence of the Alachua tribe, stands in the most delightful situation that could be desired in an inland eountry; upon a high, swelling ridge of hills, within 400 yards of a large and beautiful lake, abounding with fish and wild fowl. The lake is terminated on one side by immense forests, consisting of orange groves, overtopped with grand magnolias, palms, poplars, live oak, &c., on the other side by extensive green plains and meadows. The town consists of about thirty habita. tions, each of which consists of two houses, nearly 9 the same size, large and convenient, and closely covered with the bark of the cypress tree. Each family has a small garden, containing corn, beans, tobacco, and other vegetables; but the whole tribe still continue to cultivate,
with great care, the large plantation on the Alachua savannah above described.
Florida has frequently changed masters; belonging alternately to the French and Spaniards, and at one period to the English. West Florida, as far as Perdido river, was owned and occupied by the French ; the remainder, and all East Florida, was possessed by the Spaniards, previous to the whole country being ceded to Great Britain, at the peace of 1763. During the American revolutionary war, both the Floridas were taken by the Spaniards, and guaranteed to the crown of Spain by the definitive treaty of 1783. A treaty has been lately concluded between the American government and the Spanish ambassador at Washington, for transferring the province of Florida to the United States; but the crooked and corrupt policy of the government of Spain, instigated, it is said, by another government, equally corrupt, has refused to ratify the treaty. In the mean time, the American troops are stated to have taken possession of the country; of which no power that can be sent from Europe will be able to dispossess them. Indeed, a reference to the map will fully prove, that Florida is equally an integral part of the United States territory as Cornwall is of Great Britain; nor can it be expected that the Americans will permit it to remain longer in the possession of any foreign power.
THIS extensive province is situated upon both sides of the river St. Lawrence, and extends from N. lat. 45° to 53°, and from 4° W. to 12° 30' E. long. from Washington. Its greatest length, from east to west, is about 750 miles; and breadth, from north to south, about 560 miles. Seventy miles of this province border on New York, ninety on Vermont, thirty-three on New Hampshire, and 245 on Maine.
The principal river of both the Canadas is the St. Lawfence, described in page 18; but there are many other
considerable streams, several of which flow into the St. Lawrence; and most of these have the land on their banks highly improved; indeed the settlements are mostly confined to the margins of rivers, as the greater part of the interior of the country is covered with forests; but, except in the meadows, the trees are generally of small growth. The river Ouelle, which enters the great river about 100 miles below Quebec, is an example of this kind. For several miles before it joins the St. Lawrence, it runs through a level and very fertile country; and is naviga. ble a considerable way for small vessels. This district is in a good state of cultivation, and very populous; as are also the neigbouring great parishes of Kamouraska and St. Ann's. The De Sud rises in the mountains to the southward, and falls into the St. Lawrence at St. Thomas, after watering a rich and beautiful plain, which extends up into the country for many miles. On the branches of this river, and on those of the Ouelle, are many fine situations for farmers; even superior to what can be found on the De Loup, which is 200 miles further up the St. Lawrence, and consequently more southwardly : though there certainly is an extensive tract of very valuable land between Quebec and Montreal. The rive Montmorenci rises in the north-east, and runs a very irregular course, through a wild and thickly wooded country, and over a bed of broken rocks, until it approaches within 300 yards of the St. Lawrence, seven miles below Quebec. Here the channel being . precipitous rocks, its breadth becomes much contracted, and the rapidity of the current is greatly augmented. On the east side the bank is about fifty feet high, and nearly perpendicular; the opposite bank being of a very singular shape, resembling the ruins of a lofty wall. The river descends between them with a foaming current, broken by huge masses of stone at the bottom, till it comes to the brink of a precipice, down which it falls in one uninter: rupted and nearly perpendicular direction of 246 feet, forming one of the most sublime views in the world. The breadth of the fall is 100 feet, and the water in its descent has the exact appearance of snow, as when thrown" heaps from the roof of a house, and it seemingly descends with a slow motion. An advantageous view of to grand fall may be obtained from the beach of the St. Lo" rence, when it is low water. St. Maurice river falls into the St. Lawrence at Tr"