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or seminary, is a capacious stone building, and has been lately repaired and enlarged; it was originally endowen as a branch of the seminary of Paris, and has afforded ad asylum, through the British government, to several of the members of the latter, who fled at the revolution. There are also four convents in Montreal, one of which is of the order of St. Francis. The barracks are situated near the river, at the lower end of the town, and will contain about 300 men. The walls round the town are decaying fast, but the gates remain perfect. The walls were built principally as a defence against the Indians, by whom the country was thickly inhabited when Montreal was founded, and they were found useful in repelling the open attacks of these people in 1736: however, in their best state, these walls were not sufficient to protect the town against cannon. Most of the eminent merchants in Montreal are either English, Scotch, Irish, or their descendants. The French retain the manners and customs of their ancestors, as well as language; they have an unconquerable aversion to learn English, and very few speak it: but the English inhabitants are well acquainted with the French language. The people of Montreal are extremely hospitable and attentive to strangers, sociable in private life, and fond of convivial amusements. The soil of Montreal is luxuriant, and much cultivated. The fur trade is carried on here to a great extent; most of the furs imported from Canada to England being shipped at this place. This very lucrative trade is carried on by the North West Company, and by some private individuals on their own account. The company has no peculiar law privileges, but from its great capital is enabled to trade into remote parts, to the exclusion of other traders. It was formed originally by the merchants of Montreal, who wisely considered that the trade could be carried on to those distant parts of the continent, inhabited solely by Indians, with more security and greater profit, if they joined together in a body. The stock of the company was divided into forty shares; it is now more numerous. The trade is principally carried on by means of the Utawas, or Grand River, which falls into the St. Lawrence about 30 miles above Montreal, and which forms by its confluence with that river, “Le Lac de Deux Montagnes et le Lac St. Louis,”—the lake of the two mountains and the lake of St. Louis; wherein are several large islands. Besides the furs and pelts conveyed down to Montreal from the north-western parts of the continent, by means of the Utawas River, there are large quantities brought across the lakes, and down the river St Lawrence. Trois Rivieres is situated on the St. Lawrence, 55 miles S.W. of Quebec. It contains 400 houses, and about 2,000 inhabitants, and ranks as the third town, in point of size, in the provinces. It is one of the oldest settlements in the country, but has inereased very slowly in size, owing to the country bordering upon the St. Mauriee not being yet settled. The streets are narrow, and the houses in general small and indifferent ; many being built of wood. There are two churches in the town, the one English Episcopalian, the other a large Roman Catholie parish church. An old monastery of the Franciscan order, a large stone building, is now quite deserted; and many of the neighbouring houses are also uninhabited, giving to the whole a dull gloomy aspeet. The college or monastery of the Jesuits has been converted into a gaol. The only religious order at present existing in the town is that of St. Ursule; the sisterhood are tolerably numereus. It was foueded by M. de St. Wallier, bishop of Quebee, in 1677. It is a spacious building, containg a chapel and hospital. Between Trois Rivieres and Montreal, and forty-five miles below the latter, stands the town of Sorel, at the mouth of a river of the same name, which runs from lake Champlain into the St. Lawrence. It was laid out about the year 1787, and on an extensive plan, with very wide streets and a large square; but it does not yet contain above 120 houses, and most of these are meanly built. This is the only town on the St. Lawrence, between Montreal and Quebec, wherein English is the predominaut language. The inhabitants consist principally of loyalists from the United States who took refuge in Canada. The chief business carried on here is that of ship-building; there are several vessels annually launched from fifty to 800 tons burden; these are floated down to Quebee, and and there rigged. The river Sorel is deep at the mouth, and affords good shelter for ships from the ice, at the breaking up of winter: it is not navigable far beyond the town, even in boats, on account of the rapids. The birch-tree is found in great plenty near this town; but it is from the more northern parts of the country; where the tree attains a very large size, that the princip" part of the bark is procured that canoes are made wit This bark somewhat resembles that of the cork-tree, * is of a closer grain, and more pliable, for it admits of being rolled up like a piece of cloth. The birch canoes made at Three Rivers are put together with the utmost neath” and on the water they appear very beautiful,
The villages between Trois Rivieres and Montreal are very numerous, and the face of the adjacent country is pleasing to the eye of the traveller as he passes on ; but there is nothing in this part of the country particularly deserving of mention.
Situation, soil, climate, &c.—Upper Canada lies to the morth of the great lakes, and is separated from New York by the river St. Lawrence, and the lakes Ontario and Erie. The soil of Upper Canada is well adapted to the growth of hemp; and iron ore is found in many parts of the country. Copper is also found here, in much greater abundance than iron, and is extracted from the earth with considerably less trouble: on the borders of a river, which falls into the south-west side of Lake Superior, virgin copper is found in the greatest abundance; as also on most of the islands on the eastern sides of it. The face of the country is invariably flat; the picturesque is but scantily spread through this tract of country: occasionally, however, on emerging from a dark clump of pines, or hickory wood, the eye dwells with pleasure on the course of the river, broken with wooded islands, and foaming over a thousand rocks. The winters in Upper Canada are very severe whilst they last; but the snow seldom lies longer than three months on the ground. The summers are intensely hot; Fahrenheit's thermometer often rising to 96°, and sometimes above 100°. There are luxuriant crops of Indian corn, some of the stems of which grow as high as seven or eight feet: between the rows they sow gourds, squashes, and melons, of which last every sort attains to a state af great perfection in the open air, throughout the inhabited parts of the two provinces. Peaches, in this part of the country, likewise come to perfection in the open air; but in Lower Canada the summers are too short to permit them to ripen sufficiently. Towns, settlements, inhabitants, &c.—Kingston is situated at the mouth of a deep bay, at the north-eastern extremity of lake Ontario, containing about 250 houses, and 2,000 inhabitants. It contains a fort and barracks, and an English episcopalian church. The fort is of stone, and consists of a square with four bastions; it was erected
by M. le Comte de Frontinac in 1672: about 130 men are usually quartered in the barracks. Kingston is a place of very considerable trade, and has increased rapidly of late: all the goods brought up the St. Lawrence for the supply of the upper country are deposited here in stores, previous to being shipped on board vessels suitable to the navigation of the lake; and a vast quantity of furs are likewise here collected together, and sent in bateaux down the St. Lawrence. The principal merchants resident at Kingston are partners of old established houses at Montreal and Quebec, and are extremely hospitable to strangers, particularly British. The bay adjoining to Kingston affords good anchorage, and is the safest and most commodious harbour on lake Ontario. The bay of Great Sodus, on the south side of the lake, and that of Toronto, situated on the north side of the lake, nearly in the same meridian with Niagara, are said to be the next best to that of Kingston; but the entrance into each of them is obstructed by sand banks, which cannot be crossed in rough weather without imminent danger. On the borders of the bay of Kingston there is a king's dock-yard, and another which is private property. Most of the British vessels of burden on lake Ontario are built in these yards. There is no regular market at Kingston, and the inhabitants are obliged to lay in a stock of fresh provisions in the best manner possible, and often with great difficulty. Fire-wood is brought in sledges, during the winter, from the banks of the river and the adjacent islands, and is sold remarkably cheap. Some schools are established in this district, but not to any extent. The district of Kingston contains no paupers, and poor-rates are consequently unknown to the inhabitants. Niagara town, or as it is sometimes called, Newark, is situated on the western bank of the Niagara river, about fifty yards from the water's edge. It contains about 120 houses, and from 5 to 600 inhabitants; there is also a court house and gaol. The houses are chiefly built of wood; those next the lake are rather poor, but at the upper end there are many excellent houses, occupied by the principal officers of government and others. The town commands a fine view of the lake and distant shores, and its situation is in every respect pleasing to the eye. From its standing on a spot of ground so much elevated above the level of the water, it might be supposed to be a very healthy place, but it is extremely unhealthy, as is also the vicinity, and almost every part of Upper Canada, the inhabitants being subject to intermittent and other fevers.
On the margin of Niagara river, three-quarters of a mile from the town, there is a building called Navy Hall, erected for the accommodation of the naval officers on the lake during the winter season, when their vessels are laid up. Opposite to it there is a spacious wharf, to protect the vessels from the ice; and adjoining the wharf are very extensive stores belonging to the crown, and also to private persons. The fort of Niagara stands immediately at the mouth of the river, on a point of land washed on one side by the river, and on the other by the lake: towards the water it is stockaded, and behind the stockade there is a large mound of earth, on the top of which are embrasures for guns; on the land side it is secured by several batteries and redoubts, and by parellel lines of fascines. The fort and out-works occupy about six acres of ground, and are generally occupied by about 100 men.
Detroit is one of the most important places that was surrendered by the United States, and contains from 3 to 400 houses. It is built on an elevated bank of the river Niagara ; the streets all run parallel to the river, intersected at right angles, but they are unpaved, narrow, and dirty. The town is encircled with a strong stockade, through which two gates open to some extensive wharfs on the brink of the river, and two others to different sides of the town. On the western side there is a small square fort, defended by some small field pieces. This town is celebrated for its commerce; and the stores and shops are nearly as well supplied with fine cloth, linen, and every article of wearing apparel, as at New York or Philadelphia. Provisions of all kinds are plentiful, particularly fish, which are caught in the river and adjaoent lakes. The circumjacent country is remarkably flat, and none of the rivers have a fall sufficiently strong to turn a mill; the inhabitants are therefore obliged to grind their corn by windmills. The soil about Detroit is remarkably rich, and yields an abundant supply of wheat and Indian corn. The climate is far more healthy than that in the vicinage of Niagara; yet the summers are extremely hot, and intermittent fevers are here very common.
There are several other small fort-towns or posts, such as Machillimachinack, &c. &c. but not of sufficient importance to command a particular description.
History, Constitution, Government, Laves, Religion,
&e, of Upper and Lower Canada.-Canada was discovered
by the English as early as 1497; but the first settlement in