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Then we have, by the telegraph operations of the Coast Survey, the following results from Greenwich, depending on this assumed longitude of Harvard observatory:
h. m. s.
New York, (City Hall)........................... 4 56 00.150 Philadelphia observatory.------------------------- 5 00 37.504 Seaton Station, (Washington, D.C.)................ 5 07 58.564 Capitol, Washington.----------------------------- 5 08 00.853 Wilkes' observatory ------------------------------ 5 08 00.958 Washington observatory -- *....................... 5 08 11.206 3. observatory (Georgetown, D.C.)......... - 5 08 17.206 Charleston observatory, S.C. (Sec. V) .............. 5, 19 43,832 Savannah Exchange, (Sec. V) .............-------- 5 24 20.572 Hudson observatory, Ohio,............... ---------- 5 25 43,205 Cincinnati observatory......................------ 5 37 58.062
The following results depend on moon culminations and occultations: Sand Key, Florida, (Sec. VI) ---------------------- 5 27 31.641 Moro Castle, (Havana).--------------------------- 5 29 24.000 Point Conception, (Sec. X) ............. ---- - - - - - - - 8 01 42.640
Respectfully submitted : SEARS C. WALKER, Assistant Coast Survey. Prof. A. D. BACHE, LL.D., Superintendent Coast Survey.
APPENDIX No. 27.
Report of the Superintendent of the Coast Survey to the Secretary of the Treasury, recommending a light-house at Fishing Battery, in Chesapeake bay; and report of examination by Lieutenant Commanding J. J. Almy, United States navy, assistant in the coast survey.
CoAsT SURVEY OFFICE, November 20, 1851.
SIR: I have the honor to report that an examination has been made, as required by the act of Congress approved March 3, 1851, by the instructions of the department, of the necessity for a light-house at Fishing Battery, otherwise called Donahoo's Battery, in the Chesapeake, near Havre-de-Grace, Maryland, and to recommend the construction of a tower there of fifteen feet in height, to show a light of the fourth order, or harbor light. The position proposed for a light-house is marked in the accompanying tracing from the Coast Survey map of Chesapeake bay. The details of the examination made by Lieutenant Commanding Almy, United States navy, assistant in the coast survey, are given in the report which is herewith transmitted, which also states in detail the purposes to be answered by the light, and its relations to the lights already established in the vicinity at Havre-de-Grace, and at Turkey Point. Very respectfully yours, ry o, oč. Superintendent U. S. Coast Surrey. Hon. Thos. Corwin, Secretary of the Treasury.
November 18, 1851. Sir: In obedience to your instructions, I have made an examination of Fishing Battery, Chesapeake bay, with reference to placing the proposed light-house for which an appropriation was made at the last session of Congress.
Fishing Battery (sometimes called Donahoo's Battery) lies S. 4 E., (true,) distant three miles from - Havre-de-Grace light-house, and NW.
W. (true,) distant five and a half miles from Turkey Point light-house. It is upon the edge, on the southwest side of the extensive flats off and abreast the mouth of the Susquehanna river. The channel for loaded vessels leaving Havre-de-Grace for Baltimore, runs by and within half a mile of Fishing Battery, and when abreast of it, vessels have to change their course at right-angles; therefore I unhesitatingly say, that for vessels running at night I consider it necessary to have a light here.
The kind of light which, in my judgment, would best answer and subserve all necessary purposes, would be a beacon light-a fixed dark red light, elevated about fifteen feet above the surface of the water. Owing to its relative position to Havre-de-Grace light and Turkey Point light, the light to be placed upon Fishing Battery would not require to be seen a distance exceeding five miles. I recommend a fixed dark red light, because both Turkey Point light and Havre-de-Grace light are fixed lights of a whitish color.
Fishing Battery has piles already driven, partially planked over, and there are sheds and buildings of a rough, rude structure, for the accommodation of fishing operations. I cannot speak with certainty as to whether these piles are driven firmly enough into the ground, or whether they are in a sufficiently sound condition for a foundation upon which to erect a structure for a light. To ascertain this, the planking will have to be taken up, and an examination made by a person thoroughly versed in such matters. I am, sir, respectfully yours,
JOHN J. ALDIY, Lieutenant U. S. Navy, Assistant Coast Survey. Prof. A. D. BACHE,
Superintendent Coast Survey.
APPENDIX No: 28.
Extracts from the report of Harry L. Whiting, Esq., assistant in the coast
survey, to the Superintendent, or the survey of Beaufort, North Carolina.
WASHINGTON, May 13, 1851. DEAR SIR:
The survey is extended, on the outside shore, about three miles from either point of the inlet, and beyond the limits of the bar and shoals of its entrance. In the harbor and about the town, I have carried the survey beyond all the important localities, so as to fully include all the channel-ways connecting the harbor with the interior waters, and furnishing topographical detail to show the approaches by land to the best water and landings, with the character of the shore, which is of course represented in our conventional signs.
I have also made as accurate a survey as their character will admit, of the shoals and bars within the harbor, as they exist at low water of ordinary spring tides.
In reporting upon the natural character and peculiarities of Beaufort, as a harbor and port, I will state such facts as have come under my personal knowledge, and also communicate my opinion regarding its entrance and the facilities it might afford to the commercial interest of this region.
The outside beach, or “bank,” opposite Beaufort harbor, is of the usual formation of this coast. It is mostly covered with a low pine, and mixed growth, and its average width is about half a mile; the sand hills and ridges upon it are from 20 to 35 or 40 feet high, thus forming a good and sufficient shelter, from both wind and sea, to all vessels anchored inside the banks; the holding-ground is also good, as shown by the results of the hydrographical survey.
The interior shores of the harbor are mostly of marsh, grown with masses of oyster-beds and shells, which, near the edges and where the sand has united with them, are quite hard and solid. At Lenoxville and Shepherd's Point, and at the town of Beaufort, the main upland comes to the water's edge. At the two former points, the deep waters of Newport and North River channels approach quite near the shore, and without any intervening shoals.
During the last thirty years there does not appear to have been any particular change, either in the shore-line or shoals within the limits of the harbor. The causes and action of tide, &c., which first formed them, seem to continue them in their general position and extent.
That the inlet and bar of Beaufort are probably the best on our whole eastern seacoast, south of the Chesapeake bay, is, I believe, a matter of fact, and needs no comment.
There are two principal causes which, I think, have preserved this inlet, and will continue to keep it open, with probably deeper water than any of the other harbors on this coast.
One of these causes is the shelter and eddy currents occasioned by Cape Lookout. The influence of these currents upon the inlet, opening as it does to the south, and in the “ bite" of the cove immediately under it, is, to cut and carry away the sands and shoals which storms may throw up, and deposite them at the point of the cape. At least, it is obvious that the influence which has formed Cape Lookout, and creates the deep water and bold shore of this cove immediately south of it, will not allow any deposites to take place at a point where the eddy and counter-currents have their greatest effect; while the projection of the cape, and the shoals extending beyond it, prevent the action of the sea within this cove from being as great, or having the same effect, as upon a coast presenting an unprotected and nearly even outline to the action of storms and breakers, as is the case on the shores both above and below Cape Lookout and Cape Hatteras.
The other influence which I think will always tend to preserve the inlet at Beaufort, is from the non-existence of any large interior sound or bay.
The current through the inlet is wholly a tidal one, and the back waters of “Borgre” and “Cove sounds,” and from “Newport" and « North” rivers, accumulate no more on the flood tide than escapes on the ebb; they are also of such extent and so located as to be materially affected by the tide, being filled and emptied by the flood and ebb, and there are no fresh-water feeders to either of the rivers sufficient to at all affect their currents:
There is thus a strong and continual tidal current through the inlet, and this current is not lost or overpowered by a heavy swell from sea, deadening its effect and throwing back the sand, which it displaces, in shoals and bars; but it runs with the eddy currents of the cove into which the inlet opens, and the same action and effect is continued that the current out of the inlet produces, all tending to preserve and deepen the channel.
In comparing the inlet at Beaufort with Ocracoke and others opening from the large sounds, the advantages and disadvantages of either are obvious. These latter are almost as much exposed on the inside to the great mass of waters in the sounds as they are on the outside to the ocean. The effect of storms and tides is consequently great as well as uncertain. Heavy storms from the Westward prevent the tide from flowing through the inlets from the ocean, while the water and surf from the sounds heave up swashes and shoals on the inside.
The action of storms from sea is still worse, while the waters of the sounds are driven back and shoals are thrown up and formed across the mouth of the inlet, without any counter influence to prevent or carry them away.
In a commercial point of view, Beaufort, as a harbor and port, has many advantages and is well situated. There is no river or inland navigation to delay or require the towing of large vessels. A ship drawing 20 feet water can leave at any state of the tide with almost any wind, and discharge her pilot at sea in from 30 to 45 minutes after weighing anchor.
It seems, therefore, that the usefulness of one of the best harbors and ports on our whole southern coast is lost from the want of proper facilities of communication and internal improvements, giving access to it from the interior country and cities.
I remain, sir, very respectfully yours,
HENRY L. WHITING. Prof. A. D. BACHE,
Superintendent U. S. Coast Survey, Washington.
APPENDIX No. 29.
Letter of the Superintendent of the Coast Survey to the Secretary of the Treasury, communicating a report of Lieut. Com. J. N. Maffitt, U.S. N., assistant in the coast survey, upon the necessity for certain aids to navigation
in Beaufort harbor, N. C.
CoAST SURVEY OFFICE,
SIR : I have the honor to transmit a report just received from Lieut. Com. J. N. Maffitt, U. S. N., assistant in the coast survey, of buoys and beacon (or range) lights, required in the harbor of Beaufort, North Carolina, the hydrography of which has been executed by the party under his command, and would respectfully request that it may, with the accompanying sketch showing the position of the beacons and lights, be transmitted to the authority which should act in the matter.
Very respectfully, yours
Superintendent U. S. Coast Survey.
Report of Lieutenant Commanding John N. Maffitt, U. S. N., assistant in the coast survey, to the Superintendent, in relation to lights and buoys in Beaufort harbor, N. C.
UNITED STATEs SchooNER GALLATIN,
SIR: I respectfully propose the following improvements in the harbor of Beaufort, N. C., for the purpose of rendering it safe for a vessel to enter without a pilot, by day or night, viz: 1st. A single bug-light on Shackleford Point, due north of Bar buoy, (which should be i. to bear north and then run for, until the first range course is made.) 2d. Two bug-lights west of Fort Macon, to be pod in range for first course after passing the Bar buoy. (See sketch.) 3d. Two bug-lights—one on Macon Point, the other on the marsh in the rear—giving the range for course No. 2. (See sketch.) 4th. A buoy on 10-foot spot, and marked on the sketch Buoy No. 2. 5th. A buoy on the south spit of the middle ground, marked on sketch Buoy No. 3. 6th. A buoy in mouth of the Slue, marked on the sketch Buoy No. 4. 7th. A buoy on the west side of the middle ground, marked on the sketch Buoy No. 5. With such guides a stranger could enter, by day or night, without fear.
Lieut. Com., Assistant U. S. Coast Survey.