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CoAst SURVEY OFFICE, -
DEAR SIR: From an examination of the chart showing the approaches to Dorchester, it would seem necessary for the safe navigation of those waters, which affects a large and increasing amount of tonnage, that eleven buoys, painted according to regulation, should be planted, viz: six to designate the channel to Commercial wharf, and the remainin five as guides to Neponset village. They must be distributed as follows: one on the west side of the channel opposite to Farm School, on Thompson's island, two on Cow Pasture bar, two on Term bar, and one opposite Commercial wharf.
The Neponset river would require one between Commercial wharf and Pine Neck, three along the curvature the river forms about Pine Neck, and one off the wharf at Neponset.
Respectfully, C. H. McBLAIR, Lieut. Commanding U. S. N., Assistant Coast Survey. Prof. A. D. BACHE. Superintendent Coast Survey.
Coast SURVEY OFFICE, Washington, March 1, 1851. SIR: Lieut. Com. Charles Davis, to whom was referred my letter respecting the buoying of the channel near Dorchester, suggests that the outer buoys spoken of in that communication should be of the usual harbor size, while the inner ones, and especially the river buoys, might be much smaller and less expensive.
I am, respectfully,
Prof. A. D. BACHE,
APPENDIX No. 23. Report of the Superintendent of the Coast Survey to the Secretary of the
Treasury, on ranges in New York harbor; with extracts from the re
port of assistant J. B. Gl ch.
CoAst Survey OFFICE,
SIR : An examination made of Flynn's Knoll, New York harbor, with the members of the Light-house Board, induced a doubt in my mind whether the light-house proposed to be erected there was the best aid to navigation which could be suggested; and, indeed, whether it might not alter injuriously the present régime of the harbor. The
ed at a deposites Knoll, will answer annel, ands could%
inquiries of the Light-house Board were directed to the same points, and their conclusions will, therefore, also be before the department. " It occurred to me that a system of range-beacons could be used for passing Sandy Hook by the main ship channel, and for passing through the Swash channel, which would answer all the purposes of the proposed light on Flynn's Knoll, without being attended with any risk of causing new deposites on the bar, and which could be put up and maintained at a very small expense. I have accordingly caused minute surveys to be made of the shore near the probable sites of these beacons, and transmit, herewith, the sketches and report returned by assistant J. B. Glück, of the coast survey, and also a Coast Survey chart of New York bay and harbor, marking these and other sites on which range-lights may be established, to answer the purpose referred to above.
I would recommend two range-lights (beacon) to lead from the point G, in Gedney's channel, through the main ship channel, to the range of the beacons recommended in the sailing line H N through the Narrows; the beacons to be on the line G D or G M in the angle between them, as may be found most expedient, on an examination which should be made just previous to their location. The distance A D is rather small for the range, being less than one-ninth of G A. A beacon near L will furnish also other important ranges.
Also, two leading lights (beacon lights) for the Swash channel, nearly on the line S E. Before placing these lights the Swash channel should be carefully re-surveyed, which can be done at a very trifling expense 'by the Coast Survey, by using existing marks on the shore already determined in the survey, as there is an impression among the pilots that it is deepening. The beacons should be placed accordingly.
These lights should be so arranged that they will appear nearly in one when heading on the sailing lines They should be distant from each other not less than about one mile and a half, or one-sixth of the distance from which they are first required to give the range. They should be carefully screened, so as only to show a light on the range or ranges which they are to indicate; and for distinction from each other, as they are only required to show some nine miles, the one near the Elm-tree beacon may be a red light, (deep red.) Yours, respectfully,
A. D. BACHE,
Superintendent United States Coast Survey. Hon. THOMAS Corwin,
Secretary of the Treasury.
Esctracts from a report on ranges in New York bay, to Superintendent, by
J. B. Glück, esq., assistant in coast survey.
Brooklyn, New York, July 13, 1851. Dear Sir: I have just returned from surveying the two ranges for entering Swash and main channels of New York bay, in accordance with your instructions of July 1.
eight bare thto twentees front Mr. G
The range for entering Swash channel, of which Elm-tree beacon forms one part, affords unusual facilities, as it strikes over the narrow brows of three elevations of one and a half, (11) one and three-quarters, (14) and two miles distance from the beacon; being, respectively, sixty, (60) eighty, (80) and one hundred and sixty, (160) feet high. That of sixty is bare ; that of eighty is covered with trees and thick brushwood from twenty to twenty-five feet high; and the one of one hundred and sixty with forest trees from sixty to seventy-five feet high. These three sites are upon the estate of Mr. George Ebbitt, New Dorp, Staten Island.
The range for coming through main ship channel touches the shore nearly a mile eastward of Point Comfort, through a very depressed part of the beach ; the sand-banks on either side (from ten to twelve feet high) sinking nearly to the level of high-water mark. About three hundred metres back from the beach, the range strikes a swamp thickly covered with trees from fifteen to forty feet high; from thence it runs mostly through woodlands-occasionally through settlements and clearings. About a mile inland from the beach, the range crosses the creek and marsh making into the westward of Point Comfort. Upon the whole line surveyed there is no point that reaches an elevation of twenty feet, and, as I am informed, there is none for five miles further back, to the hills near Middletown. From the terminus of my survey, I could see back nearly another mile, but no higher elevation on that extension could be gained; I therefore confined the survey to the limits formed by the creek, on the banks of which the hills are slightly the highest. On this range both lights could be screened by trees, so as to be invisible to seaward, except on the range itself.
I am much indebted to Captain Rudolph, commanding United States revenue schooner Taney, and his officers, for their kindness in aiding the survey, and extending every facility possible for its accomplishment.
g nearly to dbanks on eithethrough a verves the shore
I send herewith the maps of New York bay, upon which I have marked the two ranges as directed.
The front light on Point Comfort range, for coming through main channel, might be placed at either A or B. The light would probably be sufficiently screened at A from being seen at sea, by the clump of trees about one hundred metres to the southeast, or by the woods on Sandy Hook, until the vessel is on the range itself. At B this purpose would be fully achieved.
The back light on this range might be properly placed at either C or D. The ground at D is several feet higher than at C, and therefore preferable. But little cutting is required to clear this whole range.
On the range for entering through Swash channel, where Elm-tree beacon now stands, will be the place for the front light. The breakwater should be moved to the west of the beacon instead of to the eastward, as this structure, in its present position, only serves to undermine the beacon, for the protection of which it was built. Complaints are made in regard to the color, which is red; at a distance of about two miles off shore I found it to be scarcely visible.
There are four points on this range where the back light might be
located, although C is, in my opinion, the most desirable site for it, being on an elevation of eighty feet, covered with trees, and bushes, high enough to screen the light from either side. The sites A and B are bare, and, respectively, twenty and sixty feet high. That at D is from one hundred and forty to one hundred and sixty feet high. The thick and almost inaccessible forest makes it difficult to give a true delineation of the ground, or an accurate value of its elevation.
A black and white flag is fastened to the highest tree on the range, and the tree determined.
Trusting that I have executed this work to your satisfaction, I am, most respectfully, your obedient servant,
JOHN B. GLUCK, Assistant in Coast Survey. Prof. A. D. BACHE, L.L. D., Superintendent United States Coast Surrey, Mount Pleasant, Maine.
APPENDIX No. 24.
Letter of the Superintendent of the Coast Survey to the Secretary of the Treasury, recommending certain aids to navigation on the coast of New York and New Jersey, required by act of Congress and instructions of the Treasury Department, and communicating the report of Lieutenants Commanding Jenkins and Woodhull, U. S. N., upon the same.
CoAst SURVEY OFFICE,
SIR : In compliance with the act of Congress of March 3, 1851, and with the instructions of the department of April 2d, I have the honor to report on the buoys, beacons, fog-bell, and light-house, numbered 9, 11, 12, 13, 17, 18, in the tabular statement of light-houses, beacons, and buoys, for which appropriations were made in the act just referred to. A copy of the j. statement is annexed, with the additional remarks now submitted. The details of the recommendations are given in the . of Lieutenants Commanding Jenkins and Woodhull, herewith submitted, and the localities are marked in the Coast Survey charts A, B', B*, C, D, and E, hereto appended. No. 9. The buoy on Peafield reef, off Black Rock harbor, is recommended; also an additional buoy, for which, however, no appropriation has yet been made. No. 11. The light-house on the north point of Gardiner's island is recommended, showing a red light. For the consideration inducing this recommendation, I refer to the report of Lieutenants Commanding Jenkins and Woodhull. No. 12. The beacon in Sag harbor is recommended. No. 13. The two beacons near Fort Hamilton are recommended. It is understood from the Chief Engineer, General Totten, that there will be no objection made to a temporary structure on the glacis of the redoubt of Fort Hamilton, in the locality marked on the chart.
No. 17. A fog-bell for Newark light-house is recommended.
No. 18. The four buoys in the Passaic river, and the one on Mill Rock, were found by the officers sent to make examination, to have been already placed, under authority from the Fifth Auditor.
b. The beacon recommended to be constructed, and the buoy now occupying its site should be removed to the three-feet sand-knoll south and east of Newark light.
c. The beacon at the corner stake, near Elizabeth Point, is recommended. For details relating to its construction, I refer to the report of Lieutenants Commanding Jenkins and Woodhull, herewith submitted.
Very respectfully, yours, &c., A. D. BACHE, Superintendent U. S. Coast Survey. Hon. Thomas Corwin, Secretary of the Treasury.
Iteport of Lieutenants Commanding Jenkins and Woodhull, U. S. N., and assistants in coast survey, to the Superintendent, upon the necessity for placing certain aids to navigation, required by act of Congress and instructions of the Treasury Department.
U. S. Surveying Schoon ER MADison,
SIR: In compliance with your instructions of the 29th instant, we made a careful personal examination of the places enumerated, with reference to placing the proposed aids to navigation, in conformity to the 3d section of the act making appropriations for light-houses, lightboats, beacons, and buoys, approved March 3d, 1851, and submit the following report: Two buoys should be placed on Peafield reef, off Black Rock harbor, as marked on the accompanying harbor chart. We recommend that the one authorized by law be placed on the S. (+) point of the shoal. The contiguity of Plumb island and Little Gull island lights to the north point of Gardiner's island rendered the necessity for a light at that place somewhat doubtful; but upon a careful consideration and examination of the subject, we are satisfied it will be a very important aid to navigation. For coasters bound to Sag Harbor, Green Port, and other places in the vicinity from the eastward, it is very necessary, owing to the great length and little elevation of the point. To vessels from oversea voyages it is important to guide them into a safe and commodious harbor of refuge. The tower should be placed as near the extremity of the north point as may be practicable, with reference to a good foundation, and the light should differ from the two nearest to it— (Plumb island and Little Gull island.) A bright red light would probably be the most suitable for the purpose. We recommend that the beacon authorized to be placed in Sagharbor may be erected on the shoalest part of the southwest point of the sandspit. We consider this beacon an important aid to the navigation of Sag