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UNIVERSAL DICTIONARY

OF THE

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE, fac.

INTENDED TO SUPERSEDE

THE USE OF OTHER BOOKS OF REFERENCE.

ILLUSTRATED WITU

THREE HUNDRED AND SEVENTY PLATES AND MAPS.

SECOND EDITION,

IN TWENTY-THREE VOLUMES.

VOLUME XX.

EDINBURGH:

PRINTED BY JOHN BROWN, ANCHOR CLOSE,

FOR THE PROPRIETORS,
AND SOLD BY ALL THE BOOKSELLERS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM.

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ENCYCLOPÆDIA PERTHENSIS.

SA X

S. A SAXONY, the name of two circles of the Ger- fter are found beautiful pearls. This ele&orate it

man empire, an electorate, and duchy. extremely well cultivated and inhabited, and in. 1. Saxony, DUCHY of, or the ELECTORAL cludes about 250 great and small towns, upwards CIRCLE of Saxony, is bounded by the circles of of sooo villages, 196 royal manors, and near as Meiffen, Leipzig, and Thuringia, the principality many royal castles, besides private estatęs, and of Anhalt, the marche of Brandenburg, and Lufa. commanderies. The provincial diets confift of a tia. The principality of Anhalt lies across it, and classes. The first is composed of the prelates, the divides it into two parts. Its greatest length and counts, and lords, and the two universities of breadth is computed to about 40 miles; but though Leipfic and Wittenberg. To the 2d belong the it is watered by the Elbe, the Black Elster, and the nobility in general, immediate or mediate, that is. Mulde, it is not very fruitful, the foil for the most such as stand immediately under the fief-chatcery part confifting of fand. It contains 24 towns, 3 or the aulic judicatories, and such as are iiämedia boroughs, betwixt 400 and soo villages, 164 noble. ately under the jurisdi&ion of the astman. The men's eftates, it superintendencies, 3 inspections, 3d class is formed of the towns in general. The under one conhstory, and 11 prefe&turates or dif- general provincial diets are ordinarily held every tricts. The present duchy of Saxony is not to be fix years; but there are others, called sele&tion diets, confound with the old; for the latter was of a convened commonly every two years. Not only much greater extent, and contained in it those these diets, but those in most of the other states of large tracts, anciently called Eastphalia, Eugera, and Germany, are at present extremely inlgnificant Wefphalia, of which the electoral circle was no and unimportant, retaining little more than the part, but was taken by Albert the Bear, margrave thadow of their former power and privileges; yet of Salzwedel, from the Vendi. His fon Bernard even the petty princes, though they depend upon obtaining the dignity of duke of Saxony from the their more potent neighbours, and must be care. emperor Frederic I. the title of duchy was given to ful not to give them any umbrage, are almost ar this country; and the electoral dignity having been absolute in their respective territories as the grand afterwards annexed to the 'duchy, it acquired feignior bimself. As to religion, it was in this thereby also the name of the eleitoral circle. country, that the reformation took its rise in the

2. SAXONY, ELECTORATE OF, or SAXONY PRO. 16th century, to which it hath ever since adhered, FIR, conlfts of the duchy, No 1, the greatest part according to the doctrines of Luther. The two of the Margraviate of Meiffen, a part of the Vogt. late electors, when they embraced Popery, to qua. land, and the northern half of the landgravate of lify themselves to be elected kings of Poland, Thuringia. The Lufatías alfo, and a part of the gave the midt folemn affurances to their people, country of Henneberg, belong to it, but are no that they would inviolably maintain the eftablish part of this circle. The foil of the electoral do. ed religion and its professors in the full and free minions lying in this circle is in general exceeding enjoyment of all their ecclefiaftical rights, privi. rich and fruitful, yielding corn, fruits, and pulle leges, and prerogatives whatsoever, in regard to in abundance, together with hops, Hax, hemp, churches, worship, ceremonies, usages, univerfi. tobacco, aniseed, wild faffron, wood; and in fome tics, schools, benefices, incomes, profits, jurisdic. places wood, wine, coals, porcelain clay, terra tions, and immunities. The electoral families still lagillata, fullers earth, fine Miver, various forte of continue Roman Catholics, though they have lost beautiful marble serpentine stone, and almost all the crown of Poland, for wbich they at firft emthe different species of precious stones. Sulphur, braced Poperý. As to ecclefiaftical matters, the alum, vitriol, tree-fone, salt springa, amber, turf, country is divided into parishes, and these again cinnabar, quicksilver, antimony, bismuth, arsenic, into spiritual inspections and confiftories, all fuborcoba!t, and other minerals, are found in it: like dinate to the ecclefiaftical council and upper conwise valuable mines of filver, copper, tin, lead, fiftory of Dresden, in which city and Leipfic the and iron; and abounds in many places with horn Calvinifts and Roman Catholics enjoy the free ex. ed cattle, sheep, horses, apd venison The prin- ercife of their religion. Learning Hourishes in this cipal rivers are the Elbe, the Black Elfter, the electorate : in which, besides the free schools and Muide, the Saale, the Unftrut, the White Elfter, gymnalia in most of the chief towns, are the two and the Pleiffe. These rivers, as well as the lakes celebrated universities of Wittenberg and Leipzic, and rivulets, abound in fish; and in the White El. in the last of which are also focieties for the liberal VOL. XX. PARTI,

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