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not only in deterring, but also in reclaiming, the offender.” This sentence is the pith of the report: upon it we have acted. Yet, its inconsequential character cannot fail to strike the reader. The discipline is said to be “efficacious," although the prison “is eminently deficient” in the means of promoting moral and religious improvement. Why, then, should such further means be added ? Surely, the "efficacy” is the one thing needed-the grand, the ultimate end of all systems. We want to prevent crime without inhumanity to the person of the offender : if that can be done, we seek to effect no

If Mr. Crawford means by efficacy” the same as other men mean by it, the Philadelphian system achieves its object. The penitentiary had not, however, tried moral and religious instruction ; how, then, could Mr. Crawford tell, from its experience, that they would act well in union with the perfectly alien element of isolation ? How could he infer from what he witnessed that the projected combination could be made "powerfully instrumental, not only in deterring, but also in reclaiming the offender ?" Never was there a falser deduction. The man who sets forth such a syllogism at once destroys confidence in the value of his opinions : if all Mr. Crawford's “convictions" were gained by similar logical processes, the reader will have no trouble in settling for himself how much they are worth. Mr. Crawford was undoubtedly a clever man-a man well versed in the literature of the prison-world; but his mind was not of the judicial order, and he was hardly the man for such a mission as he was charged with. With all our respect for him, we shall not easily be persuaded that the “eminent” absence of the means of moral and religious instruction can, under

any circumstances, act otherwise than “unfavourably" upon the mind. The passage is altogether the statement of a theory ; certain effects appeared—we write appeared, because subsequent experience has shown them to have been more apparent than realto result from certain conditions, and the observer, reasoning on his “foregone conclusions," believed that if certain other conditions were added, certain other effects would also appear. But this is mere speculation ; it denotes a theorising mind, and one apt to generalize on very insufficient data.

This speculative passage-enhanced to an importance which its author probably never dreamt of giving it—is the foundation of Pentonville. Again reading over the report, we come to this sentence as its pith. Many people were seduced by it into a favourable impression of the Philadelphian system; and, amongst these, Lord John Russell, who, being Secretary for the Home Department, got an act introduced into parliament in 1839 (2 & 3 Vict. c. 56), containing a clause rendering separate confinement legal in this country. A model prison on this plan was resolved upon. Major Jebb was set to prepare a scheme of details; the first stone was laid on the 10th of April, 1840, and the works were completed in the autumn of 1842, at a cost of more than 90,0001.

The building so erected consists of five wings or galleries, radiating from a point, the view from which is very striking, and at the same time very unprisonlike. On the sides of four of these galleries the cells are situate and numbered. There are 520 of them, but not more than 500 are ever occupied. If we divide 90,0001. by 500, we shall find that the accommodation for each criminal costs the country 1801. for cell-room as original outlay. This is a pretty serious item to begin with ; but there have been continual additions since. For example, in the last report-January 1st to December 31st, 1847nearly 3,0001. more are set down for "building”that is, about 61. more for each criminal in one year ! Ha! but then this is a model prison : an example of efficiency and economy to the country at large ! Well, now, what is the cost of management? This is a question of some importance to the various country magistrates and ratepayers who have it proposed to them to follow the model. Last year

the expenses of mere management at Pentonville were 16,3921. 18 7d. ; the daily average of prisoners for the year was 457; consequently, the cost per head for victualling and management was nearly 361. This, be it borne in mind, was irrespective of all the other grand charges upon such institutions, such as rent, taxes, &c. But let us be perfectly just and fair : from this large sum all the proceeds of the prisoners' labour have to be deducted. Five hundred men working under competent instructors must produce a good deal, the reader will be inclined to think :-in Glasgow the male prisoners keep themselves by their work. In Pentonville the 500 earned last year 1,1431. 128. 6d. - about 21. 58. 8d. each ! Well, even this, though not much, look at it how you will, would be something if it were real, net, and to the good. But, no—the expenses of this labour department are still more than the proceeds. Exclusive of rations and apartments, the salaries alone paid to trade-instructors amount to 1,7061. 14s. 3d. ; including rent, rations, and other items, to rather more than 2,0001. The manufactures of Pentonville —this is a fact so curious as to need repetition to make it understood—cost 2,0001. a-year, and produce 1,1431. Thus, all the work done is at an absoļute loss of one-third ; although nothing has to be paid out for rent, for machinery, for interest on capital, or for wages !!! At this rate, the more work the greater loss. This flourishing institution, then, stands thus in account against the nation yearly :—The land given for nothing, that is, not set down in the account; taxes, ditto ; interest of outlay, 100,0001. at 5 per cent., 5,0001. ; cost of maintenance, 15,0001. ; repairs, &c. (for 1847 this item is nearly 3,0001.) If we take the three items here left blank at an average of 2,0001., a very moderate estimate for the yearly drain, we shall have a prison capable of accommodating 450 prisoners, at a charge

upon county rates of 22,0001. per annum ; or, in another form, at about 501. per head for each prisoner yearly. Compare this with the cost of the maintenance of the poor in workhouses, ye disciples of economy !

Now let us enter the cell. Well, really it has anything but a repulsive appearance. Its arrangement and fittings seem to be faultless. It is sufficiently large, being thirteen feet long, seven broad, and nine high. It is admirably ventilated, on the newest scientific principle, and by means of warm air is kept at an even and agreeable temperature. It has even the luxuries of a water-closet, and of an unlimited supply of warm and cold water. The bedding is clean and good; the food is also good, and plentiful in supply. There is a bell-handle too, which needs only to be pulled to command the instant attendance of a paid servitor. Light work is to be had also for amusement and to vary the routine. Very pleasant! At regular intervals the prisoner goes to chapel to hear the gospel ; and to school, where competent masters are waiting to offer their services to instruct him. But what is there penal in all this? some one asks. For our life we cannot find out. So far, the scheme reminds one of those appalling tales of Italian middle-age life, in which unfortunates were pampered upon the choicest viands, only to make their after-tortures the more unbearable. Does the analogy bear out to the end? We are certain that no such thought is present to the minds of the advo

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