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my of impotence and contemp-a7d to rendering blocked up the town, and reduced to beggary and folly equal to the disgrace, they are an army of ir. famine 30,000 inhabitants. But his majesty is ritation. I do not mean to censure the inactivity advised that the union of America cannot last.of the troops. It is a prudent and necessary inac-Ministers have more eyes than I, and should have tion. But it is a miserable condition, where dis- more ears, but from all the information I have grace is prudence; and where it is necessary to be been able to procure, I can pronounce it a union contemptible. This tameness, however disgrace solid, permanent and effectual.
Ministers may ful, ought not to be blamed, as I am surprised to sati-fy themselves and delude the public with the hear is done by these ministers. The first drop of reports of what they call commercial bodies in blood, shed in a civil and unnatural war, would be America. They are not commercial. They are an immedicabile vulnus. It would entail hatred and your packers and factors; they live upon nothing, contention between the two people, from genera for I call commission nothing: I mean the minis. tion to generation. Woe be to him who sheds the terial Authority for their American intelligence. first, the unexpiable drop of blood in an impious The runners of government, who are paid for their war, with a people contending in the great cause intelligence. But these are not the men, nor this of public liberty. I will tell you plainly, my the influence to be considered in America, when lords, no son of mine nor any one over whom I have we estimate the firmness of their unioo. Even to influence, shall ever draw his sword upon his fellow extend the question, and to take in the really subjects.
mercantile circle, will be totally inadequate to the
consideration. Trade indeed increases the wealth I therefore urge and conjure your lordships im
and glory of a country; but its real strength and mediately to adopt this conciliatory measure. I
stamina are to be looked for among the cultivators will pledge myself for its immediately producing of the land. In their simplicity of life is founded conciliatory effects, from its being well timed: But
the simplicity of virtue, the integrity and courage it you delay, till your vain hope of triumphantly of freedom. Those true genuine sons of the earth dictating the terms shall be accomplished-you
are invincible; and they surround and hem in the delay forever. And, even admitting that this hope, mercantile bodies; even if those bodies, which which in truth is desperate, should be accomplished,
supposition I totally disclaim, could be supposed what will you gain by a victorious imposition of
disaffected to the cause of liberty. Of this--geneamity? You will be untrusted and unthanked. Adopt,ral spirit existing in the American nation, for so then the grace, while you have the opportunity of
I wish to distinguish the real and genuine Ameri. reconcilement, or at least prepare the way; allay
cans from the pseudo traders I have described: of the ferment prevailing in America, by removing the
this spirit of independence, animating the natION obnoxious bostile cause. Obnoxious and unservicea of America, I bave the most authentic information. ble; for their merit can be only inaction. “Non It is not new among them; it is, and ever lias been dimicare estvincere.” Their victory can never be their established principle, their confirmed persuaby exertions. Their force would be most dispro- siok; it is their nature and their doctrine. I rememportionately exerted, against a brave, generous, bersome years ago when the repeal of the stamp act and united people, with arms in their hands and
was in agitation, conversing in a friendly confidence courage in their hearts; three millions of people, with a person of undoubted respect and authenticity the genuine descendants of a valiant and pious on this subject; and he assured me with a certainiy ancestry, driven to these desarts by the narrow
which his judgment and opportunity gave him, that maxims of a superstitious tyranny. And is the
these were the prevalent and steady principles of spirit of tyrannous persecution never to be appeas. America: That you might destroy their towns, and ed? Are the brave sons of those brave forefathers
cut them off from the superfluities, perhaps the to inherit their sufferings, as they have inherited
conveniencies of life, but tbat they were prepared their virtues? Are they to sustain the inflictions
to despise your power, and would not lament their of the most oppressive and unexampled severity, 1088, whilst they had, wiat, my lords?—Their beyond the accounts of history of the description woods and liberty. The name of my authority, if of poetry? “Riadamanthus habet durissima regna, I am called upon, will authenticate the opinion castigatque auditque.” So says the wisest states
irrefragably. man and politician. But the Bostonians bave been condemned Unueand. The indiscriminating band If illegal violences have been, as it is said, comof vengeance has lumped together innocent and mitted in America, prepare the way, open a door guilty: with all the formalities of hostility, has lof possibility, for acknowledgment and satisfaction.
Bul proceed not to such coerci'n, such proscription:; head, the distinction I contend for, is and must be Ctase your indiscriminate infictions; amerce not observed. thirty thousands, oppress not three millions, for the
My lords-This country superintends and confaults of forly or fifty. Such severity of injustice trouls their trade and navigation; but they tus m182 forever render incurable th.e wounds you have
THEMSELVES. And this distinction between external given your colonies; you irritate them to unap- and internal controul, is sacred ar.d insurmountapeusable rancour. What though you march from
ble; it is involved in the abstract nature of things. town to town, and from province to province?
Property is private, individual, absolute. Trade Tlogh you should be able to force a temporary is an extended and complicated consideration; it and local submission, which I only supnose, not reaches as far as ships can sail, or winds can blow. adnit, how shall you be able to secure the obedi It is a great and various machine-To regulate the ence of the country you leave behind you in your numberless movements of its several parts, and progress! To grasp the dominion of 1,800 miles combine them into effect for the good of the whole, of continent, populous in valor, liberty and resis.
requires the superintending wisdom and energy of tance? Tt is resistarce to your arbitrary system of the supreme power in the empire. But this supreme taxation might have been foreseen; it was obvious
power bas no effect towards internal taxation for from the nature of things and of mankind; and it does not exist in that relation. There is no such abı ve all, from the whirgish spirit flourishing in thing, no such idea in this constitution, as a supreme that country. The spirit which now resists your power operating upon property. taxation in America, is the same which formerly opposed, ard with success opposed, loans, benevo Let this distinction then remain forever ascertain. lences, and ship money in E gland-the same spirited. Taxation is theirs, commercial regulation is which called ali Er gland on ITS LEGS, and by the ours. As an American, I would recognize to Enge bill of rights vindicated the English constitution- land her supreme right of regulating commerce the same spirit which established the great funda. and navigation: As an Englishman, by birth and mental and essential maxim of your liberties, that principle, I recognize to the Americans their su. no subject shall be taxed, but BY #18 own cos. preme, unalienable right in their property; a right SENT. If your lordships will turn to the politics which they are justified in the defence of, to the of those times, you will see the attempts of the extremity. To maintain this principle is the com. lords to poison this inestimable benefit of the bill, mon cause of the whigs on the other side of the by an insidi us proviso: You will see their attempts Atlantic, and on this. 'Tis liberty to liberty defeated, in their conference with the commons, engaged, that they will defend themselves, their by the decisive arguments of the ascertainers and families and their country. In this great cause maintainers of our liber' y; you will see the thin, they are immoveably allied. It is the alliance of God inconclusive and fallacious stuff of those enemies and nature-immutable, eternal, fix'd as the firma. to freedom, contrasted with the sound and solid ment of Heaven! To such united force, what force renso:ing of serjeant Glanville and the rest, those shall be opposed! What, my lords, a few regigreat and learned men who adorned and enlightened ments in America, and 17 or 18,000 men at home! this country, and placed her security on the summit The idea is too ridiculous to take up a moment of of justice and freedom. And whilst I am on my your lordships time-nor can such a national prin. legs, and thus do justice to the memory of those cipled union be resisted by the tricks of office or great men, I must also justify the merit of the ministerial mancuvres. Laying papers on your living by declaring my firm and fixed opinion, that table, or counting noses on a division, will not such a man exists this day (looking towards lord avert or postpone the hour of danger. It must Cambden); this glorious spirit of whiggism animales arrive, my lords, unless these fatal acts are done three millions in America, who prefer poverty with away; it must arrive in all its horrors: And then liberty, to golden chains and sordid affluence; and these boastful ministers, 'spite of all their conwho will die in defence of their rights, as men-fidence and all their mancuvres, shall be forced to as freemen. What shall oppose this spirit? aided hide their heads. But it is not repealing this act by the congenial flame glowing in the breast of of parliament, or that act of parliament-it is not every whig in England, to the amount, I hope, of repealing a PIECE of PARCAMENT that can restore at least double the American numbers! Ireland America to your bosom. You must repeal her they have to a man. In that country, joined as it fears and her resentments, and you may then hope is with the cause of the colonies, and placed at their for her love and gratitude. But now insulted with
an armed force posted in Boston, irritated with an feelings of men; and establishes solii? crrifidence hostile array before her eyes, her concessions, if in the foundation of affection a'd gratitude. So you could force them, would be suspicious and thought the wisest poet, and perhaps the wisest insecure: They will be, irato animo: They will nen in political sagacity, the friend of Mærenas, not be the sound, honorable pactions of freemen; and the eulogist of Augustus. To him the adopted they will be the dictates of fear and the extortions son and successor of the first Cæsar, to him, the of force. But it is more than evident that you master of the world, he wisely urged this conduct cannot force them, principled and united as they of prudence and dignity, are, to your unworthy terms of submission. It is
Tuque prior, &c. VIRGIL. impossible. And when I hear general Gage cen.
Every motive, therefore, of justice and of policy, sured for inactivity, I must retort with indignation of dignity and of prudence, urges you to allay the on those whose intemperate measures and im- ferment in America, by a removal of your troops provident counsels kave betrayed him into his pre from Boston, by a repeal of your acts of parliament, sent situation. His situation reminds me, my lords, and by demonstration of amicable dispositions toof the answer of a French gen. in the civil wars of wards your colonies. On the other hand, every France, Monsieur Turenne, I think. The queen danger and every hazard, impend to deter you said to him, with some peevishness, I observe that from perseverance in your present ruinous mes. you were often very near the prince during the cam. sures: Foreign war hanging over your heads by a paign, why did you not take him?—The Mareschal slight and brittle thread: France and Spain watchreplied with great coolness—J'avois grand peur, ing your conduct and waiting for the maturity of qui Monsieur le prince ne me pris,-I was very your errors; with a vigilant eye to America and much afraid the prince wouid take me.
the temper of your colonies, more than to their When your lordships look at the papers trans- own concerns, be they what they may. mitted us from America, when you consider their
To conclude, my lords, if the ministers thus decency, firmness and wisdom, you carnot but respect their cause, and wish to make it your own persevere in thisadvising and misleading the king,
I will not say that they can alienate his «ubjects - for myself I must declare and avow that, in all my reading and observation, and it has been my make the crown not worth his wearing: I shall not
from his crown, but I will affirm that they will favorite study-I have read Thucidydes, and have studied and admired the master states of the world say that the king is betrayed, but I will pronounce
- that for solidity and reasoning, force of sagacity, and wisdom of conclusion, under such a complica
A SERMON tion of different circumstances, no nation or body
On the present situation of AMERICAN AFFAIRS: of men can stand in preference to the general con
Preached in ChuiST-Cucuck, June 23, 1775, at the gress at Philadelphia.-1 trust it is obvious to your
request of the oflicers of the third battalion of lordships, that all attempts to impose servitude
the city of Philadelphia, and district of Southon such men, to establish despotism over such a
warkmighty continental nation-must be vain-must be
By William Smith, D. D. Provost of the college futile.- We shall be forced uitimately to retrac,
in that city. whilst we can, not when we must. I say we must necessarily undo these violent and oppressive acts: The Lord God of Gods-the Lord God of Gods-He knoweth, and
Israel be sball know, if it be in rebellion, or in transgression - they must be repealed-you will repeal them: I
against the Lurd-save us not this day-Joshua, xxii. 22. pledge myself for it you will in the end repeal
These words, my brethren, will lead us into a
train of reflections, wholly suitable to the design them: I stake ny reputation on it: I will consent to be taken for an ideot if they are not finally re.
of our present meeting; and I must beg your pealed.- Avoid then this humiliating, disgraceful indulgence till I explain, as briefly as possible, the pecessity.-With a dignity becoming your exalted
solemn occasion on wbich they were first deliveredo situation, make the first advances to concord, to
hoping the application, I may afterwards make of peace and happiness, for that is your true dignity,
them, may fully reward your attention. to act with prudence and with justice. That you The two tribes of Reubed and of Gad, and the should first concede is obvious from sound and half tribe of Manasseh, had chosen their inberi. rational policy. Concession comes wich better tance, on the eastern side of Jordan, opposite to the grace and more salutary effect from the superior other tribes of Israel. And although they knevy power. Il recouciles superiority of power with ibie'llaut this siuaiion would deprive them of some
THAT THE KINGDOM IS UNDONE.
privileges which remained with their brethren on Country, than, in the fullness of gratitude, on the the other side, and particularly that great privilege banks of Jorlan, at the common passage over of having the place of the altar and tabernacle of against Cenaan, they built an ligh or great altar, God among them; yet, as the land of Canaan was that it might remain an eternal monument of their judged too small for all the twelve tribes, they were being of one stock, and entitled to the same civil centented with the possession they had chosen.— and religious privileges, with their brethren of the And thus they spoke to Moses
other tribes. “It is a land of cattle, and thy servants have But this tbeir work of piety and love was directly much cattle. Wherefore, if we bave found grace in misconstrued. The cry was immediately raised tby sight let this land be given to us for a possession, against them. The zealots of that day scrupled and we will build sheepfolds here for our cattle, not to declare them rebels against the living God, and cities for our little ones; and we ourselves will violators of his sacred laws and theocracy, in go ready armed before our brethren, the children -etting up an altar against his holy altar, and there. of Israel, and will not return into our houses, until fore the whole congregations of the brother-tribes, they have inherited every man his inheritance.”- that dwelt in Canaan, gathered themselves together, “And Moses said unto them- If you will do this
to go up to war against their own flesh and blood,
in a blind transport of unrighteous zeal, purposing thing, and will go all of you armed over Jordan be.
to extirpate them from the face of the earth, as fore the Lord, until he hath driven out his enemies
enemies to God and the commonwealth of Israel! from before him; and the land (of Canaan), be subdued (for your brethren;) then afterwards ye In that awful and important moment (and, oh! my shall return, and this land (of Gilead) shall be your God ibat the example could be copied among the possession before the Lord."*
brother tribes of our Israel, in the parent land) I
say, in that awful and important moment, some This, then, was the great original contract, under
milder and more benevolent men there were, whose which these two tribes and a half were allowed to
zeal did not so far transport them, but that, be. separate from the rest, and to dwell on the other
fore they unsheathed the sword to plunge it with side of Jordan. They were to assist their brethren
unhallowed hand into the bowels of their brethren, in their necessary wars, and to continue under one
they thought it justice first to enquire into the government with them-even that of the great Jehovah himself-erecting no separate altar but com.
charge against them. And, for the glory of Israel, ing to perform their sacrifices at that one altar of
this peaceable and prudent council prevailed. Shilog, where the Lord had vouchsafed to promise A most solemn embassy was prepared, at the his special presence.
head of wbich was a man of sacred character, and
venerable authority, breathing the dictates of Though this subjected them to inconveniences, religion and humanity; Plıinebas, the son of Eleazer, yet as uniformity of worship and the nature of their the high priest, accompanied with ten other chiefs theocracy required it, they adhered faithfully to their contract.
or princes, one from each of the nine tribes as well
as from the remaining half tribe of Manasseh. In the fear of God, they bowed themselves at his altar, although not. placed in their own land; and,
Great was the astonishment of the Gileadites in love to their brethren, they supported them in on receiving this embassy, and hearing the charge their wars, “:ill there stood not a man of all ibeir against them. But the power of conscious innocence enemies before them;" and at last, Josaca, their is above all fear, and the language of an upright great leader, having no farther need of their assis. heart superior to all eloquence. By a solemn aptance, gave them this noble testimony—That they peal to Heaven for the rectitude of their intenbad, in all things obeyed his voice as their general, tions, unpremeditated and vehement, in the words and faithfully performed all they bad promised to
of my text, they disarmed their brethren of every Moses the servant of God. Wherefore, he blessed
suspicion. them, and dismissed them to return to their own “The Lord God of Gods," say they (in the ferland "with much riches, and with cattle, and with vency of truth, repeating the invoc. :on) “the Lord silver, and with gold, and with much raiment." God of Godz”—He that made the Heavens and the No sooner, therefore, had they entered their own *The two tribes and a half are here briefly and
generally denominate i Gileadiies, from the name *Numb. 32.
of the land they bad chosen.
earth, who searcheth the hearts, and is acquaint. Pedigree with yourselves, and entitled to the same
This noble defence brought an immediate reconstancy in the religion of our fathers--that this
conciliation among the discordant tribes. "The charge against us is utterly false.
words, (when reported) pleased the children of Then turning from their brethren, with unspeak. Israel--they blessed God together" for preventing able dignity of soul and clearness of conscience, the effusion of kindred blnod, "and did not go up they address the Almighty Jehovah himself to destroy the land where their brethren, the chil.
dren of Reuben* and Gad, dwelt." Oh thou sovereign Ruler of the universe-our God and our Fathers' God"if it be in rebellion or The whole history of the bible cannot furnish a in transgression against thee,” that we have raised passage more insiructive than this, to the members this monument of our zeal for the commonwealth of a great empire, wiose dreadful misfortune it is of Israel-save us not this day!" If the most to have the evil demon of civil or religious discord distant thought has entered our hearts of erecting gone forth among them. And would to God, that an independent altar; if we have sought, in one the application I am now to make of it could be instance, to derogate from the glory of that sacred delivered in accents louder than thunder, till they aliar which thou bast placed among our brethren have pierced the ear of every Briton; and especially beyond Jordan, as the common bond of union and their ears who have meditated war and destruction worship among all the tribes of Israel—let not this against their brother-tribes of Reuben and Gad, in day's sun descend upon us, till thou hast made us this our AMERICAN GILEAD. And let me add a monument of thine avenging justice, in the sight-would to God.too that we, who this day consider of the surrounding world!
ourselves in the place of those tribes, may, like
them, be still able to lay our bands on our bearts After this astonishing appeal to the great God
in a solemn appeal to the God of Gods, for the of Heaven and earth, they proceed to reason with
rectitude of our intentions towards the whole com. their brethren; and tell them that, so far from
monwealth of our BRITIRU ISRAEL. For, called to intending a separation, either in government or
this sacred place, on this great occasion, I know it religion, this altar was built with a direct contrary is your wish that I should stand superior to all purpose-"That it might be a WITNESS between us.
partial motives, and be found alike unbiassed by and you, and our generations after us, that your favor or by fear. And happy it is that the parallel, children may not say to our children, in time to
now to be drawn, requires not the least sacrifice come, ye have no part in the Lord.” We were
either of truth or virtue? afraid lest, in some future age, when our posterity Day cross Jordan to offer sacrifices in the place Like the tribes of Reuben and Gad, we have appointed, your posterity may thrust them from chosen our inheritance, in a land separated from the altar, and tell them that because they live not that of our fathers and brethren, not indeed by a in the land where the Lord's tabernacle dwelleth, small river, but an immense ocean. This inlieri. they are none of his people, nor entitled to the tance we likewise bold by a plain original contract, Jewish privileges.
entitling us to all the natural and improvable
advantages of our situation, and to a community But while this altar stands, they shall always bave
of privileges with our brethren, in every civil and an answer ready. They will be able to sayć"Be. hold the pattern of the altar of the Lord which our
religious respect, except in this, that the throne fatbers made." If our fathers had not been of the or seat of empire, that great aliar at which the
men of this world Wow, was to remain among them. seed of Israel, they would not have fondly copied your customs and models. You would not have
Regardless of this local inconvenience, uncanker. ! beheld in Gilead, an altar, in all things an imiiation ed by jealousy, undepressed by fear, and cemented
of the true altar of God, which is in Shilols, except by mutual love and mutual benefits, we trod the only that ours is an high "or great altar to see" | path of glory with our brethren for an hundred from far. And this may convince you that it was years and more-enjoying a length of felicity not intended as an altar of sacrifice (for then it would have been but three cubits in height, as our
*Though for brevity, the sacred text, in this
and other placés, only mentions Reuben and Gad, law directs) but as a monumental altar, to instruct yet the half tribe of Manasseh is also supposed to our generations forever, that they are of the same l be included.