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Modern History; .




Universal History.


THE modern Hungarians are descended from the an- x tient Hunns, whose origin and emigration* are re- ''."u,»4 lated in the Antient History. Though the Hum; ?allan* were entirely subdued by CharLmain, yet they were not »t-\uf:iom jtm terly extirpated by that conqueror, as some authors'pretend ;f(endcd. on the contrary, he gave orders to spare the common people*; many of whom, in order to be free from paying tribute, consented to become Christians b; for whose service he caused a church to be built, and dedicated to the Virgin Mary, without the walls of the city of Buda. Their country, indeed, during the long continuance of the war, was greatly depopulated, their nobility and princes destroyed, and ^heir chief taken prisoner; so that this once flourishing nation, which formerly possessed all the countries from the east part of Gerviany to Thrace and the Euxine-Sca, and from the Adriat'uk gulph as far north as Sarmatia, was then reduced within the limits of the present kingdom of Hungary, which is bounded _,, towards the south by the river Drove, on the north by the TMtb<mndi Carpathian mountains, which divide it from Poland and Ruffia; on the east by Tranjilvania and IValacbid, and on the west by Stiria, Austria, and Moravia. The river Danube runs

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through the middlejof the country, and divides it into two provinces, called ihe.Upper and Lower Hungary. The counties in the whole kingdom are reckoned fifty-seven, many of which were formerly subject to the dominion of the Turks; but by the conquests of prince Eugene, the emperors have again recovered almost the whole kingdom. There are here very few cities, and these but thinly inhabited; but the kingdom abounds with villages and towns as large as cities, and full of people.

she Hun- So far was this nation from being extirpated by Charlemaint garians tbat we nnc* tnev rebelled against his son Lewis the Pious, rcbzl a- who, when he was holding an assembly of the states at Aix la gainst the Chapelle, was informed, that Lindeutus had prevailed with the descend- people cf Lower Hungary to revolt6. Lewis, immediately ants of dismissing the assembly, went with an army to the Danube, Charle- zridy marching along that river, engaged and defeated Lin~ main. deu'.us, whom he afterwards pursued to the mountains of Transihania, whither the rebel had retreated. Lindeutus, finding himself unable to resist the arms of the emperor, sued for peace, which he obtained, and was generously pardoned. A.C. 889. We do not read of any expedition of the Hungarians after this, till the reign of the emperor Arnolphus, who is said by Luitprandus to have introduced them into Germany and France; though Baitfinius affirms, that they rebelled against Arnolphusd, and while the Franks were weakened with intestine divisions, over-ran Germany, sparing no age or sex, burning the cities, and pillaging the churches of their wealth. Afterwards they invaded France, where they committed the like ravages; and, returning with their spoil through Bava* ria, defeated the emperor Lewis III. near Augsburg. Four

A.C. 893. years afterwards, we find them assisting Leo the emperor at A.C.902. Constantinople, against the Bulgarians*. In the year 902, the Hungarians hearing of the divisions in Italy between the two contending king?, Berengarius, duke of Friuli, and Guide, duke of Spclcto; they entered that country by the pass of They in- Friuli, and ravaged that part of Lumbardy. Luitprandus rc•vade lates, that not thinking themselves powerful enough to engage Lombar- tr)g nume_rous forces of Berengarius, they quitted Italy, and dy, but wintered jn Pannonia; from whence many of their countryretire upon men havjn„ j0jned them, they returned in the spring, and, "sum's b^ving defeated Berengarius, who endeavoured to oppose money. them, they took AquiLia, Padua, and Verona, without any resistance, and marched as far west as the river Tifmo. But

c Eonf. Dec. i. I. io. * Idem ibid. e Baroniiamj.

vol. x. p. 634.

BereftBerengarius, having again assembled a numerous army, prepared to oppose them; upon whose approach the barbarians, thinking themselves unequal to the Italian forces, retreated precipitately over the Adda, and sent to Berengarius, offering to deliver up all their booty, provided he would allow them to march home in safety: which request being denied, they continued their retreat to the river Medcaccus, where being again refused the liberty of marching home in safety, their despair drove them to the resolution of attacking the Italians i and dividing their armies into three bodies, they surprised Berengarius, and entirely routed his forces. Being thus a second time masters of that part of Italy, they took and plundered Trevifo, and having suddenly built some boats, they likewise made themselves masters of Venice; but failing in their attempt upon the island of Clodia, they retired to their camp at Padua; and Berengarius cbnsenting to pay them a large sum of money, they quitted, for that time, Italy.

A Few years after, the Hungarians wen again invited into fbey are Italy by Albericus, prince of Etruria; who, though he had again mrepulsed the Saracens from Naples and Calabria, had been ex- vited into pelled from Rome by a faction of the nobles. The Hunga- Italy by nans, upon his invitation, immediately collected an army, Albericus. and entering Italy by Friuli, marched from thence to the Fl'aminian way, pillaging and destroying the towns through which they went; but, instead of marching to Rome, they turned aside into Etruria, which they miserably ravaged with fire and sword, carrying off with them an infinite number of people into slavery; and having thus learned the way into holy, for several years after they invaded it annually, for the fake of booty; till Berengarius II. desirous of freeing/r^, his country, from those incursions, concluded an alliance with them.

The Hungarians, having made a peace with the Italians, turned their arms against Germany; and the Chronicle of . Minden makes mention of their incursions into Saxony, in the? year 908. Arnulphus, duke of Bavaria, having led tnema,a^Qgr .towards the Rhine against the emperor Conrad I. who had ma'" formerly taken his duchy of Bavaria from him, and obliged ^ Q QIg< him to fly with his family into Hungary'. In the year 916, they again invaded Germany, and, among other ravages, burnt the church of Bremen9. Henry the Fowler, in the beginning of his reign, to secure his dominions from the incursions of these barbarians, made a truce with them for nine years, and consented to pay them a sum of money annually. About

f Meib. Rer. Ger. Script, v. i. p. cc8. Sax. Chant. 1. iii. c. 3. g Adam Brem. lib. i. cap. 46. Baron. Ann. v.x. p. 694..

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this time, Berengarius II. having been expelled his kingdom by Rodolpbus of Burgundy, whom the discontented Italians had called in to their assistance, fled to the Hungarians, his 'allies, and begged their help to recover Lombardy. Berengarius having continued in exile three years, at last returned to Italy with an Hungarian army, under the command of Salardus, who, wherever he marched, ravaged all with fire and A.C.924. sword; and having made himself master of the city of Pavia, They make which was then the ioyal residence, and very populous, he an irrup- gave jt up to be plundered by his army ; and afterwards setting /ion into £re t0 jt) Qf a]j tne inhabitants, only 200 were saved, who Italy and redeemed their lives by paying eight bushels of silver, picked urn ra- Up from tjje rubt,i(h Gf tne houses, and forty-three churches Vla" which were destroyed. Berengarius dying this year, the Hungarians quitted Italy, and crossing the Alps with intention of going into France, they were inclosed in a valley, and cut off by Rodolpbus of Burgundy, and Hugh prince of Aries*. Some years afterwards, the truce made with the emperor Henry being expired, the Hungarians, some say to the number of 100,000, invaded Germany; and leaving one half of their army to besiege Jecbebourg, they matched with the rest A.C. 933. >nt0 Saxony. But Henry assembling an army, and hearing the They are Hungarians were encamped at Merjburg, marched against entirety them, and taking the advantage of a fog, fell upon them unrouted in expectedly, killed 36,000 of them on the spot, and drove seGermany. veral thousands of them besides into the river. Those who were left at the siege of Jechebourg being informed of this defeat, retreated immediately in great confusion, but were mostly cut off by the country people'. This expedition of the Hungarians is variously related by several authors, but they all agree, that at Merjburg they received a signal defeat; in consequence of which, Germany was freed from their incursions for several yeais after. In general, the Hungarian history, during that period, is very obscure and uncertain ; there is no mention made of the internal government of their kingdom, or who were their princes or rulers ; they are only known to exist by their incursions upon their neighbours the Germans, French, Italians, and Bulgarians; no enemy havA.C.937. ing penetrated into their own kingdom for more than a cenIhey in- tury, it remained a quiet nursery for those roving warriors. wadehaly, The Hungarians, notwithstanding their defeat in Germany^ f ted near ur years" a'ter mva^ec^ Itah* marching down as far as Capua

Capua. h gAR> Ann. v. x. p. 707. 1 Ibid. v. x. p. 719. LuitPrand. l.ii. c. 8,&9- Meib. Rer. Ger. Script, v. i. p. 247, 641, & 648. Sax. Crant. 1. ii. c. 8. Bonf. Decad. i. 1. 10. p. 107. .

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