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It is from the northern district The forced sobriety and labour of that so many of them emigrate these people recall to mind the with their organs, cymbals, and assuetus malo Ligur of Virgil. magic lanterns, to amuse the peo- It is probable that the state of ple and children over all Europe. these unfortunate Ligurians has After an absence of eight or ten undergone little or no change years, the greater part of them during the lapse of two hundred return with some little savings, years. In the greater number of which assist them to enlarge their the small towns and villages situfields, to bay cattle, and yet mar- ated in the interior part of the ried. Tired of a wandering and country, and among the mounlaborious life, they return to finish tains, the peasants have neither their days under the humble roof clocks, sun-dials, nor barometers that gave them birth, far from the of any description ; the crowing of noise and tumult of towns. It is the cock, and the position of the there that they relate to their chil- stars, regulate the hours of the dren what has most attracted their night, and the course of the sun attention in their travels. It might those of the day. The inhabitbe supposed they would contractants, by their observations of the some of the vices prevalent in great planets, will tell you the hour with towns; they retain, however, their nearly as much precision as if it former simplicity of manners and were indicated by a clock. They industry. They consider their pre- also predict with a great degree of sent situation happy when they certainty the changes of the weacompare it with the fatiguing life ther. Passing most of their time they have led to attain it. Even in the fields, and being endowed their little vanity is gratified in with a quick sight and retentive being considered the richest of the memory, they collect a number of hamlet, respected by all, and look- little facts, which enable them to . ed upon as the oracles of the coun- acquire a kind of confused foretry. These advantages turn the sight, that reseinbles in a great heads of the young peasants, and measure that instinctive presage make them sigh for an organ and of approaching changes of weather a magic lantern.

which we observe in animals. By The inhabitants, particularly this, and the assistance of some those on the coast, live very fru- local circumstances, such as a fog gally: a small quantity of bread at a certain hour, and on a certain (for lately the pound of twelve, part of the horizon, a cloud of a ounces has been sold from four to particular colour on the top of six sols), with some fruit, herbs, some mountain, or the flight or and vegetables, generally compose chirping of birds, they can progtheir food : sometimes they have nosticate the alterations of weather a little salt-fish, very rarely any as well, if not better, than any fresh, and still more rarely meat. meteorologist. The effects of this mode of living With respect to the persons and on their persons are very visible : appearance of the Nissards, they corpulency and forid coinplexions have nothing very 'agreeable or are seldom to be met with : the interesting. The men have a very most of them, particularly near tawny complexion; their face is Monaco, are tawny and very thin. rather fat, and their eyes sinal! VOL. XXXVIII.

42

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man.

and dark. They are of a good tection. They pronounce the final

a stature, and well made, but for the syllables in a singing tone. Bemost part thin: The women are fore Julius Caesar, three different neither ugly nor pretty ; neither idioms were known in Gaul. 1. dark nor fair; most of them are of The Cantabric, of which there are an intermediate complexion. Their yet traces in Biscay. 2. The Belsociety would be more agreeable gic, which is a root of the Gerwere their understandings better 3. The Celtic, which was cultivated, and the French lan- employed from the Mediterranean guage a little more familiar. There to the British Channel, are, however, many exceptions to The Celtic was used in Prothis in several of the towns, parti- vence till the fourth century, by cularly at Nice. They dress nearly which time the Phocæans had gein the same manner as in other nerally made known the Greek parts of France: some of them language, and the Romans had still wear fringed caps, which be- introduced the Latin. The Celtic come them very well, and to which idiom became softer by this mix, a stranger is soon accustomed. In ture, but less pure, The Goths, their dress they appear to prefer Huns, Vandals, Lombards, and white to other colours. I recol, other barbarians, introduced their lect going to the cathedral of particular idioms, so that, about Nice on a holiday, and on enter, the tenth century, a language ing my eyes were quite dazzled composed of all these jargons took with a display of snowy white the name of Provençal. From which is rarely to be seen else- the tenth to the seventeenth cegwhere. This habit, which is ex- turies, the African, the Arragon, pensive in large towns, is here Spanish, and Italian expressions, very soitable to the climate, where gradually crept in. The emperor they have frequently six months of Julian said the Gauls croaked like without rain,

crows, and the inhabitants of Dra. The language of Nice, and of guinan have to this day a guttural that part of the department con- pronunciation. At Grasse the lantiguous to the Var, is the dialect guage is cadenced. of Provence, mixed with a number The French language is not so of words derived from the Italian. generally used in the department This patois is not unintelligible of the Maritime Alps as could be to the inhabitants of Marseilles, wished : every where, except in though that of Monaco, at the that part of the country belongdistance of four leagues from Nice, ing to the diocese of Glandeves, is entirely so. The patois of Mo- the Italian is used for education : naco differs from that of Menton ; hence even some of those employ, each of them is composed of the ed in public situations write bad dialects of Provence, Liguria, and French. As people go regularly Piedmont; bụt the idioms of the to inass and sermons, it might be two latter predominate. A few useful to direct the ministers of Spanish words have crept into worship to deliver their instruc.them, which might have been ex- tions in French. Even at Monaco

pected, as the Spaniards kept a the Italian is preferred, though garrison at Monaco, while that the French have been there upprincipality was under their pro- . wards of one hundred and bfiy

the year

years. It is, however, probable under the shade of a wild fig-tree, that the French language will and meditated on the weakness ultimately obtain universal recep- and infirmities of the human race. tion, as all the proclamations and • Several towns and villages in orders of government are now pub- this department have a saint eclelished in it.

brated for the cure of some disease. The Nissards are fervent in The inhabitants of Monaco possess their devotion; and though not St. Roman, who cures quartan fealtogether exempt from supersti- vers; other fevers are not under tion, are less credulous than the his controul. St. Devote is the inhabitants of other places in the patron of the town, and in truth same department. I extract from his name, and the fame of his mithe author of a Tour through the racles, have not a little contributed Maritime Alps, the following ac- to its welfare. An orator composes count of the devotion of the inha- an annual panegyric. I was prebitants of Monaco.Having wit- sent at that delivered last year. nessed their religious ceremonies It would be difficult to form an during the whole day, which were idea of the absurd fictions deliverperformed with great fervour, after ed from the pulpit. These holivespers there was a grand proces- days are not always appropriated sion round the square which is to devotion. While some are before the church. Two beings, praying, others are seeking less sick with the palsy, were dragged holy amusements, not forgetting about by their friends and rela- dancing, without which these tions; and, beside the fatigues of people could not exist. In genea long journey, they were exposed 'ral they have not much religion; with their heads bare to the but this is not the only instruction scorching rays of the sun, which in which they are deficient. Wheoccasioned the most violent per- ther it proceeds from a want of spiration. They continued this taste for the sciences, literature, excessive exercise for a long time, and the arts, or whether they have in confident expectation of a mi- not the means of procuring inracle being worked. However, struction, I cannot determine ; the Holy Virgin was not pleased though I imagine that both of to use her intercession, though I these causes operate. All branches am far from disputing her influ- of knowledge are here in their inence; nor, what was still more fancy. Their favourite study is singular, did these extreme mea- jurisprudence, which, before the sures produce any favourable or conquest, opened the way to plaunfavourable crisis. While some ces of emolument.' accompanied the procession, others Before I take leave of this subin the church were imploring the ject I ought to observe, in justice Virgin : women and children were to the Nissards, that I never witseen prostrated before the altar, nessed any thing in their worship stretching forth their supplicating deviating from the strictest dehands, and rending heaven with cency and most fervid devotion, their cries to the philosophic eye monly performed in other Catho“

This scene being as All the religious ceremonies comof reason as the wretches dragged lic countries are scrupulously oba about at the procession, I retreated served at Nice; and though the

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-author of a Tour through the Department of the Maritime Alps has justly rallied the inhabitants of some parts of the country upon the absurdity of their devotion, his remarks do not, nor could they, with the least truth apply to the Nissards.

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The beau monde at Nice gene rally ride or walk out in the morning, and content themselves with an airing along the coast of the Mediterranean, upon the road leading to the Var, or by the banks of the Paglion, near which runs the great road to Turin. Such was, at least, the custom of the inhabitants previously to the revolution, whose society proved an agreeable change for strangers, who came thither from most parts of Europe. It must be confessed that these roads are not now much frequented by the Nissards, except on a Sunday: the revolution having ruined the richest families, there remain but few whose circumstances or education put them a footing to keep company with strangers. No roads but those just mentioned are practicable for carriages; the curious, however, may find an infinite variety of agreeable walks and rides between the inclosures of the country, and in the various vallies which intersect the mountains in almost every direction.

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Balls are frequent in the winter, to which the English and other strangers of rank are invited. It was formerly usual to give one or two in return, but, to the best of my recollection, that custom was omitted in 1802.

The carnival is of all festivals

are very general among the better classes of society, and prove a source of pleasure and entertainment to the stranger.

The amusements of the dower classes are ridiculous enough, though they can scarcely surpass the motley assemblage of every rank and every description at a masquerade. It is an interesting scene to witness the gaiety of the peasant and their families at wakes, which are held in several villages at certain periods of the year. The diversions of all, young and old, consist, for the most part, in dancing, singing, and in music. Buffoons perform to the gaping spectators, and entertain them highly by their burlesque gestures.

The respectable families assemble alternately at each other's houses, and pass the evening at cards, in concerts, and in dancing, when a party to the play is not made up.

With respect to the customs which obtain in the general intercourse of the society of the Nis sards, the traveller will find little or no difference from those which prevail generally throughout the neighbouring districts of France.

A NIGHT WALK

IN DECEMBER.

By J. M. L.

'Tis done! stern Winter, like a thief, Robs the vast wood of ev'ry leaf.'.

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The night approaching bids for rest prepare,

former conduct. How much more pleasing is the picture drawn by Bloomfield? How much happier must such servants be? And how much more respected such a mas→ ter, than those I have before hinted at? A farmer ought to be this kind of man, and no other: the habits of such opposite characters do not assimilate well together.

• Flat on the hearth the glowing embers lie,

And flames reflected dance in every

eye:

There the long billet, forc'd at last to bend,

While frothing sap gushes at either end, Throws round its welcome heat-the plowman smiles,

And oft' the joke runs hard on sheepish Giles,

Who sits joint-tenant of the corners. stool,

The converse sharing, though in Duty's school;

I

For now attentively 'tis his to hear Interrogations from the master's chair.

Left ye your bleating charge, when day-light fled, Near where the hay-stack lifts its snowy Whose fence of bushy furze, so close

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Still the flail echoes through the frosty air,

Nor stops till deepest shades of darkness

come,

Sending at length the weary labourer
BLOOMFIELD.

home."

There is something very pleasing in the contemplation of a farmer's fire-side in winter; such a fire-side as Bloomfield describes in his Farmer's Boy, where the master and his servants sit in comfortable equality together: not like too many of our modern farmers, who from adventitious cir

eumstances have become gentle men, and in consequence have turned their old farm-houses into splendid mansions, where the gay parlour and the soft rug have succeeded to plain neat kitchen and ample fire-sides of their ancestors. These things are not real benefits to society, nor may they be eventually to themselves; for should the adventitious circumstances abovementioned cease to operate in their favour, (and they have already in some measure) I fear they will

head?

and warm,

May stop the slanting bullets of the

storm.

For, hark! it blows; a dark and dismal
night:

Heav'n guide the tray'ller's fearful steps
aright!
Now from the woods, mistrustful and
The for in silent darkness seems to
sharp-ey'd,

glide,
Stealing around us, list'ning as he goes,
If chance the cock or stamm'ring capon

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