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Hor. She speaks much of her father; says, she

hears, There's tricks i’the world ; and hems, and beats her

heart; Spurns enviously lat straws; speaks things in doubt, That carry but half sense : her speech is nothing, Yet the unshaped use of it doth move The hearers to collection?; they aim : at it, And botch the words up fit to their own thoughts ; Which, as her winks and nods, and gestures yield

them, Indeed would make one think, there might 4 be

thought, Though nothing sure, yet much unhappily 5. Queen. 'Twere good, she were spoken with; for she may

strew Dangerous conjectures in ill-breeding minds : Let her come in.

[Exit HORATIO. Το my

sick soul, as sin's true nature is, Each toy seems prologue to some great amiss?:

| Envy is often ysed by Shakspeare and his cotemporaries for malice, spite, or hatred :• You turn the good we offer into envy.'

King Henry VIII. See Merchant of Venice, Act iv. Sc. 1. Indeed ' enviously, and spitefully,' are treated as synonymous by our old writers.

? To collection, that is to gather or deduce consequences from such premises. Thus in Cymbeline, Act v. Sc. 5:

whose containing
Is so from sense to hardness, that I can

Make no collection of it.'
See note on that passage.

3 The quartos read yawn. To aim is to guess.
4 Folio—would.
5 Unhappily, that is mischievously.

6 The three first lines of this speech are given to Horatio in the quarto.

7 Shakspeare is not singular in his use of amiss as a substantive. Several instances are adduced by Steevens, and more by Mr. Nares in his Glossary. • Each toy' is each trifle.

So full of artless jealousy is guilt,
It spills itself in fearing to be spilt.

Re-enter HORATIO, with OPHELIAS.
Oph. Where is the beauteous majesty of Den-

mark ?
Queen. How now, Ophelia ?
Oph. How should I your true love know,

From another one?
By his cockle hat and staff,

And his sandal shoon9. [Singing.
Queen. Alas, sweet lady, what imports this song?
Oph. Say you? nay; 'pray you, mark.

He is dead and gone, lady, [Sings.
He is dead and

gone ;
At his head a grass-green turf,

At his heels a stone. 0, ho!

Queen. Nay, but Ophelia,-
Oph.

'Pray you, mark. White his shroud as the mountain snow.

[Sings.
Enter King
Queen. Alas, look here, my lord.
Oph. Larded 10 all with sweet flowers ;

Which bewept to the gravell did go,

With true love showers. • There is no part of this play in its representation on the stage more pathetic than this scene; which, I suppose, proceeds from the utter insensibility Ophelia has to her own misfortunes. A great sensibility, or none at all, seem to produce the same effects. In the latter (case) the audience supply what is wanting, and with the former they sympathize.'--Sir J. Reynolds.

9 These were the badges of pilgrims. The cockle shell was an emblem of their intention to go beyond sea. The habit being held sacred, was often assumed as a disguise in love adventures. In The Old Wive's Tale, by Peele, 1595:-—' I will give thee a palmer's staff of ivory, and a scallop shell of beaten gold.' 10 Garnished.

11 Quarto-ground. VOL. X.

D D

8

King. How do you, pretty lady?

Oph. Well, God’ieldi. you! They say, the owl was a baker's daughter 13. Lord, we know what we are, but know not what we may be. God be at

your table !

King. Conceit upon her father.

Oph. 'Pray, let us have no words of this; but when they ask you, what it means, say you

this:
Good morrow, 'tis Saint Valentine's day 14,

All in the morning betime,
And I a maid at your window,
To be
your

Valentine:

12 See Macbeth, Act i. Sc. vi.

13 This (says Mr. Douce) is a common tradition in Gloucestershire, and is thus related :-'Our Saviour went into a baker's shop where they were baking, and asked for some bread to eat. The mistress of the shop immediately put a piece of dough in the oven to bake for him; but was reprimanded by her daughter, who insisting that the piece of dough was too large, reduced it to a very small size. The dough, however, immediately began to swell, and presently became of a most enormous size. Whereupon the baker's daughter cried out Heugh, heugh, beagh, which owl-like noise probably induced our Saviour to transform her into that bird for her wickedness. The story is related to deter children from illiberal behaviour to the poor. 14 The old copies read :

To-morrow 'tis Saint Valentine's day.' The emendation was made by Dr. Farmer. The origin of the choosing of Valentines bas not been clearly developed. Mr. Douce traces it to a Pagan custom of the same kind during the Lupercalia feasts in honour of Pan and Juno, celebrated in the month of February by the Romans. The anniversary of the good bishop, or Saint Valentine, happening in this month, the pious early promoters of christianity placed this popular custom ander the patronage of the saint, in order to eradicate the notion of its pagan origin. In France the Valantin was a moveable feast, celebrated on the first Sunday in Lent, which was called the jour des brandons, because the boys carried about lighted torches on that day. It is very probable that the saint has nothing to do with the custom, his legend gives no clue to any such supposition. The popular notion that the birds choose their mates about this period has its rise in the poetical world of fiction. ,

Then

up he rose, and don'd his clothes, And dupp'd 15 the chamber door ; Let in the maid, that out a maid

Never departed more.
King. Pretty Ophelia !
Oph. Indeed, without an oath, I'll make an end

on't:
By Gis, and by Saint Charity 16,

Alack, and fye for shame!
Young men will do't, if they come to’t;

By cock, they are to blame.
Quoth she, before you tumbled me,
You promised me to wed:

[He answers.]
So would I ha done, by yonder sun,
An thou hadst not come to my

bed. King. How long hath she been thus?

Oph. I hope, all will be well. We must be patient : but I cannot choose but weep, to think, they should lay him i’the cold ground: My brother shall know of it, I thank

you
for

your good counsel. Come, my coach! Good night, ladies; good night, sweet ladies: good night, good night.

[Erit. 15 To dup is to do up, as to don is to do on, to doff to do off,' &c. Thus iņ Damon and Pythias, 1582 :- The porters are drunk, will they not dup the gate to day? The phrase probably had its origin from doing up or lifting the latch. In the old cant language to dup the gyger was to open the door. See Harman's Caveat for Cursetors, 1575.

16 Saint Charity is found in the Martyrology on the first of August. Romæ passio sanctarum virginum Fidei, Spei, et Charitas, quæ sub Hadriano principe martyriæ coronam adeptæ sunt.' Spenser mentions her in Eclog. v. 225. By gis and by cock are only corruptions, or rather substitutions, for different forms of imprecation by the sacred name.

and so

King. Follow her close! give her good watch, I pray you.

[Exit HORATIO. 0! this is the poison of deep grief; it springs All from her father's death: And now behold, O Gertrude, Gertrude 17, When sorrows come, they come not single spies, But in battalions! First, her father slain; Next, your son gone; and he most violent author Of his own just remove: The people muddied, Thick and unwholesome in their thoughts and whis

pers, For good Polonius' death; and we have done but

greenly 18, In hugger-mugger 19 to inter him: Poor Ophelia Divided from herself, and her fair judgment; Without the which we are pictures, or mere beasts. Last, and as much containing as all these, Her brother is in secret come from France : Feeds on his wonder 20, keeps himself in clouds, And wants not buzzers to infect his ear With pestilent speeches of his father's death;

17 In the quarto 1603 the King says :

• Ah pretty wretch! this is a change indeed :
O time, how swiftly runs our joys away?
Content on earth was never certain bred,

To-day we laugh and live, to-morrow dead.' 18 Greenly is unskilfully, with inexperience.

19 i.e. secretly. "Clandestinare, to hide or conceal by stealth, or in hugger mugger.'—Florio. Thus in North’s translation of Plutarch : Antonius, thinking that his body should be honourably buried, and not in hugger mugger. Pope, offended at this strange phrase, changed it to private, and was followed by others. Upon which Johnson remarks :—' If phraseology is to be changed as words grow uncouth by disuse, or gross by vulgarity, the history of every language will be lost: we shall no longer have the words of

: and, as these alterations will be often unskilfully made, we shall in time have very little of his meaning.'

20 The quarto reads— Keeps on bis wonder. The folio• Feeds on this wonder.'

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