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flinty and crystalline substances, and the salts of various plants, particularly kali or kelp, constitute the essential ingredients, and are every where to be found in North America. An extraordinary abundance of fuel is always at hand, gives great advantages to such undertakings.

Manufactures of paper are among those which are arrived at the greatest matarity in America, and are most adequate to a national supply. In the United States there are 185 paper mills, viz. in New Hampshire ............hing | Virginia .................... Massachusetts ......... ....,38 | South Carolina .......... Rhode Island

Kentucky Connecticut ............. | Tennessee ...... Vermont..

Pennsylvania

............... New York ........

| In all the other states Delaware ..

.......... 41 and territories ......... S Maryland. ............ 3

The paper manufactured anpually at these mills, is estimated as follows: Tons, Reams,

Value. For newspapers ..........500 50,000 Dols. 150,000 For books ................. .630 70,000

245,000 For writing ...................650 111,000

333,000 For wrapping ...............800 100,000

83,000

Total...............2,580

331,000

811,000

· Refined sugars and chocolate are among the number of extensive and prosperous domestic manufactures; and that of maple sugar particularly, has of late become an interesting object of national attention. It is made from the sap or juice of the acer, or maple-tree, which grows spontaneously in North America, and may be found in every part of the country from 36° to 42° N. lat, and upon the Mississippi as far north as lat. 45° in such abundance, as would be equal to furnish sugar for the inhabitants of the whole earth.-The process of making maple sugar will be described in the Appendix to this work.

The manufacture of wines is also growing fast into respectability in the United States. Successful experiments have been made by some French settlers on the Ohio, which evince the practicability of producing homemade wines of excellent quality; and, as grapes are the spontaneous production of the country, particularly that west of the Allegany mountains, and, by culture, might be raised in any quantity, this manufacture bids fair to die minish, and in time perhaps wholly to preclude, foreign importation. Much is expected from the exertions of a French colony lately settled in the Alabama territory, whose principal object is the culture of the yine.

The introduction of manufactures into, and their ex.' tended increase over a country, generally promise large profits to speculators and men of large capital. It is therefore not to be expected that the mere circumstance of manufactures being destructive to the virtue, health, and happiness of the labourers employed in them, will ever be of sufficient weight to deter any nation from introducing these nurseries of individual wealth, and wide-spread poverty, among themselves whenever an opportunity shall occur. The wages of labour in the United States are much higher than those of England and France, as already noticed, page 78; and yet the agricultural products of the country find a profitable market in Europe ; while the expence of erecting and continuing manufacturing establishments is such as, in many instances, to disable them from contending with those of Europe, unless protected by prohibitory duties, bounties, and a monopoly. The cause of these contradictory effects is to be found in the vast quantity and low price of the new and fertile lands in America. One man is able to spread his agricultural labour over a much wider surface of soil in those immense regions, than can be done in the comparatively small and circumscribed districts into which the European farms are necessarily divided, on account of the narrow limits of territory, coupled with a crowded population. Hence, although the system of agriculture in the United States is less perfect, and less productive on a given quantity of ground, than in some parts of Europe, yet the far wider range of land under cultivation (about three times as many acres as make up the whole superficies of the British isles, produces annually a more abundant crop, in mass, to the industry of a given number of proprietors.

During the late war with England, manufactures thrived in the United States, precisely because they had a monopoly of the home market, and compelled the consumer to pay above one hundred per cent. more for goods of an inferior quality to those which might have been imported from Europe at half the price. At that period there was a capital of about Dols. 1,000,000,000 employed in carrying on American manufactures; but on the return of peace, the influx of European goods reduced the price to at least one-half, and stopped perhaps more than half of the manufacturing establishments in the Union; so that the capital now employed in manufactures scarcely reaches the sum of 500,000,000 of dollars.

It has been already stated, that one of the most prominent causes which has hitherto impeded the progress of manufacturing, has been the abundance of land, compared with the population, the high price of labour, and the want of capital. As wages are so high, and land so cheap, in the United States, there is a continual bounty offered to labourers to leave the manufacturers' service, and to buy land, and cultivate it for themselves ; since every man, who has any proper feeling of independence at his heart, would rather toil for himself and his family, as an uncontrolled yeoman, than labour as a confined servant to a stranger. Among the other causes which have injured the American manufactures may be mentioned, the great extension of her commerce during the late European wars, and the continúance of habits, after the causes which produced them, have ceased to exist. Several of these obsta. cles have, however, been removed or lessened. The cheapness of provisions had always, to a certain extent, counterbalanced the high price of manual labour; and this is now, in many important branches, nearly superseded by the in. troduction of machinery. : Few nations can boast of skill and ingenuity in maru factures, and especially improvements in labour-saving en. ginery, equal to those which have been exhibited and discovered in the progress of the mechanical arts in the United States. The causes of this superior ingenuity and skill are various; the great wages given for labour, and the comparative scarcity of labourers, present a constant bounty of certain and immediate remuneration to all those who shall succeed in the construction of any machinery that may be substituted in the place of human labour. Add to this, the entire freedom of vocation enjoyed by every individual in that country. There, they have no compulsory apprenticeships; no town and corporation restraints, tying each man down to his own peculiar trade and calling, as in Europe. In the United States every man follows whatever pursuit, and in whatever place, his inclination, or opportunity, or interest prompts or permits; and consequently a much greater amount of active talent and enterprize is employed in individual undertakings there, than in any other country. Many men in the United States following various callings either together or in succession. One and the same person sometimes commences his career as a farmer, and before he dies, passes through the several stages of a lawyer, clergymen, merchant, soldier, and member. of congress. There is also a constant migration thither of needy and desperate talent from Europe, which helps to swell the amount of American ingenuity and invention; and the European discoveries in art and science generally reach the United States a few months after they first see the light in their own country, and soon become united with those made by the Americans themselves. .

What the present annual value of manufactures in the republic is, has not been ascertained; but, before the peace of 1815 had reduced their monopoly price, and diminished the number of manufacturing establishments, their yearly value was estimated thus: Manufactures of Wood ... ...Dols. 25,000,000

Leather . . . . . . . . 24,000,000
Soap and tallow candles . . 10,000,000
Spermaceti candles and oil. 500,000
Refined sugar . . . . . . 1,600,000
Cards . . . . . . . 300,000
Hats . . . . . . . . . 13,000,000
Spirituous and malt liquors , 14,000,000
Iron . . . . . . . . 18,000,000

Cotton, wool, and flax .. 45,000,000 Making a total of ........ Dols. 151,400,000

Of this amount nearly the whole is consumed at home, as appears from the following table of exports:

Exports of manufacture.
Years. From domes-From fureigolom

"Total of both.
tic materials. materials.

.

Dollars. Dollars. Dollars.
11803 790,000 565,000 1,350,000
1804 1,650,000 450,000 2,100,000
1805 1,579,000 721,000 2,300,000.
1806|1,889,000 818,000 2,707,000
1807|1,652,000 468,000 2,120,000
1808 309,000 35,000 344,000
(18091,266,000 240,000 1,506,000
11810|1,359,000 558,0001,917,000

1811 2,062,000 314,000 2,376,000
(1812|1,135,000 220,000 1,353,000
(1813 372,000 18,000 390,000
11814 233,200 13,100 246,000
|1815|1,321,000 232,000 1,553,000
11816(1,415,000 340,000|1,755,000

The manufactures from foreign materials are, spirits from molasses, refined sugar, chocolate, gunpowder, brass and copper, and medicines. The manufacture of wool is extending rapidly in the United States. The Merino breed thrives well in America, and their number is augmenting fast throughout the Union. The whole number of sheep already reaches nearly 20,000,000, and is continually in. creasing. The British isles maintain about 30,000,000 of sheep; only one-third more than the American sheep, of all kinds, taken together; and the United States can easily support twenty times their present number. By evidence before the house of commons in 1808, it appeared that in the year 1807, and previous to that period, America purchased one half of all the woollen goods manufactured in Yorkshire, from the coarsest to the finest article; at present she does not import the one tenth part of the woollens made in that county. • In the articles of iron and hemp, and more especially the latter, the United States probably will soon be independent of Russia and the rest of the world. The culture of hemp succeeds well in many parts of the Union, particularly in Kentucky, which in one year produced upwards of 120,000 cwt. valued at 700,000 dollars, and made also, in the same year, 40,000 cwt. of cordage, valued at 400,000 dollars, making 1,100,000 dollars for these two articles. • The manufacture of cotton increases rapidly, and, as well as wool and flax, is manufactared in establishments and in families. The first American cotton mill was erected in the state of Rhode Island, in the year 1791, another in the same state in 1795, and two more in the state of Massachusetts, in the years 1803 and 1804. During the three succeeding years, ten more were erected in Rhode Island, and one in Connecticut, making altogether fifteen mills erected before the year 1808, working at that time about 8000 spindles, and producing about 300,000lbs. of yarn a year. In the commencement of 1811, the number of mills amounted to eighty-seven, working 80,000 spindles; and in the year 1818 there were 400 water and horse mills, working 120,000 spindle. The capital required to carry on the manufacture on the best terms, is estimated at the rate of 100 dollars per spindle; but it is believed, that no more than at the rate of sixty dollars is generally employed. Each spindle produces annually about thirty-six pounds of yarn from forty-five pounds of cotton; and the value of the yarn may be averaged as worth one dollar and twelve cents per lb. Eight hundred spindles employ forty persons, viz. five men and thirty-five women and children.

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