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this system was systematically tried- say with wheat-for a few years, we should increase, not only the weight of the produce, but also enlarge the size, and improve the quality of the grain. The subject is curious and interesting, especially at this season of a smiling harvest following three J. L. unpropitious years. Dublin.
COATBRIDGE: STRANGE PRODUCTION FROM A BLAST FURNACE. I send the following Note cut from the Glasgow Herald, July 28, 1863, in the hope of eliciting an explanation of the phenome
"Yesterday afternoon, while the workmen at one of the blast furnaces, Dundyvan Iron Works, were busy working it with the bars, the blast broke out by the back 'tyweere,' when it belched forth a quantity of red-hot ashes and scoria, followed by another product of rather a peculiar appearance, in the shape of a shower of white flakes, like cotton, which continued for several minutes, until not only the ground around the furnace was covered, but also the workmen, who, while stopping up the orifice, appeared to have been engaged in a cotton factory or exposed to a snow-storm. The seeming flakes of cotton were wafted about by the wind, but a few handfulls were collected for curiosity. It has the appearance, and to the touch feels, like very fine wool, mixed with hair, and is inflammable. What it is, or how it was manufactured in the interior of a red-hot furnace, is a query that we cannot solve; but we understand that something of a similar production was seen at one or other of the iron works some years ago. We herewith send you a specimen of this wonderful cotton or product of the refuse of iron, for the curiosity of the thing."
J. D. CAMPBELL. JOHN LOCKE: FATHER OF THE PHILOSOpher. In "N. & Q." (1st S. iii. 337), MR. THOMAS KERSLAKE gave a full and interesting abstract of a Common-place Book of John Locke, an attorney, living at Publow, and father of the illustrious metaphysician of the same name. We collect from this abstract that the writer was living Dec. 24, 1655. Yet, in two subsequent communica tions to your columns (" N. & Q." 1st S. xi. 327; 2nd S. v. 177), the philosopher's father is stated to have fallen at the siege of Bristol, 1645.
Lord King, in his Life of Locke (ed. 1858, p. 2), gives a letter from the philosopher to his father. It is without date; "but," says his Lordship,
"must have been written before 1660." This shows that Lord King had no idea of the father having been killed in 1645.
C. H. & THOMPSON COOPer.
AEROSTATION.-I had always thought that ballooning was a modern invention. I was much surprised in ransacking some historical letters to discover one, dated September 27, 1607, containing the following passage:
"The greatest newes of this countrie is of an ingenious fellow, that in Barkeshire sailed or went over a high
steeple in a boat, all his owne making; and, without other help then himself in her, conveyed her above twenty miles by land over hills and dales to the river, and so downe to London."
I should very much like to ascertain if there be any other record of this curious invention and the propelling power.
JOSEPH ADDISON AND THE SPECTATOR."-I possess a note book which contains a number of Addison's contributions to the Spectator, in his handwriting. Originally the book has been written on only the right hand page, in a very plain but almost print-like hand; and afterwards amended and added to, on the blank pages, in the author's ordinary handwriting. Even in the amended state, the text differs considerably from the printed Spectator. My theory is that the Essays were written for College exercises, or the like, at least to be read to an audience (this I draw from the very distinct characters which are as easily read as type); and that they were afterwards expanded by Addison, and touched up for his darling paper. As I purpose printing the interesting fragment, I shall feel exceedingly obliged to any correspondent of yours for any information or suggestions which may help me in J. D. CAMPBELL. the editing.
50, Buccleuch Street, Glasgow.
George Bellas.-In the manuscript key to Beloe's Sexagenarian, printed in "N. & Q.," 2nd S. ix. 300, "George Bellas" is mentioned. Who was he, and was his name correctly spelled? It is one I have long been in search of, in connection with a supposed extinct branch of a family spelling their name slightly different. D.C.
BURNETT FAMILY.-Wanted to trace, for genealogical purposes, some of the family of Burnett, collaterally descended from Bishop Burnet. How the Burnetts, formerly of Horsleydown, Lambeth, and Rotherhithe, were descended from the bishop? Also, what became of those Burnets who lived at Norwich about 1607, and later? There was one Duncan, a doctor at Norwich, who had several brothers. Who were they, and what became of them? There was also a family of Burnett who Can any one tell lived at Chigwell, in Essex. who they were? Who were the Burnets who lived at Rotherhithe 1760-70, and before? There were some Burnets of Horsleydown, 1725. Who were they? Who was Rich. Bristowe Burnet, of Exeter Street, Strand, died Feb. 1795 ? Who was Noel Burnett, Spanish merchant, 1736; died in Gracechurch Street? Who was Thos. Burnett, Who is St. Col Burstockbroker; died 1768 ? nett, and where does he descend from? There were some Burnetts buried at Croydon, 1760— 1718; also an Alex. Burnett, buried at Newington Church, 1768, and a John Burnet, buried at Fulham
1689. If any reader can throw any light on any of these personages, the compiler of the Burnett genealogical tree will feel much obliged. H. A. B.
COL. COLLET.-Can you give me any particu
lars of the Col. Collet mentioned in the second extract from " Papers relating to Col. Lambert," furnished by PROFESSOR DE MORGAN (“ N. & Q.” 3rd S. iv. 89), as having been, with John Lambert, Esq., and others, "sent for back again to the Tower, so that they might attend the House when called for"? What were his arms? and from whom was he descended? and what share did he take in the civil war? ST. LIZ.
"To Chloe, at her lodge so sweet in
Hervey (which by-the-bye's but so-so);
I called last night at Mrs. Lynch's,
GAMBRINUS.Those among your correspondents who have travelled through Austria and Southern Germany, must have observed a sign which frequently appears on the beer-houses of those parts of Europe: a venerable king with
flowing beard, a crown upon his head, and a tankard with overflowing froth in his hand. His name is Gambrinus, King of Brabant, the inventor of beer. Who was Gambrinus, and what is the origin of his legend ? A. R. GOETIE was, and may be is, used in Yorkshire as a name for witchcraft. Whence derived? J. D. CAMPBELL. GREEK PRONUNCIATION.-The pronunciation of the Greek x was, doubtless, like kh, in brickhouse. On the same principle, if and are labial and lingual aspirates, they ought to be pronounced like ph and thin hap-hazard and hot-house. I wish to know, first, how did the Greeks pronounce and ? secondly, are the English sounds ph (f) and th (as in thin) aspirates? What book, easy of access, will explain this to me?
HEARN.Sarah Hearn, born in 1677, came whilst yet a child, with her father, William Hearn, to America. She always called Archbishop Sancroft her uncle, and told some pleasant stories of his kindness to her. Some of her descendants employed a solicitor in London to look after the archbishop's estate, which they had been told was in chancery; but the preliminary inquiry resulted, I believe, in the discovery that he left no property whatever. Can any correspondent give the connection between the families of Sancroft and Hearn? ST. T.
"To HIT:" "TO HITCH."-I do not think these words have a common derivation, though in the Yankee dialect they come very near. "To hit" originally meant "to strike;" then by a natural metaphor, "to hit one's mark;" then further, "to suit one another." "To hitch hosses," in Yankee, means to tie one's horse to the same stake or post as another: metaphorically, "to agree," but is generally used negatively, as "Brown and Smith don't hitch."
But whence came this verb "To hitch"= to catch on? It was perhaps originally a sea-term. I think it must come from the idea of wriggling or jerking along (Saxon, hiczan). When one thing (the jerker) meets that aimed at-when "the two ends meet"-hitching is accomplished. Our phrase, "To strike a bargain," and the equivalent in Cicero, "Icere fœdus "to strike a compact, point in this direction too.
J. D. CAMPBELL.
"The beams fastened together in some places of the with turf, for them to have recourse to in time of war, and Lake" (Loch Lomond) "by the inhabitants, and covered to move from part to part, gave rise to the fable of floating islands here."-A Tour through the Island of Great
Britain, commonly known as De Foe's. 8th edit. 1778, vol. iv. p. 233.
It would be interesting if any of the correspondents of "N. & Q." could supply a note of any tradition of the latest date when such structures may have been used, either in Loch Lomond or on any other lakes, in the British islands.
The above extract would tend to show that the supposed lake dwellings may come down to a comparatively recent period. W. C. TREVELYAN. INGLOTT.-I shall feel much obliged by any information as to the origin of this family. William Inglott was organist of Norwich Cathedral, and died in 1621.
LINES ON THE COMMITTAL OF O'CONNELL IN 1844.-I want (not for curiosity) to recover some lines written on the committal of O'Connell, in 1844. The following opening may help:
"The fiat is gone forth,
And in prison our chief is; Let no puling whine
Tell how burning our grief is."
Independent of politics, the poem was one of great literary merit, and was written by a gentle man whose initials may be recognised as "N.E. K." He was at the time acting editor of a celebrated political newspaper in Dublin, and may at present be connected with the London diurnal, or other newspaper press; and I take this method (as the best) to discover both himself and his poem. S. REDMOND.
"An enrolment has been found of the letters belonging to Edward, the first Prince of Wales; which, from its antiquity of above five centuries, its interesting contents, with its historical bearings, besides being the only record of that nature in existence, is decidedly the most important discovery of modern times.” — Illustrated London News, January, 1848, xii. 23.
What more is known of the subject of this announcement? Or was it a hoax? W. P. MEDAL OF LUTHER AND MELANCTHON. - From a paragraph in The Athenæum for August 1st, about the exact locality where Luther stood before the Emperor Charles V. and the Diet of Worms, my attention was called to a silver medal which has been long in my possession. It is about as large as a crown piece, and has on the obverse very spirited heads of Luther and Melancthon, with this legend: D. MARTIN. LVTHER. PHILIPP. MELANCHTON. On the reverse is represented the appearance of Luther before the emperor and the diet, with numerous figures in bold relief, surrounded by this inscription from 1 Tim. vi. 12, "Ein got bekentnos vor vielen zeugen." Below this representation is the following inscription: AvG.
TITLES BORNE BY CLERGYMEN. A trial of
considerable interest has just terminated at the (I know not which) was the plaintiff. He is deCork Assizes, in which a Rev. knight or baronet scribed in the papers as the Rev. Sir W. L. Darrell. Is it at all common now, or was it at any former time, to find titled clergymen? I remember, when a schoolboy in Dublin, there was a wellknown baronet (the Rev. Sir Harcourt Lees), a resident at Black Rock, near the city. The Earl of Sefton, of Croxteth Hall near this town, was about eighty or ninety years ago (I quote from memory) a Roman Catholic priest.*
Liverpool. TREFFRY FAMILY.-In looking through an old Book of Extracts, I found the following:
"A lady of the Treffry family, wife of Sir John Treffry, (Leland says she was wife of Thomas Treffry) cup bearer to Edward IV., and then absent at court, with a courage that no man might have been ashamed of, defended her house at Fowey for six weeks."
have often been much indebted to the influence of It is stated in the Lives of Great Men, that they their mother; may not our heroine have owed much to similar training? I am desirous to learn the name of the mother of the lady of the Treffry family.
YOUR CONSTANT READER. VITRUVIUS, IN ENGLISH.-In the list of works published, appended to a folio book dating 1710, I observe the title of Vitruvius in English, by
[For a list of clerical barcnets, see our 2nd S. vii. 86, 265.-ED.]
[Gilbert Stuart on his arrival in London in 1776 was found by his friend Waterhouse in a lodging in York Buildings. In the summer of 1778 our artist became a pupil of Sir Benjamin West in Newman Street, and resided in his family for many years. He used to relate the following anecdote of himself and his old master: "I used very often to provoke my good old master, though Heavens knows, without intending it. You remember the colour closet at the bottom of his painting room. One day Trumbull and I came into his room, and little suspecting that he was within hearing, I began to lecture on his pictures, and particularly upon one then on his easel. I was a giddy foolish fellow then. He had begun a portrait of a child, and he had a way of making curly hair by a flourish of his brush, thus, like a figure of three. "Here, Trumbull,' said I, do you want to learn how to paint hair? There it is, my boy! Our master figures out a head of hair like a sum in arithmetic. Let us seewe may tell how many guineas he is to have for this head by simple addition-three and three make six, and three are nine, and three are twelve-.' How much the sum would have amounted to I can't tell, for just then in stalked the master, with palette-knife and palette, and put to flight my calculations. Very well, Mr. Stuart!' said he he always mistered me when he was angry, as a man's wife calls him my dear when she wishes him at the devil. Very well, Mr. Stuart! very well, indeed!" You may believe that I looked foolish enough, and he gave me a pretty sharp lecture without my making any reply When the head was finished, there were no figures of three in the hair."
have done well, Stuart, very well; now all you have to do-is to go home and do better."
His next picture exhibited at Somerset House was that of a Mr. Grant, a Scotch gentleman, in the attitude of skating, with the appendage of a winter scene in the background. In 1782, Stuart commenced an independent establishment as portrait painter in Berners' Street, where he lived in splendour, and was the gayest of the gay. In 1786 he married the daughter of Dr. Coates, and two years after was compelled from pecuniary difficulties barked, in 1793, for his return to his native country. An to leave London for Dublin, from which place he eminteresting biographical sketch of this clever artist will be found in Dunlap's History of the Rise and Progress of the Arts of Design in the United States, 2 vols. 8vo, vol. i. pp. 161-223.]
JOHN DONNE, LL.D., SON OF the Dean of ST. PAUL'S.-About two years ago a letter of his was sold by Puttick and Simpson. I have searched but in vain for the date of the sale, and I shall be exceeding obliged to any of your readers who can inform me when it took place, or in whose possession the letter now is. CPL.
Simpson on Dec. 19, 1855:-
36. DONNE (Dr. John), Dean of St. Paul's, contemporary copies of five long letters, forming four closely-written pages folio. Also, two original A. L.'s of his son, John Donne, undated.
The commencement of one of the latter affords a curious illustration of the manners of the period. "I receaued a letter from yr Lp. this weeke, but it was rauished from mee by a verie handsome Ladie, who after shee had taken the pleasure of readinge it, tore it and burnt it; a little more familiaritie would haue giuen me a iust occasion to haue clapt her breech, and then I must haue faught with Sir Lionell the husband, for it is now cominge into fashion." The lot sold for 5s.
Another letter turned up at the sale of Mr. Singer's library by Sotheby and Wilkinson, August 3, 1858. 39. DONNE (John) to "My good Lord- Dec. 4, no year. J. Donne was the son of the Learned and Pious Dr. Donne. This most remarkable letter shews that he partook but little of the character of his Father. In addressing his friend, he writes, "I hope, likewise, you have of that, make Hine-head and Lob-lane your excuse; not the feare of God before your eyes, and being ashamed if you have, pray my Lord speake plaine, that if you are turned sainct, we may deliver you up to Satan, and keepe these Angels to ourselves," &c. The lot fetched 4s. This letter was resold by Puttick and Simpson on April 28, 1859.]
Another incident occurred while Stuart was with Mr. West. Dr. Johnson called one morning on Mr. West to converse with him on American affairs. After some time, Mr. West said that he had a young American living with him from whom he might derive some information, and introduced Stuart. The conversation continued (Stuart being invited to take a part in it,) when the Doctor observed to Mr. West, that the young man spoke very good English, and turning to Stuart, rudely asked him where he had learned it. Stuart promptly replied, "Sir, I can better tell you where I did not learn it-it was not from your Dictionary." Johnson seemed aware of his own abruptness, and was not offended.
QUOTATIONS WANTED.-Clement of Alexandria somewhere says that philosophy "came down from heaven," not like religion, by special revelation, but like the rain, in the ordinary course of the Divine government. Can any correspondent give the exact words, or, still better, refer me to " chapter and verse.' JUXTA TURRIM. [This quotation from Clement occurs in the Stromata, lib. i. cap. vii: "Karapalveтai тоívvv πроñaidela ʼn ‘Eλληνικὴ, σὺν καὶ αὐτῇ φιλοσοφίᾳ θεόθεν ἥκειν εἰς ἀνθρώ
Before Stuart left the roof of his teacher, he painted a full-length of his friend and master, which attracted great attention. It was exhibited at Somerset House. It happened that as he stood, surrounded by artists and students, near his master's portrait, the original came into πους, οὐ κατὰ προηγούμενον, ἀλλ ̓ ὃν τρόπον οἱ ὑετοὶ the rooms and joined the group. West praised the pic- καταρήγνυνται εἰς τὴν γῆν τὴν ἀγαθὴν, καὶ εἰς τὴν κοι ture, and addressing himself to his pupil, said, “You πρίαν, καὶ ἐπὶ τὰ δώματα.”]
In one of Charles Lamb's Essays ("Elia's "), two lines are quoted, to which I know the three preceding lines. Whose are they?
"Makes a learned and a liberal soul, To rive his stained quill up to the back, And damn his long-watch'd labours to the fire; Things that were born, when none but the still night, And the dumb candle saw his pinching throes."
[The above lines will be found in a kind of epilogue, entitled "To the Reader," at the end of Ben Jonson's Poetaster.]
BEN JONSON AND MRS. BULSTRODE.-Who was this lady," the Pucelle of the Court," on whom he wrote the verses in his works, vol. viii. p. 437 ? When did she die, and where was she buried?
[Notwithstanding the laudatory notices of this court beauty by two such poets as Ben Jonson and Dr. Donne, nothing seems to have been known of her by the respective editors of their works. She is also alluded to twice in the Notes of Ben Jonson's Conversations with William Drummond, pp. 7, 38, but without any note by the editor, Mr. David Laing. Not to stop here, an inquiry was made after this lady in our 2nd S. vi. 31, without eliciting any reply. In the Liber Famelicus of Sir James Whitelocke, p. 18, we meet with the following passage: "Cecill Bulstrode, my wife's sister, gentlewoman to queen An, ordinarye of her bedchamber, dyed at Twitnam in Middlesex, the erl of Bedford's house, 4 August, 1609." Can this be the "Court Pucelle?" It has been surmised that she may have been the concealed subject of much of Donne's lighter verse. Cf. also Donne's Letters, edit. 1651, p. 215, and his Poems, edit. 1654, pp. 254, 259, and the one entitled "Twicknam Garden," p. 22.]
THE "ARCADIA" UNVEILED.
"It is now generally acknowledged (and how could it ever have been doubted?) that by Prince Arthur is intended the Earl of Leicester. . . . . Sir Guyon is undoubtedly Walter (Robert?) Devereux, Earl of Essex, &c. &c."
As I believe I am the only person who has ever publicly doubted the above identifications, allow me space specifically to deny that the conclusions of C. in these respects can be just.
In 1842 the late W. Pickering asked me to paint a picture of the "Faery Queene" as a companion to Stothard's "Canterbury Pilgrims," and I was induced to read up every work of bistory or biography that I could lay my hands on, which might elucidate the transactions of the period. In 1843 I made a cartoon of the subject, "Una seeking the Assistance of Gloriana," which was exhibited in the competition at Westminster Hall, invited by the Royal Commission for the decoration of the Houses of Parliament. Mr. Rippingille, who was at that time publishing the Artizan and Amateur's Magazine, asked me to
give him an account of the results of my studies on the subject, and I enclosed the first part of the Essay which appeared on the 1st of July, 1843. In that I trust I have clearly shown that Leicester could not have been intended for Prince Arthur, but that Robert Devereux was intended to be immortalised in that character; while Sir Guyon unquestionably refers to Ratcliffe, Earl of Sussex.
died at the end of 1843, and is now rarely to be As the Magazine in which the article appeared met with, if you can allow this commencement to re-appear in "N. & Q." I shall be happy to continue it and show how far I have succeeded in
lifting the "covert vele" of the poet. If not, perhaps you will give the passage especially referring to Prince Arthur, Essex, and Leicester.
"AN ESSAY ON THE HISTORICAL ALLUSIONS OF SPENSER, IN THE POEM OF THE FAËRY QUEEN. "Spenser, in his letter to Raleigh, explanatory of his intention in the poem, which, without any impeachment of his power, might be very requisite when only a fragment of the poem was published, says, In that Faery Queene, I meane Glory in my general intention; but in my particular I conceive the most excellent and glorious person of our Soveraine the Queene, and her kingdom in Faëry land.' But in the introduction to the second book he had also explained his intention in this respect. "Right well I wote, most mighty soveraine, That all this famous antique history
Of some the aboundance of an ydle braine
Sith none that breatheth living air doth know Where is that happy land of Faëry
Which I so much doe vaunt, yet no where show; But vouch antiquities which nobody can know. 'Of Faery land yet if he more enquire By certain signes here set in sondrie place He may it find; no let him there admyre But yield his sense to be too blunt and base That no'te without an hound fine footing trace. And thou, O fayrest princesse under sky, In this fayre mirrhour maist behold thy face, And thine owne realmes in land of Faery, And in this antique image thy great ancestry.'
"If, therefore, the poem had been finished, we should have had an allegorical picture of Elizabeth and her court.
"With this clue Mr. Upton endeavoured to trace out the historical allusions, and has succeeded in fixing many of the characters; but in others he has been singularly unfortunate, though, with the too common fate in literature, he has been followed unshrinkingly in his blunders, without having due credit given him for his more accurate suggestions.
"Elizabeth is personified as True Glory, and Gloriana the Fairy Queen; also as Mercilla, Belphoebe, and Britomartis. Amoret, the sister of Belphabe, who is carried off by Busirane, is Elizabeth's sister-Queen Mary of Scotland, carried off by Bothwell; and the unsuccessful adventure of Scudamour to deliver her, is an allusion to Sir Nicholas Throgmorton's mission (which the poet flatteringly describes as being sincerely intended) to release Mary from the consequences of her (forced?) marriage with Bothwell, in which he failed, and Spenser releases Amoret by the means of Britomartis, appearing so to