« AnteriorContinuar »
Which articles appear to have been exported to the following eountries, viz.
To the northern countries of Domestic. Foreign. Europe......... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Dols.3,828,563 2,790,408 To the dominions of the Nether- -- - - - - - lands............................ 3,397,775 2,387,543 Do, of Great Britain................ 41,431,168 2,037,074 Do. of France......................... 9,717,423 2,717,395 Do. of Spain........................... 4,530,156 3,893,780 Do. of Portugal....................... 1,501,237 333,586 All other eountries.............. ..... 3,907,178 5,198,283 Total.................... 68,313,500 19,358,069
By the same report, it appears, that there were exported from the United States during the above period, of the growth and manufacture of the United States, 17,751,376 dollars worth of flour, and 23,127,614 dollars worth of cotton, making in these two items alone, 40,278,990 dollars. 9f the whole value of exports in the same year, amounting to 87,671,569 dollars, the sum of 18,707,433 was exported from the port of New York.
Summary of the value of exports from each state.
States. Domestic. Foreign. Total. New Hampshire Dols. 170,599 26,825 197,424 Vermont................. 913,201 -- 913,201 Massachusetts ......... 5,908,416 6,019,581 11,927,997 Rhode Island........... 577,911 372,556 950,467 Connecticut......... ... 574,290 29,849 604,139 New York ............ 13,660,733 5,046,700 18,707,433 New Jersey........... 5,849 5,849 Pennsylvania.......... . 5,538,003 3,197,589 8,735,592 Delaware ............... 38,771 6,083 44,854 Maryland............... 5,887,884 3,046,046 8,933,930 Distriet of Columbia. 1,689,102 79,556 1,768,658 Virginia.................. 5,561,238 60,204 5,621,442 North Carolina......... 955,211 1,369 956,580 South Carolina......... 9,944,343 428,270 10,872,613 Georgia............... .. 8,530,831 259,883 8,790,714 Ohio..................... 7,749 - 7,749 Louisiana................ 8,241,254 783,558 9,024,812 Territ of United States 108,115 108,115
Total....... ----------- 68,313,500 19,358,069 87,671,569
From the preceding view of the American commerce, it must be self-evident that the congress made great saerifices when it came to the important resolution, in 1807, of
shutting the ports of the United States against Great Bri
tain, France, and the other belligerent powers, in order that it might not be drawn into the war. The wisdom and sound policy of that measure has since been very conspicuous. Several laws of a commercial nature, affecting the trade between Great Britain and America, have been enacted during the last session of congress; some of which, particularly the act relating to navigation, passed in April, 1818, were very unexpected, and for a time caused considerable alarm. In consequence of repeated applications from the British merchants, the American government consented to suspend the operations of these laws for a certain period; namely, the regulations relative to importations from the West Indies, to commence the 1st of September; from Europe, 1st December, 1818; and from all other places, the 1st of August, 1819. One of these new acts requires, that after the 20th of October, 1818, all goods subject to ad valorem” duties, imported into the United States (belonging to persons residing out of those States,) must be accompanied by the affidavit of the owner, that the invoice is the true value of such goods; and is further to declare, whether he or they are the manufacturers, or are concerned in the profits of any trade or art by which they have been manufactured; and if so, he or they shall further qualify, that the prices charged, are the current value of the same at the place of manufacture. The ad valorem duties on goods are to be charged as heretofore, except that the charge is to be made on the invoice, including all charges, except commission, outside packages, and insurance. A part of the goods in every invoice is to be examined and appraised, and the duty to be paid on the appraisement, unless it should be less than the invoice, when it is to be calculated on that ; or, if the goods are charged so much below the appraisement as to leave no room to doubt an intention to defraud the revenue, a heavy penalty is incurred. In case articles are discovered, not enumerated in the invoice, the whole package will be forfeited : this act to continue in force for two years. * An act has likewise been passed, directing, that from the 30th of September, 1818, goods owned wholly or in part by British subjects, coming directly or indirectly from, or having touched at, any British port closed against American vessels, shall be admitted to entry in the United States; and likewise directs, that from the same period, British vessels clearing from thence, with articles on board, the produce of the United States, (other than sea-stores,) the consignee must first give bonds that the goods shall not be landed in any port closed against American vessels. A law has also been passed to change the duty on the following articles:–Manufactures of copper, silver, plated saddlery, eoach and harness furniture, to twenty-five per cent. ; cut glass to thirty per cent. ; tacks, brads, and sprigs, not exceeding sixteen ounces to 1000, the same as on nails; brown Russia sheeting, not exceeding fifty-two areheens per piece, 160 cents each piece; white do. do. 250 cents; and a law to increase the duty on the following articles:—Iron in pigs, to fifty cents per cwt. ; iron castings, seventy-five cents per cwt. ; nails, four cents per lb.: spikes three cents; iron in bolts and bars, manufactured without rolling, seventy-five cents per cwt. ; anchors two eents per lb.; alum two dollars per cwt. The two last laws took place the 30th of June, 1818. Another act continues the existing duties on certain woollen and cotton goods to the 30th of June, 1826, which by their limitation, would otherwise expire in 1819. An act requiring that all wines and spirits, imported after the 1st of June, 1818, must be deposited in the public warehouse, to entitle them to debenture; and an act directing the refunding of all discriminating duties upon tonnage or merchandise imported, in respect to British vessels which have entered into ports of the United States, between the 3d of July and 18th of August, 1815; provided a similar provision be made by the British government in favour of American vessels entered into British ports during the same period. The main object of the above laws, especially the navigation act, seems to be a total prohibition of trade with the British islands. It does not appear, however, that the price of any of the West India products consumed in the United States, except rum, will be materially affected. Sugar and coffee are the principal articles, and of these a much less quantity is imported from the British islands than is re-exported from the states. Of coffee, 40,000,000 of pounds are imported annually, only 2,000,000 of which come from the British colonies, and 24,000,000 are exported. It is therefore evident, that an entire exclusion of British coffee can reduce the exportation only 2,000,000 of pounds. Of sugar, the United States import 120,000,000 of pounds, 12,000,000 of which from the British islands,
* A correct list of the duties charged in the United States on the importation of merchangise of every description, will be found in the Appendix to this Work.
and they export 66,000,000; hence it appears, that the exclusion can by no means affect the quantity required for home consumption. Of the article of rum, 7,000,000 and a half of gallons are imported into the states, 4,000,000 of this from the British possessions, and only 600,000 gallons are exported. The exclusion will therefore reduce the quantity for consumption 3,400,000 gallons. But the distillation of 1,000,000 busheds of the grain which has been hitherto sent to the West Indies, or elsewhere, for a market, would supply the same quantity of a much cheaper and more wholesome liquor. The above general observations on the commerce of the Union at large, are introductory to a more particular account of it in the description of the several states. Manufactures.—In the United States, manufactures may be considered as yet little more thau in their infancy; but they are fast approaching to maturity. The country abounds with the raw materials for almost every purpose useful to mankind. Iron is found in various parts of the continent, in great abundance, and of every quality ; and manufactures of that metal are carried on to a very consi. derable extent. For this purpose, water-mills are chiefly employed; and in finishing most of the articles, great numbers of boys are engaged, whose early habits of industry are of importance to the community, to the present sup" port of their families, and to their own future comfort. Coppersmiths and brass-founders, particularly the former, are numerous in the United States. The material is a natural production of the country. In many parts of the states, mines of copper have been actually wrought, and several more lately discovered. Lead also abounds in great plenty, and requires little to unfold it to an amazing extent. Prolific mines of that metal have long been open in Virginia, Pennsylvania, and other parts of the thirteen original states; and in the Missouri territory it is found in such prodigious quantities, that, with a sufficiency of skilful miners, under proper management, enough could be raised to supply the whole world. As an important instrument of manufactures, fossil coal may, without impropriety, be mentioned among the subjects of the present remarks. There are many eoal mines now worked in the old states, particularly in Virginia. The town of Pittsburgh is supplied with coal from the adjacent hills, many of which are wholly composed of that substance; and throughout the western states and territories, indicating proofs of its existence have been discovered in a great variety of places.
There is scarcely any manufacture of greater importance to the United States than that of skins. The direct and very happy influence it has upon agriculture, by promoting the rearing of cattle, is a very material consideration. Numerous tanneries are now carried on as a regular business in many of the states, some on a very extensive scale; and in several places they constitute a valuable item of incidental family manufacture. Manufactures of the several species of grain, have made great progress in the United States, and are entitled to peculiar attention; not only because they are in general so intimately connected with the substance of the people, but because they enlarge the demand for the most precious products of the soil. Breweries are now carried on to a great extent, and very successfully; as are manufactures of flax, hemp, and cotton; all of which have made considerable progress. - o The cotton branch, in particular, seems to have overcome the first obstacles to success; producing corduroys, velverets, fustians, jeans, and other similar articles, of a quality that will bear comparison with the like goods from Manchester. Many establishments for the printing and staining of cotton have lately commenced, which bid fair to rise into the first importance. A promising essay towards the fabrication of cloths, kersymeres, and other woollen goods, is in a prosperous condition at Hertford, in Connecticut; and similar attempts have been successfully made at many places both in the old and new states. Specimens of the different kinds that have been seen, evince that these fabrics have attained a considerable degree of perfection. Household manufactures of woollen articles are carried * in different parts of the United States, to a very interesting extent; and many thousands of families spin and make up their own clothing. Hats of wool, and of wool mixed with fur, are made in large quantities, and constitute a very productive manufacture, rapidly extending over the whole North American continent. The production of silk satiended with much facility in most parts of the Union; but flourishes most in Connecticut, where silk stockings, handketchiefs, ribbons, buttons, &c. are now made to a great amount. A manufactory of lace has also been established at Ipswich, in the state of Massachusetts. Different manusaetures of glass are carried on, not only in the eastern And middle states, but also in the western country, particu!oy at Pittsburgh, where extensive glass-works are esta"lished. The sands and stonescalled targo, which include