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by destruction. Sir R. Peel admitted there had been so much of public opinioni expressed in support of the Bill as to induce him to treat that opinion with the greatest respect; but the measure was so much one of democracy, that he could not go with that opinion. Lord J. Russell, in a most eloquent and energetic speech, replied to the arguments against the Bill; and at half-past five o'clock in the morning the House divided, when the numbers were, for the motion that the Bill do pass,

against it, 236 : majority, 109: which was announced amidst applause.

315;

MEMOIRS OF PERSONS LATELY DECEASED.
JOHN JACKSON, R.A.

lowers. It is true that, in many of his Mr. Jackson was comparatively a portraits, he seeks less to paint thought, young man, about forty-six years old, than give a distinct and accurate image and still advancing in his art. He was of the outward man: he is vigorous, as travelling into the north of England, and far as flesh and blood give vigour; and having been, by the mistake of one of manly, as far as health and strength go. the coach-office clerks, compelled to He seems to neglect sometimes to inspire leave an inside seat for one on the out his canvas with talent or mind; but this side, was exposed, without suitable was a matter of taste-perhaps of con. covering, to a long storm of wind and science rather than a lack of ability. rain: a fatal illness was the conse He conceived that such licence was not quence: he was young, and his consti- allowable, and that he went far enough tution supported him long; but all me when he gave to ordinary heads the dical aid was unavailing. Jackson has colours of heaven without conferring been known to the public as a painter mind. He did not wish to give wbat for seven-and-twenty years.

His first nature had withheld ; and considered known work was the portrait of a boy, that, by bestowing fine brains as well as exhibited at Somerset House in 1804 ; fine shape, he was substituting fiction and his last exhibited picture was the for truth. Many of his portraits, how. portrait of his friend Chantrey, the ever, are of men of genius; and it can. sculptor. Perhaps the best of all his not be denied that his pencil was not portraits were those of Mrs. Agar Ellis slow in rendering to talent due honour. and of Flaxman : the former is full of Where thought and intelligence were remodesty and loveliness, and the latter quired he readily supplied them : be of vigour and simplicity. He was a re rose and fell with his subject, and may gular contributor to the exhibition of the be considered as one of the most honest Royal Academy; and, at a guess, cannot of all the children of flattery. He bad have sent to their rooms less than a an uncommon readiness and skill of hundred and fifty paintings. The hold hand-a rapid felicity of finish, which which Lawrence had on the court, and enabled him to dash off at a few sittings, through that on the nobility, was injuri- whatever he undertook : his colouring ous to Jackson. He painted compara was deep, clear, and splendid ; and in tively few of the princely and the far this he more resembled Reynolds than descended. The Mulgrave family were any artist since his day.-Athenaum. early patrons ; Lord Granville, the Duke of Devonshire, Lord Grosvenor, the Married.}-At Milton, near Gravesend, Sir Duke of York, and the Duke of Welling

Gerard Noel, Bart. to Mrs. Isabella Evans Ray

mond. ton, befriended him, and sat to him.

At Lambeth, Sir R. A. Anstruther, Bart, of Moreover, he painted the heads of many

Balcaske, to Mary Jane, eldest daughter of the of his most eminent brethren in art; late Major General Sir H. Torrens, K.C.B. amongst others, that of Antonio Canova. Mr. E. Spalding, to the Hon. Miss Upton, This was done at Rome, and for Chan daugbter of Viscount Templetown. trey, the mutual friend of both. As a At Au Souls, Marylebone, the Rev. Lord C. portrait-painter, the merits of Jackson

Paulet, to Araminta, third daughter of Sir J.

Ramsden, Bart. are of a high order. Though he gave

At Twyford, Middlesex, Henry, second son of out that he only copied nature as she Lord W. Seymour, to Jane, youngest daughter appeared to him, those who look at his of the late Thomas Willan, Esq. heads will see that he did much more; that he looked upon her with the eye of Died.)- In the 85th year of his age, Alexangenius, discovering her true mental cha der Stewart, Esq. brother of the first Marquis racter, and also with the eye of art,

of Londonderry.

In Piccadilly, the Duchess Dowager of Rutwhich perceived what to advance into

land. light and what to throw into shade. He Lord Rokeby, of Sandleford Priory, near occupies a place between the fine, ele Newbury, gant detail of Lawrence, and the vigor The Right Rey. Folliot Herbert Walker ous generalities of Raeburn : or, as

Cornwall, D.D. Bishop of Worcester. others word it, though perhaps less tru

In Henrietta Street, in the 90th year of her ly, he is a disciple of the school of Rey.

age, Anne, Countess or Mornington, relict of

Garrett late Earl of Mornington, and mother to nolds, and one of the cleverest of its fol. the Duke of Wellington and Marquis Wellesley.

THE

METROPOLITAN.

NOVEMBER, 1831.

LITERATURE.

NOTICES OF NEW WORKS.

The History of the Contagious Cholera; with Facts explanatory of its

Origin and Laws, and a Rational Method of Cure. By JAMES KENNEDY, Member of the Royal College of Surgeons, London. James Cochrane and Co.

This is a practical work, written by an individual who has been in the country of its origin, and has observed its effects. The opinions given are those of medical men on the spot, and are therefore entitled to serious attention; for we do not hesitate to say they furnish such a body of evidence, as leads to the conclusion that atmospheric transmission is out of the question: the Cholera travels in India even against the monsoon. On the other hand, the facts which we consider established, are, its conveyance by individuals from station to station in that country, and what is of a more decisive nature as proof, from place to place, and from port to port, where intercourse is most extended. Thus the Cholera passed across the entrance of the Persian Gulf, from Bombay to Muscat, and does not appear to have entered Persia at all overland from India-a singular circumstance. It visited a vast number of the places of the East, even to Pekin and Nankin ; but it was first experienced at the port of Canton. Indeed, most of the ports in the Indian sea have been visited with it ; but we nowhere heard of its breaking out first in an inland situation, where intercourse is not likely to have taken place with strangers or travellers. The disease itself is one common in India, time out of mind. It put on its recent aspect of extended virulence in 1817, in Bengal, and thence travelled in the manner represented in the Map appended to these observations. Our readers may there observe its progress to Berlin from India. It is consolatory to see that as it advances towards Western Europe, its attacks are comparatively of less account. In barbarous countries like Russia it was fearfully mortal. In Prussia its mortality has been much less, and even in Vienna its victims have been few compared with places more towards the East. In Hamburgh it is only among the dirty and lowest classes, and in the most confined places, that it has yet paid its visits, and even now it bas probably run out its course there. Sanitary cordons have been found useless in arresting it. In proportion to the progress of civilization and a better mode of living as respects food and cleanliness, its ravages have diminished. The mortality in Hamburgh is not at all in so high a ratio, as that of a typhus attack among the poor in Dublin in times past, of which we take small account.

Mr. Kennedy mentions the singular circumstance of its running its course alike in the plains of Bengal, and on the cool elevations of the Ghauts ; a proof that the evil is not transmitted by the atmosphere. Its contagion is not like small-pox, which attacks all indiscri inately; for, with the typhus and the plague, it only attacks a part of the population. This is the case with the plague in Egypt: cleanly persons in well-ventilated houses are there less susceptible of it. In India, Europeans suffer less than natives. Those most exposed to fatigue, and to irregular modes of life, suffer worst. Fatigue from travelling, working in the open air, or recent sickness, made individuals more liable to its attacks. A battalion of 800 men,

November, 1831.-Vol. II. NO. VII.

which had been debilitated by fever the year before, had 200 men ill of Cholera at once, of whom a surgeon and 54 men perished.

We gather then from Mr. Kennedy's statements, and those of the medical gentlemen given in his work, that Cholera, like typhus, will only attack bodies peculiarly susceptible of receiving its poison. That of individuals so predisposed, few or none are spared from its attack, which ceases, leaving the unpredisposed part of the community untouched.

That as the number of individuals thús susceptible is limited, though in some places from local causes greater than others, the fact of its limited commencement, rapid maximum in destruction, and gradual cessation, often in a small space of time, are accounted for. Those most susceptible are first attacked, and spread the infection to all capable of receiving it; and the later victims least disposed to receive it, of those at all predisposed, take it slowest and last, until the food on which the disease can prey is no longer to be found. We consider its conveyance by travellers, or by the march of bodies of men, is established by evidence indisputable in this book. In India, regiments caught the infection in villages where it raged, and conveyed it to villages and towns where it was not before in existence. At Bombay, it was clearly traced to an infected traveller.

After it has run its course in any place, the contagion it is probable soon dies away among cleanly people, in well-ventilated houses : it is only in narrow and filthy streets and dirty houses the infection is likely to remain. In the filthy courts and crowded allies of London its ravages would be greatest; in the wide ventilated streets they would be comparatively small.

Mach stress is laid on hospital assistants in India often escaping the Cholera; but this argues nothing, as many have taken it; and only a portion of them can, unless under particular circumstances, be predisposed to it. There is no reason they should be governed by different laws from their fellow-creatures. Hospitals are well ventilated. The assistants live well, and are not exposed to fatigue in the open air like marching regiments, on whose sick they may attend, and who, from being worn down by toil and irregular diet, exhibit a predisposition to it, from which a hospital assistant would commonly be free.

We are inclined to think that in England its ravages would be still more limited than in Germany. They would be less in France and Holland than on the other side of the Rhine; and this because the different mode of living, and the superior comforts of the population would less dispose them for its reception. We trust all who are interested in this question will read Mr. Kennedy's book. It is the best work published on the subject, and, with the experience of the author, worth all the published reports of the College of Physicians, and the College to boot, upon a question like the present.

Campaigns and Cruises in Venezuela and New Grenada, &c.; and Tales

of Venezuela. 3 Vols. Longman and Co. We have not for a long while taken up a more interesting and instructive work than the present. We have only to lament that the author had not avoided the character of fiction in the two last volumes; for, though entitled “ Tales of Venezuela,” these tales are but pegs on which to hang his descriptions of the scenery and inhabitants of countries almost wholly unknown to us. We fear too, tbat proceeding from the provincial press, they will not be pushed after the manner of the “ Trade,” in such a way as to bring them into the notice they merit. There is a tact in these doings which many an author is aware, from sad experience, is necessary to success with a public which must be kept awake to what is good in literature. The puffing system has been so much in vogue, and was found to answer so well in getting rid of bad works, that it has become a fashion to neglect the good, if they are not in some mode or another held up to the eye. These volumes do not deserve neglect. We have read none which convey to us a tithe of the information so well and satisfactorily. The first volume of these “ Campaigns and Cruises” is full of incident, and there is no fagging in the details. The author makes us acquainted with the great characters in the revolution which has freed South America from Spa

nish despotism; Bolivar, Paez, &c. all figure before us. The writer, after sundry mí. nor details, reaches Grenada, embarks in a Venezuelan gun-brig, enters the Orinoco, reaches the town of Guayra La Vieja; visits Sucre ; travels to Angostura ; ascends the Orinoco above that town; marches to San Juan de Pallara, crosses the Apuri with the army, and has his first interview with Bolivar. “ He was surrounded with a motley group of staff-officers, and colonels of different corps, whose diversity of colour and costume was truly singular. (It was in 1817.) We had long wished to see this celebrated man, whose extraordinary energy and perseverance, under every disadvantage, have since effected the liberty of a large portion of South America. It is, indeed, more than probable, that those colonies would be still in the hands of the Spaniards, were it not for the indefatigable spirit of patriotism which enabled him, though so often defeated, to liberate Columbia ; and which prompted him to lead his veteran troops to the assistance of Peru, whence he also drove the common enemy.

He was then about thirty-five, but looked upwards of forty; in stature short-perhaps five-feet five or six, but well proportioned, and remarkably active. His countenance, even then, was thin, and evidently care-worn, with an expression of patient endurance under adversity, which he has before and since given ample evidence of possessing, however his fiery temper may at times have appeared to contradict the supposition. His manners not only appeared elegant, surrounded as he was by men far his inferiors in birth and education, but must have been intrinsically so; for he had the fortune, when a young man, at Madrid, and at a time when the prejudices against the creoles of the turbulent colonies were powerful in Spain, to captivate the affections and receive the hand of a daughter of the Marquez de Uztaron. The dress which was worn by him and his suite corresponded perfectly with the scanty resources of the patriot army. Ilis helmet was such as was then usually worn by a private light dragoon. It had been sent him as a pattern by a merchant of Trinidad, who had imported on speculation, from London, some yeomanry accoutrements, which had been sold off on the commencement of the peace. A plain round jacket of blue cloth, with red cuffs, and three rows of gilt sugar-loaf buttons; coarse blue trowsers, and alpargatas or sandals, the soles of which are made of the fibres of the aloe, plaited, completed his dress. He carried in his hand a light lance, with a small black banner, having embroidered on it a white skull and crossed bones, with the motto, Muerte à Libertàd !This it seems was the banner of Paez's guard, each chief distinguishing himself by a swallow-tailed banner. The native officers by whom he was surrounded, were chiefly men of colour of lighter or darker shades, except the “ two generals Paez and Urdanéta, who are white." By them was our author and his friends welcomed. “ Bolivar himself rode on in silence, merely returning our salute with his peculiar melancholy smile, as he passed.” At night our author had his audience of this great man, “seated in a cotton-net hammock, under some trees.” The first action the volunteer was in, he saw a regiment of Spanish cavalry, six hundred strong, annihilated by the formidable Llanos lancers, commanded by Paez ; that Spanish regiment was the Husares de la Reyna. Paez appears to have been Bolivar's right hand. His lancers were almost invincible, and terribly avenged on the Spaniards the cruelties of the bloodthirsty Morillo. This worthy tool of despotism fired at flags of truce, and never gave quarter, forcing Bolivar into dreadful retaliation. Eight hundred Spaniards who had Aung down their arms were bayoneted, the larger part of them ere Bolivar could interpose.

“ Bolivar, it must be observed, had long been anxious to put an end to the system of cold-blooded slaughter, introduced by the Spaniards under the name of guerra à la muerte, and continued for so many years by both parties, under the plea of retaliation. It is unnecessary--perhaps impossible to ascertain whether he was actuated by humanity, or by a wish to remove from his cause a stigma which he was well aware degraded it in the eyes of the English, from whom he had every thing to hope, either as active friends or influential mediators. One thing is certain, that he had made incessant endeavours to induce Morillo to a cangè, or exchange of prisoners; but the haughty Spaniard invariably rejected his overtures as insults; and spurned all attempts at intercourse, on this and every other subject, as if it would have been contamination in a royalist to treat with an insurgent. He fired

at all flags of truce : priests, nay, even women were sbot, if they were made bearers of the white banner. Still Bolivar, though justly incensed, did not give up the cause of humanity. He sent the Spanish general, from this very city of Calabozo, twelve royalist officers, and twenty of their soldiers, whom the patriots had just taken, with a letter requesting him, for the last time, to consent to an exchange, in the name of the civilized part of the world to which he belonged. How this appeal was answered, will scarcely be credited. On the evening of the 15th, when we were within a league of Rastro, whither Morillo had retreated, the advanced guard suddenly halted. On Bolivar's riding to the front, ascertain the cause of their delay, he saw the sad spectacle of twelve officers and twenty soldiers, patriot prisoners, lying ranged in order across the road we had to pass, all cruelly butchered by their merciless captors. Such conduct requires no comment. It is surely a full extenuation of all Bolivar's alleged severity towards his prisoners. Hisown troops would now have torn him in pieces, had he not consented to retaliate to the utmost extent of his power. He dictated, in the presence of the assembled captains of companies a peremptory order to Sherwood for the immediate execution of every prisoner in the city we had just left; and ordered a halt, on the spot where we found the bodies, until a report was brought him by his aide-de-camp, young Tovar, that he had been punctually obeyed.”

Morillo retreated, and Bolivar followed him. His horsemen, when their animals were knocked up, dismounted and proceeded on foot until they came up with the enemy. A short but sanguinary battle was fought, and some of the foreign volunteers fell. A reverse took place soon afterwards, and a terrible scene of retreat followed, until Bolivar was obliged to stop and defend a pass to prevent the dispersion of his army. He rode into danger everywhere, highly animated, and so exposed himself, that he seemed as if he wished to die on the field. The charge of a fresh body of Spanish cavalry gave the battle to Morillo. Here our author fed to the woods, and was saved almost by a miracle. Paez, who had refused to venture his invincible cavalry in the defiles, saved the remnant of Bolivar's forces by covering its retreat. Such was the initiation of our author in this desultory and sanguinary war. The account of Paez's province ; our author's rejoining the enemy; Morillo's advance on Varinas; his distressed state, and flight back to Caraccas; the defeat of the Spaniards at Vargas and at Boyaca ; Bolivar's entry into Santa Fe; the marches of the patriots ; Revolution at Guayaquil; entry of the author into the Chilinn service, and his adventures by sea and land, until Chili became independent, are all very clearly detailed. In the wars of Bolivar, Paez plays a conspicuous part: he seems formed for execution, and commands the finest horsemen in the world. The Llanos are immense plains, abounding in cattle, and seantily peopled by men who from habit are the best of horsemen. When they want to catch a wild horse, they noose him with the lazo. They throw him down half-strangled, stun him with blows on the head, and, while insensible, tie his legs and put a sort of head-stall upon him, with a strap and moveable shade to blind his eyes when needful. They then tightly saddle him, and put a hair rope on him for a halter, as the creature can only be made to endure a bit by habit. They now gradually unmanacle the animal, that remains quiet and trembling. A rider mounts, the horse's eyes are uncovered, and the contest commences between the inimitable horseman and the terrified wild horse. At first the animal appears stupefied, till roused by the shouts of the Llaneros near. When aroused, his efforts to rid himself of his rider are wonderful, and most trying. These horses are rarely vicious, and do not run against trees or roll on the ground. The wild horse first struggles in a mode stiled corcovear, from the manner of his arching his back and springing forward in a succession of bounds, striking the ground with all four feet at once. The animal appears to stiffen and avoid pliability, so that the rider has the full benefit of the violent jolts that ensue. To endure this motion, which the creature does not use long, is the most difficult thing ; it strains the joints and spine of the rider, who generally ties a thin blanket tightly round him for a support. As long as he plunges in this way he is struck on the head with a cudgel by his rider, and his obstinacy is soon broken. In a day or two he moves in an unwilling trot, the sure sign of his beginning to be tamed. Many of the Llaneros do not use a bit at all, from being too indolent to accustom the animal to bear it, as it requires a second breaking nearly as troublesome as the first. For a good while these horses

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