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ble animosity between the two countries. Every this journey with you!

The Romans made it a fixed rule never to send addressed, he was pleased to send me a copy of or receive ambassadors, to treat of peace with it, and of another written to her on tbe same third their enemies, wbile their affairs were in an adverse of July. It is probable that, after the loss of such or disastrous situation. There was a generosity a companion, a review of their epistolary corres. and magnanimity in this, becoming freemen. It pondence brought to his recollection the enquiries flowed from that temper and those principles which I had made, and the subsequent conversation, alone can preserve the freedom of a people. It though years had elapsed. These letters I pre. is a pleasure to find our Americans of the same sent to the public, but not without permission; temper. It is a good symptom, foreboding a good believing that they will be read with much interest eud.

on the forty-third anniversary of the grand event

which they announced. If you imagine that I expect this declaration

THOMAS DAWAS. will ward off calamities from this country, you Boston, July 3, 1819. are mistaken. A bloody conflict we are destined

PAILADELPAIL, July 3, 1776. to endure. This has been my opinion from the

Your favor of June 17, dated at Plymouth, was beginning. You will certainly remember my decid.

handed me yesterday by the post. I was much ed opinion was, at the first congress, when we found

pleased to find that you had taken a journey to that we could not agree upon an immediate non.

Plymouth to see your friends, in the long absence exportation, that the contest could not be settled

of one whom you may wish to see. The excursion without bloodshed, and that if hostilities should

will be an amusement, and will serve your health. once commence, they would terminate in an incura.

How happy would it have made me to have taken political event since the 19th of April, 1775, has confirmed me in this opinion.

I was informed, a day or two before the receipt If you imagine that I fatter myself with happi- Miss. P. who was obliging enough to inform me, in

of your letter, that you was gone to Plymouth, by ness and halcyon days, after a separation from

your absence, of the particulars of the expedition Great Britain, you are mistaken again. I don't ex.

to the Lower Harbor, against the men of war.pect that our new governments will be so quiet as

Her narration is executed with a precision and I could wish, nor that happy harmony, confidence,

perspicuity which would have become the pen of and affection, between the colonies, that every

an accomplished historian. good American ought to study, labor, and pray for, for a long time. But freedom is a counterbalance I am very glad you had so good an opportunity for poverty, discord, and war, and more. It is your of seeing one of our little American men of war. hard lot and mine to be called into life, at such & Many ideas, new to you, must have presented time;-yet even these times have their pleasures. themselves in such a scene; and you will in future I am your friend and servant,

better understand the relations of a sea engage. JOHN ADAMS.

ment. Mr. Chase.

I rejoice extremely in Dr. Bulfinch's petition for

leave to open an Hospital. But I hope the busi. Two letters from president Adams, written, one in the ness will be done upon a larger scale. I hope that

morning, the other in the evening, of the 30 July, one Hospital will be licensed in every county, if not 1776.

in every town. I am happy to find you resolved to Mr. Editor-Some years ago, having seen in be with the children in the first class. Mr. W. and your paper a brilliant paragraph from a letter of Mrs. Q. are cleverly through innoculation in this the hon. John Adams to a friend-not, however, city. for the first time, it baving appeared before on

I have one favor to ask, and that is, that in your many a fourth of July-I was curious to learn from

future letters you would acknowledge the receipt its venerable author who was that friend, and also

of all those you may receive from me, and mention such anecdotes concerning the subject of the let.

their dates; by this means I shall know if aby of ter, as he might be willing to communicate. He

mine miscarry. gratified my curiosity, with his accustomed energy, on a transaction in which he had taken so dis. The information you give me of our friend's retinguished a part. After the death of Mrs. Adams, fusing his appointment, has given me much pain, the accomplished friend to whom the letter was grief, and anxjety. I believe I shall be obliged to


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follow his example. I have not fortune enough to of affliction produces refinement in states as well support my family, and, what is of more importance, as individuals. And the new governments we are to support the dignity of that exalted station. It assuming in every part, will require a purification is too high and lifted up for me, who delight in from our vices, and an augmentation of our virtues, nothing so much as retreat, solitude, silence, and or they will be no blessings. The people will have obscurity. In private life, no one has a right to unbounded power; and the people are extremely censure me for following my own inclinations in addicted to corruption and venality, as well as retirement, in simplicity, and frugality; but in pub. the great. I am not without apprehensions from lic life every unan has a right to remark as he pleases; this quarter; but I must submit all my hopes and at least he thinks so.

fears to an overruling Providence, in which, un

fashionable as it may be, I firmly believe. Yesterday the greatest question was decided

JOHN ADAMS. which ever was debated in America; and a greater, Mrs. ADAMS. perhaps, never was or will be decided among men. A resolution was passed, without one dissenting

PHILADELPATA, July 3, 1776. colony:

Had a declaration of independence been made

seven months ago, it would have been attended “That these United Colonies are, and of right with many great and glorious effects. We might, ought to be, free and independent states; and, as before this hour, have formed alliances with foreign free and independent states, they have, and of

states. We should have mastered Quebec, and right ought to have, full power to make war, con. been in possession of Canada: clude peace, establish commerce, and to do all other acts and things which other states may right.

You will, perhaps, wonder how such a declarä.

tion would have influenced our affairs in Canada; fully do."

but, if I could write with freedom, I could easily You will see, in a few days, a declaration, setting convince you that it would, and explain to you the forth the causes which have impelled us to this manner how. Many gentlemen in high stations, revolution, and the reasons which will justify it and of great influence, have been duped, by the in the sight of God and man. A plan of confedera- ministerial bubble of commissioners, to treat; and, tion will be taken up in a few days.

in real, sincere expectation of this event, which When I look back to the year 1761, and recol- they so fondly wished, they have been slow and lect the argument concerning writs of assistance, ianguid in promoting measures for the reduction in the superior court, which I have hitherlo con.

of that province. Others there are in the colonies, sidered as the commencement of the controversy

wlso really wished that our enterprize in Canada between Great Britain and America, and run

would be defeated; that the colonies might be through the whole period from that time to this, brought into danger and distress between two and recollect the series of political events, the fires, and be thus inciuced to submit. Others really chain of causes and effects, I am surprised at the wished to defeat the expedition to Canada, lest suddenness as well as greatness of this revolution. the conquest of it should elevate the minds of the

people too much to hearken to those terms of re. Britain has been filled with folly, and America conciliation which they believed would be offered with wisdom; at least this is my judgment-time

us. These jarring views, wishes, and designs, oc. must determine. It is the will of Heaven that casioned an opposition to many salutary measures Uie two countries should be sundered forever. It which were proposed for the support of that exmay be the will of Heaven that America shall suf. pedition, and caused obstructions, embarrassments, fer calamities still more wasting, and distresses and studied delays, which have finally lost us the still more dreadful. If this is to be the case, it

province. will have this good effect at least, it will inspire us with many virtues which we have not, and cor.

All these causes, however, in conjunction, would

not have disappointed us, if it had not been for a rect many errors, follies, and vices, which threaten

misfortune which could not have been forescen, and to disturb, dishonor, and destroy us. The surnace

perhaps could not have been prevented--I mean *Office of chief justice of the superior court of the prevalence of the small.pox among our troops. Massachusetts, to which Mr. Adams had been this fatal pestilence completed our destruction. It appointed, but which he declined, preferring his seat in the old congress, to which he had been is a frown of Providence upon us, which we ought re-elected.

T. D. to lay to heart.


. But, on the other hand, the delay of this declara. An extract of one of them has been published in tion to this time has many great advantages at the newspapers. Once on a time, upon my stony tending it. The hopes of reconciliation, which field bill, you interrogated me concerning that were fondly entertained by multitudes of honest extract, in so particular a manner, that I thought and well meaning, though short-sighted and mis- you felt a tincture of pyrrhonism concerning its taken people, have been gradually, and at last |authenticity. If you have still any doubts, I will totally, extinguished. Time has been given for show you the original letters, in my hand writing, the whole people maturely to consider the great whenever you will do me the honor of a visit to question of independence, and to ripen their judg. Quincy. In those days, my principal correspondent ment, dissipate their fears, and allure their hopes, was my wife, who was then surrounded by many by discussing it in newspapers and pamphlets- of the principal, politicians of the age, sucb as by debating it in assemblies, conventions, com- general James Warren, of Plymouth, and bis lady; mittees of safety and inspection—in town and Dr. Cotton Tufts, of Weymouth; my brother Rich. county meetings, as well as in private conversa- ard Cranch, of Braintree, and gen. Joseph Palmer, of tions; so that the whole people, in every colony, Germantown, and many others, wbo were constantly have now adopted it as their own act. This will enquiring of her the news from congress. What cement the union, and avoid those heats, and per- ever related merely to public affairs, she read to baps convalsions, wbich might have been occasion. them, or suffered them to read. ed by such a declaration six months ago.

I am, sir, wiih perfect esteem and sincere afiec. But the day is past. The second day of July, tion, your friend and bumble servant,

JOHN ADAMS. 1778, will be a memorable epocha in the history

Judge Dawes. of America. I am apt to believe that it will be celebrated by succeeding generations, as the great COL. LEDYARD-NEW LONDON, &c. Anniversary Festival. It ought to be commemorated, as the day of deliverance, by solemn acts of Jlr. Niles. The following scrap of history is devotion to God Almighty. It ought to be solem- recorded on a head stone at the grave of colonel nized with pomp, shews, games, sports, guns, bells, LEDYARD, half a mile S. E. of Fort Griswold, or bon-fires and illuminations, from one end of the Groton, Con, as a public monument of the characcontinent to the other, from this time forward for ter of the cause, the actors and the act. Col. Led.

yard was run through oth his own sword, by a You will think me transported with enthusiasm;

British captuin so whom he had surrendered it, and but I am not. I am well aware of the toil, and most of the garrison were murdered after they had blood, and treasure, that it will cost us to main grounded their arms. Those who survived saved tain this declaration, and support and defend these

themselves by embracing the British soldiers in states. Yet, through all the gloom, I can see the

such a manner that they could not bayonet them, rays of light and glory; I can see that the end is

The wounded were put into a waggon and premore than worth all the means, and that posterity

cipitated down the steep bill which elevates the

fort above the river. will triumph, although you and I may rue, which I hope we shall not.



“Colonel commandant of the garrisoned posts of The following letter was not intended for pub- “ New London and Groton, who, after a gallant de lication, but we cannot resist a desire we feel-for “ fence, was, zvith a large part of the brave garrison, reasons which will be obvious to the reader-to" inhumanly massacred by British troops in fort Grisrecord the document in our files; and apologize to "wold, September 6th, 1781, Ætat, suæ 43. By : our fellow-citizens for the liberty we have taken. “ judicious and faithful discharge of the various

QUINCI, February 16, 1819. “duties of his station, he rendered most essential Respected and beloved judge Dawes:

" services to his country, and stood confessed Inclosed are copies of two letters written by " the unshaken patriot, and intrepid bero. He lived me to my wife, one in the morning, the other in the pattern of magnanimity, courtesy and humani. the evening of the 3d July, 1776, the day after" ty: He fell the victim ungenerous of rage and the vote of independence was passed in congress. “ cruelty!".




page 249.*

There is a white stone inscribed--SACRED TO THE (that on the Groton side being commanded by lieut. MEMORY of captain JNO. WILLIAMS, who fell col. Eyre, and that on the New London side by the gloriously fighting for the liberty of his country general, who met no great trouble. Fort Trumbull in fort Griswold, September, 6th 1781, in the 43). and the redoubt, which were intended to cover year of his age.”.

the barbor and town, not being tenable, were On another stone is the inscription-SACRED TO THE

evacuated as he approached, and the few men in

them crossed the river to fort Griswold, on GrotonMEMORY of lieut. EBENEZER AVERY, who fel! gloriously fighting in defence of fort Griswold and Hill

. Arnold proceeded to the town without being American freedom, September Oih, 1781, in the 42d

otherwise opposed than by the scattered fire of year of his age.”

small parties that had hastily collected. Orders

were sent by the general to Eyre for attacking "ONE RENAGADO IS WONSE THAX TEN TURKS." fort Griswold, that so the possession of it might To complete the history of this horrible transac prevent the escape of the American shipping. The

tion, and further to disseminate a knowledge of militia, to the amount of 157, collected for its the infamy of Arnold and give np the buicher. defence, but so bastily as not to be fully furnished ing traitor to the execration of posterity-we with fire arms and other weapons. As the assailants extract the following account of the massacre approached, a firing commenced, and the flag-staff from Gordon's history, New York edit. vol. III. was soon shot down, from whence the neighbor.

ing spectators inferred, that the place had sur. “The return of gen. Arnold to New-York from rendered, till the continuance of the firing conVirginia

, did not fix him in a state of inactivity. Vinced them to the contrary. The garrison defendIle was sent on an enterprize against New Lon

ed themselves with the greatest resolution and don, with a sufficient land and marine force. The bravery; Eyre was wounded near the works, and embarkation baving passed over from Long Island major Montgomery was killed immediately after, shore in the night, the troops were landed in two

so that the command devolved on major Broomdetachments on each side of the harbor, at ten

ficld. The British at one time staggered; but o'clock in the morning of the 6th of September;

the fort being out of repair, could not be maintain

ed by a handful of men against so superior a num. *In speeking of Arnold, it may be useful to ob. ber as that which assaulted it. After an action of serve that WASHINGTON offered to exchange Andre for him, which sic Henry Clinton declined. Never about 40 minutes, the resolution of the royal were the sympathies of the American people so troops carried the place by the point of the much misled as in the case of the unfortunate bayonet. The Americans had not more than half Andre. He was engaged in a most vile businessthe meanest that can be imagined for an honorable a dozen killed before the eneny entered the fore, man, the perfection of an act of corruption and trea. when a severe execution took place, though resistance son, and justly merited his fate; if he had had ceased. The Britisb officer enquired, on his enterten thousand lives, they were all justly forfeited by the laws of honor as well as to those of war, ing the fort, who commanded? colonel Ledyard and every principle of self preservation. Had he answered "I did, sir, but you do now;" and prenot been put to death, the great Washington, sented him his sword. The colonel was imme. himself, would at least have merited a dismissal from the command of the revolutionury army. But diately run through and killed. The slain were it is well known that the private feelings of the 73; the wounded between 30 and 40, and about illustrious father of his counóry were greatly 40 were carried off prisoners. Soon after reducing excited in favor of that unlucky young man I say unlucky, because if he had succeeded he would the fort, the soldiers loaded a waggon with the have been praised and rewarded for his gallantry, wounded, as said, by order of their officers, and dexterity, &c. He failed--and instead of being a set the waggon off from the top of the hill, which hero became a culprit, in the estimation of every reflecting man. No personal accomplishments or as long and very steep; the waggon went a conprivate character can palliate a public act of siderable distance with great force, till it was shame they rather aggravate the oftence; and an agency in an act of villainny entitles the agent to suddenly stopt by an apple tree, which gave the the villain's fare. Yet he was treated with all faint and bleeding men 80 terrible a shock that part possible courtesy and kindness, and had all the of them died instantly. About fifteen vessels, with intercourse with his friends which the nature of his condition admitted of. How different the conduct effects of the inhabitants, retreated up the river, of the British to captain Nathan Hale-an Ameri. notwithstanding the reduction of the fort, and can, whose character, in any and every ligbt, was four others remained in the harbor unhurt; a num. comparable with tbat of Andre, a sketch of whose case may be found in the WEEKLY REGISTER, vol. ber were burnt by the fire's communicating from II. page 129.]

EDITOR. the stores when in flames. Sixty dwelling houses


and 84 stores were burned, including those on of civil society and constitutional protection, to both sides of the harbor and in New London. The wit, liberties and life. burning of the town was intentional and not accidental. The loss that the Americans sustained in this

Your petitioners most humbly represent to your debtraction was very great; for there were large majesty, that, to destroy or assume their chartered quantities of naval stores, of European goods, of rights, without a full and fair hearing, with legal East and West India commodities, and of provi proof of forfeiture, and the abrogating of their most sions in the several stores. The British had two valuable laws, which had duly received the solemn commissioned officers and 46 privates killed; eight confirmation of your majesty's royal predecessors, officers (some of whom are since dead) with 135 and were thence deemed unchangeable, without non commissioned and privates wounded."

the consent of the people, is such a proceeding as

renders the enjoyment of every privilege they Petition of the native Americans residing in London possess totally uncertain and precarious. That ar to his Britunnic majesty, in 1774.

exemption of the soldiery from being tried in the Massachusetts-Bay, for murder or otber felony, com

mitted upon your majesty's subjects there, is such Messrs, EniroR6:~Having recently been em

an encouragement to licentiousness and incentive ployed in searching for old records, I met with a

to outrage, as must subject your majesty's liege manuscript copy of the following petition of a

people to continued danger. number of native Americans, who were then in London, to his Britannic majesty, in the year 1774. Your petitioners and their countrymen bave been If you think it sufficiently interesting to publish, ever most zealously attached to your majesty's per. you are at liberty to do it. Among the number son and family. It is therefore with inexpressible of signers is the late Arthur Lee, of Virginia, a fiction that :hey see an attempt, in these progentleman whose life and character seem to be ceedings against them, to change the principle of but little known at the present day, although be obedience to government, from the love of the subwas one of the firmest patriots of the revolution, ject towards their sovereign, founded on the opi and his services, though not conspicyous, yet were nion of his wisdom, justice and benevolence, into eminently beneficial to the cause he had espoused. the dread of absolute power and laws of extreme

rigor, unsupportable to a free people, It will be remembered, that the bills there alluded to are the last of the series of those acts Should the bills above-mentioned receive your of the British parliament which produced a crisis, royal sanction, your majesty's faithful subjects will and were the immediate cause of the war of the be overwhelmed with grief and despair. revolution:

It is therefore our most earnest prayer that your To the king's most excellent majesty. majesty will be graciously pleased to suspend your The petition of several natives of America, most royal assent to the said bills. humbly sheweth:

And your petitioners, &c. That your petitioners, being your majesty's most

Stephen Sayre,

William H. Gibbs, faithful subjects, are obliged to implore your graci. William Lee,

William Blake, ous interposition, to protect them in the enjoyment Arthur Lee,

Isaac Motte, of those privileges which are the right of all your Edmund Jenings, Henry Lawrence, people.

Joshua Johnson, Thomas Pinckney, Your majesty's petitioners have already seen, with Daniel Bowley, John T. Grimpke, unspeakable grief, their earnest prayers rejected, Benjamin Franklin, Jacob Reade, and heavy penalties inflicted, even on the innocent Thomas Buston, Philip Neyle, among their countrymen, to the subversion of every Edward Bancroft, Edward Fenwicke, principle of justice, without tbeir being heard. By Thomas Bromfield, Edward Fenwicke, jr. this alarming procedure all property was rendered John Boylston, John Peroneauf, insecure; and they now see in two bills (for altering Joba Ellis,

William Middleton, * the government of the Massachusetts Bay, and John Williams, William Middleton, jt, the impartial administration of justice there) the John Alleyne, Ralph Irard, jr. intended subversion of the two other grand objects 'Ralph Irard,

William Heyward.

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