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part of its soil, and have therefore a stake in its welfare: now a great majority of the American people have this stake. In other countries low wages and unremitted labour stupify the understanding, break the spirit, and vitiate the virtue of the great body of the population. In the United States the price of labour is high, and constant toit merely optional; but the ocean and the land offer continual incitements to industry, by opening inexhaustible regions of enterprize and wealth. in consequence, all is motion ; every one follows some vocation, and the whole country is in perpetual progress. Each industrious individual feels himself rising in the scale of opulence and importance; and with patriotic pride sees his beloved country growing with the growth of her aspiring children
Marriages in the United States are earlier than in Europe; there being no constraint by statute, and no fear of not being able to maintain a family in so young a country, whose extensive territory offers an abundant provision to every species of industry, when regulated by diseretion. Each marriage throughout the Union, on an arerage, produces six births, of which four are reared. Any clergyman of any sect, or any justice of the peace, may marry a couple without asking questions. Matrimonial contracts not only take place at an early age, but, in general, from disinterested motives. Indeed, owing to their social institutions and habits, individual fortunes are seldom sufficiently large, compared with the overgrown family opulence of Europe, to induce mere money matches, where the property, not the parties, are united. There is no fear in America of the proverb, so commonly levelled in Britain against pure affection, that, “ love in a cottage generally ends in a cottage without love;" because any man in any occupation, if he be industrious, honest, and careful, may make ample provision for his wife and children. The sanctity of the marriage bed is very seldom profaned ; nor is seduction frequent. The familiar, but innocent, intercourse of the sexes, renders American society peculiarly interesting and delightful. It is not confined, either before or after marriage, as in some parts of Europe, to a parrow circle of exclusive aristocracy, where the portion, and not the person, is the object of affection: in the United States it is unrestrained, chaste, and honourable. There the well-educated and virtuous women are kindly and affectionately treated by their husbands, loved and reverenced by their children, and respected by society---of which they compose the brightest ornament and honour. Hence it is, that without pretending to so high a polish of artificial refinement as some of the selecter societies in Europe exhibit, the United States display a more general urbanity and civilization than are to be found in any other country.
The amusements of the Americans do not exhibit so fe. rocious an aspect as those of some other countries; they being more addicted to dancing and music, than to bull. baiting, cock-fighting, and boxing. Theatrical exhibitions, balls, routs, the sports of the field and turf, and the pleasures of the table, are the chief amusements in the United States, and conducted much in the same way as in Europe; from which quarter they generally import their players, dancing-masters, singers and musicians; such commodi. ties, as yet, making no part of the staple of the republic.There is no such relation as master and servant in any part of the Union : indeed the name is not permitted :-"help" is the designation of one who receives wages for service. This help is generally afforded by free blacks and emigrants from Europe ; the natives seldom lowering their dignity so much as to enter a house in the capacity of servants.
The national vanity of the United States is fully equal to that of any other country--not even excepting France. It blazes out every where, and on all occasions, in their conversation, newspapers, pamphlets, speeches, and books. They assume it as a self-evident fact, that the Americans surpass all other nations in virtue, wisdom, valour, liberty, government, and every other excellence. All Europeans they profess to despise, as ignorant paupers and dastardly slaves.—The causes of this vanity are obvious; the popular institutions of the republic, vesting the national sovereignty in the people, have a direct tendency to make that people self-important and vain; and this would be the case in any other country under similar circumstances. Add to which, the incessant flattery they receive in newspapers, and public talks, about their collective majesty, wisdom, power, dignity, &c. their unexampled prosperity in the occupations of peace; and lastly, their actual achievements in war. Twice have they grappled, in deadly encounter, with the most powerful, the bravest, and the most intelligent nation in Europe; and twice have they triumphed over the most skilful commanders, and best-appointed troops of that na. tion, in the battlefield, and on the ocean.
The result of all this is, that the American people possess physical, intellectual, and moral materials of national greatness, superior to those of any other country; and in order to render the United States the greatest nation in the
world, they have only gradually to augment the power of their general government; to lighten the cords, and strengthen the stakes, of their federal union; to organize a judicious system of internal finance; to provide for the more general diffusion of religious worship; to enlarge and elevate their system of liberal education, and to increase the dimensions, and exalt the standard, of their literature, art, and science.
Much has been said and written concerning British and French influence in the United States, and the supposed partiality of the American government to the French nation. It appears, however, from the observations of the most intelligent travellers and others, that the influence of Britain preponderates in an eminent degree. There is a powerful chain of connection between America and Britain, which cannot exist between the former and any other nation; the strongest links of which are the identity of language, the similitude of manners and customs, and the extensive commerce between the two countries. The influence of France rests upon a foundation precisely the reverse. The French speak a different language, and their habits and manners are very dissimilar. When they arrive in America, they have a language to learn, which they never can speak with the fluency of a native; and possessing national prejudices, ideas, and customs, a free communication of sentiments or interchange of friendship cannot possibly take place. Accordingly, it is found that the natives of France residing in the United States, are generally a quiet peaceable people, who associate mostly with each other, and scarcely ever intermeddle with politics, or attend to public affairs.
Currency, commerce, &c.—The currency of the United States is extremely simple. The dollar is estimated as the inoney unit, proceeding downwards, by the decimal ratio of tens, to dimes, cents, and mills ; and upwards to eagles of ten dollars value, which is the largest gold coin. The value of the dollar in British money, is 48. 6d. but in consequence of the vast issue of bills of credit, previous to the revolutionary war, a difference was introduced between the English sterling money, and the currencies of the dif. ferent colonies, which remains to this day :--The price of a dollar, in New England currency, is 68. ; in New York, 88.; in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Maryland, 78. 6d.; in Virginia, 68.; in North Carolina, 88.; and in South Carolina and Georgia, 48. 8d. In 1792, congress passed a law to establish a mint, and the following coins were struck: Of GOLD ; eagles, half-eagles, and quarter-eagles,
Of SILVER; dollars, half-dollars, quarter-dollars, dimes, and half-dimes. Of COPPER; cents, and half-cents. In money transactions, the terms dollars, and cents, only, are used; and these terms comprehend all the others, except the lowest, which is seldom used at all. For example, 86 eagles, 4 dollars, 5 dimes, and 7 cents, are expressed thus, dols. 864.57; that is, eight hundred and sixty-four dollars and fifty-seven cents. The gold coins consist of eleven parts of pure gold and one of alloy--the alloy is composed bf silver and copper. The silver coins consist of 1485 parts of pure silver, and 179 of copper. The weight and value of the several coins, and the proportion they bear to British sterling money, is exhibited in the following table :
The advantage of a currency arranged decimally, over any other, will be seen from the following examples :
£. g. d.
Could weights and measures also be arranged decimally, it would be a most important object, and prove highly beneficial to the public,
The foreign trade of the United States, as of Great Britain, has greatly diminished in consequence of the peace con eluded in 1815; though the commerce of the rest of the