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He thought to heap indignities on the name of his great subject ; instead of this, he added a new and paramount interest to the place of his burial. Few men can stand by that simple grave without feeling their pulses quicken and a generous glow about the heart; even in death, the tyrant-hater is a conqueron. The sight of his tomb still nerves the mind and inflames the patriot zeal of every man worthy of the liberties he gave his life to vindicate.

A stone, marked with three circles and a line drawn through them—significant emblem !-indicates the grave in which repose the bodies of the last traitors who died for their crimes in the neighbourhood of the Tower, and were buried in this church-the Earl of Kilmarnock, Lord Balmerino, and Simon, Lord Lovat, leaders of the Scotch Rebellion of 1745,

The towers which stand on the northern ballium are :— The Devereux-tower, so called from having been the chief prison-house of Elizabeth's Earl of Essex ; the Flint-tower, lately taken down and rebuilt on the old plan; the Bowyer-tower, the place in which the famous Duke of Clarence is said to have been drowned in a butt of Malmsey; the Bricktower, said to have been one of the places in which Lady Jane Grey was confined : from this last there was formerly a secret passage to the next and last on this ballium, the Martin-tower. In all these towers prisoners have been confined; but traditions and the inscriptions still legible enable us to localize only a few names of great note. The Earl of Essex, the Duke of Clarence, and Lady Jane Grey, have been just named. In the Martin-tower a hole is shown in which it is said that Robert Devereux was confined when his royal mistress wished to shake his nerves, and force him to beg the pardon of his offence from her majesty's grace. In this hole, and within the walls of Devereux-tower, what a chapter of England's history is written! With the brave and graceful Essex was confined the noble and accomplished Lord Southampton, so dear to his country as the friend of Shakspeare ; he was kept a close prisoner until after the death of Elizabeth. This great sorrow—the ruin of his attached and noble friend—is thought by Charles Knight to have had a commanding influence over the action of Shakspeare's mind.

No doubt he felt the blow deeply. From this date he became a wiser and a sadder man; henceforth a more solemn cast of thought is observable in all his works. Had the fall of Essex produced only its Shakspearian result, his misfortunes would have been atoned for to the world ; but the melancholy event which added power and depth to the expression of Shakspeare's genius, bowed the character of one who owned a mind inferior only to his, to the very

dust. In his hour of pride and prosperity Essex had been a kind and bountiful patron to Francis Bacon : in his day of distress, Bacon, to save his place, consented to become the prosecutor of his former friend, and to use his legal knowledge and resistless logic to bring him to a shameful death. How sad to think of such a man, pursuing ambition's sordid ends so basely! Not all his merits as a writer and a thinker can blot the foul stain of this act of ingratitude from his memory : not all his services to the state, and all his devotion to his sovereign, could stay the course of that avenging demon which Raleigh so forcibly describes as pursuing the children of blood. A few years later saw the author of the “Novum Organum" a close prisoner in the Tower, charged with a crime of the meanest and most contemptible character. The vengeance was complete. Could Essex have devised a punishment for his ungrateful friend, it could hardly have been one more deadly to his lasting reputation. Political opinions and political interests change with the course of years ; he who falls for treason in one age, may hope to be regarded as a martyr in the next. But moral guilt is the same yesterday, to-day, and for ever. Taking from the poor and the wronged, the orphan and the widow-compounding crime, and selling justice—no growth of time, no change of sentiment, can make these things, and the men who commit them, appear in the eyes of mankind other than infamous. History never reverses a judgment passed on such offences; the culprit is therefore denied even the satisfaction of an unavailing appeal to posterity. Who can conceive the torture of such a thought to a mind like Bacon's? He was fitly punished.

In the Martin-tower a few inscriptions may still be traced on the walls. Among others is a coat-ofarms and the name “ Boullen.” This was probably made by one of Ann Boleyn's attendants at the time when the queen was confined in the Tower. The little room at the top of the building in which the poor lady slept, is still shown.

Here also were confined by James II. Archbishop Sancroft and the six bishops. The basement story was formerly the Jewel-house ; the apartment was quite dark, and the regalia were exhibited by the light of lamps.

From this point down to the river bank on the east the towers on the ballium are :- :-Constable’s-tower, the Broad Arrow-tower, the Salt-tower, and, in the extreme angle, overhanging the ditch, the Develintower. The last is now used for storing up gunpowder; all the rest are tenanted by officials. Multitudes of hapless men have been confined in all these prisons: the Broad Arrow-tower, especially, is almost covered with traces of inscriptions ; but the few which are still legible contain the signatures of men who have left no other records of their ever having lived. In the Salt-tower the inscriptions are better preserved, but, with the exception of two, they are of little interest. One of these is “ Michael Moody, May 15, 1587.” This fellow was one of those needy adventurers who thronged the capital in the time of Elizabeth, ready for the commission of any crime for which a paymaster could be found. Under the instigations of the French ambassador, he proposed to murder the Protestant queen. His life, however, was spared, for I find him afterwards in custody at the Marshalsea. The other prisoner singled out is one Hugh Draper, whose case was a curious illustration of the superstition of the age of Shakspeare and Spenser. The Tower records contain the following account of this man :

“ Hugh Draper, committed the 21st of March, 1560.—This man was brought in by the accusation of one John Man, an astronomer, as a suspect of a conjuror or sorcerer, and thereby to practise against Sir William St. Lowe and my lady. And in his confession it appeareth that beforetime he had been busy and doing in such matters; but he denieth any matter of weight touching Sir William St. Lowe or my lady; and also affirmeth that long since he so misliked his science, that he burned all his books. He is apparently very sicke. He seemeth to be a man of good wealth, and keepith a tavern at Bristowe, and is of his neighbours well reported."

What became of the unfortunate minion of the stars is not known; but he has left several interesting memorials of himself in the Salt-tower— amongst others, a sphere, beautifully executed, and in another place a globe.

Leaving Develin-tower—which crowns “the Devil's battery”-on the left, we come next to the Welltower, formerly used as a prison, but without inscriptions ; then to the Cradle-tower, a low building of one story, the remnant of a large structure which formed a part of the royal palace ; thence we return to the Wakefield-tower and Traitor's-gate, having made a tour of the entire ballium.

The historical reader will have observed how few of the many illustrious names connected with the

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