Imagens das páginas


been the opinion of St. Gregory the Great, whose

authority is quoted in the following wor is of CONTENTS. -- No. 80.

Eugenio Robles, a Spanish writer of great authoNOTES: - Mozarabic Literature, 41- Exchequer: or Ex

checquer-Cheque, 43 " The Book of Days: " Translation of St. Cuthbert, 41- Kemble's Version of The Tempest." “ Tambien se averigua (San Gregorio, Epist. 67, lib. 44 - The Queen's Memorial to the late Prince Consort at vii.) que la primera Missa que se celebró con solennidad Balmoral, 45 -- Pope and Senault, 46.

de ceremonias y oraciones añadidas, fue instituyda y MIXOR NOTES:- The late Lord Hatherton - Punishment ordenada por el Apostol Santiago el Menor, Obispo de of Beggars at Bath in 1739 - Mr. John Collet - Oxford Jerusalem; cuyo orden y nueva manera de celebrar, Jeu d'Esprit, 46.

truxeron à nuestra España, introduziendola en ella, los QUERIES:- Philosopher's Stone, 47 - Anonymous - Bun siete Santos Discipulos de los Apostoles, viz., Torraio y sus

bury's Engravings - Charron, “ De la Sagesse" - The Compañeros," &c. (De la Antiguiedad del Oficio Santo Douglas Case -- Playing " Germands" - Major-General Heane - Hopton Family - Jamaica - Epitaph on John

Muzarabe, cap. xix. p. 204, Toledo, 1604.) a'Com he - Captain Thomas Kerridge --Lockwood, Edward VI.'s Jester - "Miller of the Dee" "The Nonsuch

The resemblance, however, between the Roman Prof-ssor "--Peter's Pence -- Quotation - Master Richard and Spanish liturgy appears to have been soon (Ryder) of Leicester - Skyring Arms or Pedigree--Spain : lost, at least with respect to various pravers and Mosqué of Cordova -- St. Stephen's Church, Walbrook Inscription at Trujillo, 47.

ceremonies. Different popes made several alterQUERIES WITH ANSWERS: --"A Helpe to Discourse "

ations in the sacramentaries, viz. Leo the Great, Dogs - Bryndley of Wistaston, &c., 50.

Gelasius I. and St. Gregory the Great. And REPLIES:- On the Derivation of the Word “Theodolite,” then, when the Suevi, the Vandals, and Visigoths 51 - Bell Literature, 5% - Marc de Vulson : Lucretia

conquered Spain, they introduced their own parMaria Davidson, 53 -- Dennis: Arma Inquirenda, Ib. Ralegh Arms: Correction -- Luther-Sheriffs of Cornwall ticular liturgy, which was infected with the - Parishes of England - Sir Charles Calth rope - Swift: Arian heresy. The Arian and ancient Spanish * Tale of a Tub” - Pizarro's Coat of Arms - To "speak by the Card” - Church used by Churchmen aud Roman

rite existed together for some time, until at last Catholics - Church v. King - Godolphin - The Song of the Spanish Church, through the cruelties and the Battle of Hexham-Unipods: Musky H---- Christie

intolerance of the Arians, saw herself reduced to - Platform – Praed's Poems - Stradella-Prince Christiern of Denmark - Burning Alive - Black Monday - Sub such misery and destitution, that nothing but stautia, &c., 54.

confusion existed in ber rites and religious serNotes on Books, &c.

vices. It is also probable, that the heresy of Priscillian had a considerable share in corrupting

the ancient Spanish Liturgy. Notes.

But a very important change took place when THE MOZARABIC LITURGY.

the Visigoth kings were converted to the Catholic The remarks which appeared in “ N. & Q."

Church, at the end of the sixth century. In the

fourth Council of Toledo, held in the year 633, some time ago on the Complutensian Polyglot,

the Spanish Bishops, with St. Isidore of Seville at would be incomplete in reference to the great literary zeal and abilities of Cardinal Ximenez.,

their head, resolved to put an end to the diversity without some additional observations on the Mz

of rites which then existed, and to establish

throughout the whole of the country one and the arabic Liturgy which he undertook to restore in

same liturgy. For this object, the bishops gave Spain, in the sixteenth century. The following account is taken from Gomez,

to each priest, at bis ordination, a new ritual,

which he was strictly obliged to follow, in the Eugenio Robles, Florez, Hefele, and the preface of Lorenzana, Archbishop of Toledo, to his edi.

performance of his sacred duties and functions.

This ritual was still, in substance, the same as tion of the Breviarium Gothicum, published at

the Roman. Madrid in 1775.

But St. Isidore, assisted by his

| brother St. Leander, had made certain alterations Gomez mentions (De Rebus Gestis à Francisco Ximenio, Compluti, 1569, lib. i. fol. 41), that in

and additions in it, and suppressed whatever errors the year 1502, while the cardinal was residing at

had crept in, through the malice and perfidy of

the Arians. Hence the work ofien bears the Toledo, he discovered some valuable manuscripts

name of Ritus Isidorianus ; seu, Breviarium et in the library of the Cathedral. These manu

Officium, secundam Regulam Beatissimi Isidori. scripts were written in old Gothic characters, and related to the ancient Spanish liturgy.

But it must be remembered, that St. Isidore was Florez

not the author of the reformed liturgy. Robles assures us (Espana Sagrada, tom. ii.) that this liturgy was introduced into Spain by St. Tor

is quite correct in stating that St. Isidore merely quatus and his seven companions, who were dis

enlarged the sacred office, &c. :ciples of St. James the Less. It resembled the “Amplió este oficio Santa,” he says, “ añadiendo a la Roman Liturgy in every essential part. Several antigua Missa muchas oraciones, y otras cosas muy prayers and ceremonies appear to have been added

notables y devotas; expurgandole de algunas obras que

con la antigüedad del tiempo se avian introduzido, no by St. James, which were afterwards introduced

tan conformes al uso y costumbre de la Yglesia.” - P. into the Spanish liturgy. Such seems to have 205, cap. xix.

This liturgy soon came into general use. It “ Mozárabe, or Muzárabe, is the Arabic Musta'rab, seems to have extended in every direction, with- meaning a man who tries to imitate or become an Arab

in his manners and language: and who, though he may out being influenced, in any way, by the reform

know Arabic, speaks it like a foreigner.” of Pope Gregory the Great. According to Father Lesley, a learned Jesuit, who published an edition This etymology of the word seems very proof the Mozarabic Liturgy at Rome in 1755, St. bable, for the Christians were so mingled up with Leander, the predecessor of St. Isidore, was the their conquerors and masters, that in process of first who revised the ancient Spanish rite for the time they were distinguished from the Arabs use of the Goths, to which additions were after amongst whom they lived by little except their wards made by his brother, St. Isidore. (See

faith. (Conde, Hist. de la Dominacion de los Alban Butler's Life of St. Isidore, April 4th.) Arabes en España. Madrid, 1820, tom. i. p. 229.) This liturgy continued in use until the invasion

When Toledo was recovered from the Moors, of Spain by the Moors, at the cominencement of and annexed again to the crown of Castile, in the eighth century.

the eleventh century, the Gregorian rite was At that unfortunate period, while numbers of adopted in the place of the Mozarabic. This Spaniards fought valiantly for their faith, and choice was confirmed in a council held in that some retired amongst the sierras of the north, royal and ancient city, in the year 1088. But others submitted to the conquerors under certain the approval of the council raised such a powerful conditions, the chief of which were, - that they opposition amongst those who still adhered to the should be allowed to preserve and practise their

use of the Mozarabic Liturgy, that it was conreligion without danger or molestation. To these sidered necessary to decide the dispute by the conditions the Moors generously agreed. Robles “ Judgment of God.” A copy of both liturgies tells us, that when Toledo was surrendered by was accordingly thrown into a blazing fire. The the Christians — after a most obstinate resistance Gregorian copy rebounded from the pile of wood and defence, one of the conditions was, “ that the and fell by the side of it, while the Mozarabic Christians should live according to their own

remained uninjured in the midst of the flames. law, and that six or seven churches should be

The inhabitants of Toledo exulted over the vicgiven up to them, wherein the holy offices might tory; but the King Alfonso VI. decided that, as be continued.” (P. 207.) Those who lived under both liturgies appeared to be respected by the the Moorish power received, according to the fire, so they should both be allowed in his king. statement of Dr. Hefele, the name of " Mostara- dom. This decision gave rise to the proverb, buna" — an Arabic participle, signifying mixed “ Allà van leyes, donde quieren Reyes"_“. Where with Arabs, while their liturgy was soon called

| kings wish, there the laws go.". the Mostarabic, the Muzarabic, Mozarabic, or

But though the king recognised both liturgies, Mixed Arabic :

| he did not think proper to grant them equal rights. “Da nun aber die unter Maurischer Herrschaft leben

The Mozarabic Liturgy was confined to only six den Spanier, den Namen Mosterabuna-d. i. die Ara parish-churches in Toledo, while all the other bisirten oder Vermischten erhielten," &c. (Die Mozara churches of the city and of the kingdom were bische Liturgie, xiii. H.S. 152.)

obliged to use the Gregorian rite. e same etymology of the word is given, both. But in course of time the Mozarabic Christians by Gomez and Robles; the first writer says:

in Toledo lost all attachment to their ancient “ Nonnulli tamen quibus patrii domesticique lares

liturgy, in consequence of which the Gregorian cariores libertate fuerunt, cõditione accepta, sub Arabum | began by degrees to be adopted in the six parish et Maurorum imperio sacris suis retentis, in urbe manse churches above mentioned, and the Mozarabic runt. Ergo ejusmodi homines quòd Arabibus permisti

was used only on certain festivals, viverent, Mistarabes appellati sunt, et illorum Ecclesias. ticus-ritus-officium Mistarabum. Quæ vox, cùm tem.

Such was the state of matters when Ximenez poris diuturnitate tum barbarorum lingua est corrupta,

became Archbishop of Toledo, in 1495. His preet in Mozarabum degeneravit, quâ nunc vulgus utitur.”

decessor, the great Cardinal Mendoza, had already (De Rebus Gestis Francisci Ximenii, lib. ii. fol. 41.) commenced the work of restoring the Mozarabic Robles also observes:

rite; but as death prevented hin from accom“ Este vocablo · Muzarabe' es corrompido de Mirti- |

plishing his object, Ximenez completed the work. arabe, que es lo mismo que dezir, ‘Christiano mezclado

He carefully collected all the best manuscripts of con Alarabes.'” (Cap. xx. De la Explicacion deste vocablo- | the said Liturgy, and chose Alfonso Ortiz - a Muzarabe, p. 207.)

Canon of the Cathedral of Toledo-together with Don Pascual de Gayangos, however, who is three parish priests attached to the churches of one of the best Arabic scholars in Spain, gives the Mozarabic rite, with power to revise the a different interpretation of the word in his manuscripts, and to change the ancient Gothic Mahommedan Dynastics in Spain (English trans- characters for the Roman letters. The Cardinal, ation, London, 1840, 4to, vol. i. pp. 419-20.) when everything was arranged, published at his He says:

sole expense a great number of Mozarabic Misa

sals and Breviaries, copies of which are now quite as feasible for the Turks to bave gotten seldom or ever to be met with in Spain, though their sequin from the Venetians, and not vice the Roman reprint of 1755, and the edition by versá, seeing that the former inhabitants of the Lorenzana of the Breviarium Gothicum in 1775, Adriatic city were, in the Middle Ages, the great are to be found in most good libraries.

“moneyers” of the world. Prior to the capture But in order that the Mozarabic Liturgy might of Constantinople by Mahomet II. there was no rest on a secure foundation, Ximenez erected a Turkish coinage to speak of; and from their interbeautiful chapel in the Cathedral, under the title course with the Greek Empire, the Venetians-and, of " Corpus Christi," and endowed a college for through them, Europe-obtained not “sequins” thirteen priests to officiate according to the Moz- | but “Byzants” or “Besants," from "Byzantium." arabic rite : these were called Mozarabes Capela | The “Besant" still lingers in heraldry. lani, and the head-chaplain was named Capellanus I cannot help thinking that the Italian term Major. These celebrated the divine office every “ zecca" has something to do with our exchequer, day, and recited the canonical bours according the more so as the first die-sinkers, seal-engrato the same rite. While the Roman Liturgy vers, and moneyers who settled in England were is now happily used throughout the whole of either Venetians or Greeks. A “zecca," excheSpain, the Mozarabic is still kept up in the Cathe. quer, or absolute treasury for money coined may dral of Toledo, the funds for this purpose which have been attached to the actual mint (Monnaie, were left by Ximenez baving been fortunately | Moneta). I have admitted that to connect the preserved, to a considerable extent.

| " Exchequer," in its pecuniary bearings, with the It would be unsuitable for the pages of " chequers," as a pattern, passes my comprehen"N.&Q." to enter into any details connected with sion; still I am strengthened in my belief as to the ceremonies of this ancient and venerable the affinity of “exchequer” and “zecca" when I Liturgy. They may be found in Robles, Tho- come to the consideration of the word "cheque,”— masius, Bona, Martene, and Aguirre. A short the order or draft for payment of money deposited description and explanation of the Mozarabic in the hands of a banker. Certain etymologists Mass are to be found in Hefele's Life of Cardinal | have been hasty enough to hold "cheque” as Ximenez (English Translation, ed. London, 1860, identical with “ check," the act of curbing or rep. 187.)

J. DALTON. straining. Thus, in drawing a “cheque," you keep Norwich.

a “check" on your banker ; but the real "check,"

as a curb or verificatory document, is not the EXCHEQUER: OR EXCHECQUER-CHEQUE.

“cheque” which departs from you, but the

“counterfoil" or "stump" which you keep. ObThe following is half a “ Query” and half a serve as a curious fact, that alıhough we have "Note." I want to know, first, as much as is borrowed “counterfoil” from the Norman “conpatent as to the origin of the sign of the “Che trefeuille," the equivalent term in modern French quers," the oldest tavern cognizance, I believe, banking is "scuche," the “root” or “stump," or extant, and still visible on the door-jambs of a extraction of a thing, as in “un gentilhomme de wineshop in Pompeii,- and as to the curious con- | bonne souche." nection between such a convivial emblem and our In old time the goldsmiths (Lombards and Vegrave legal finance tribunal the Court of Exche- | netians, by the way), were wont to keep their quer, the table of which court was, within the own and their customers' money in the king's memory of living persons, covered with a cloth treasury; and the fagitious shutting up of this bearing a pattern of alternate white and black

treasury, and impounding of its contents by squares. I shall be told, doubtless, that our word Charles II., will be remembered as one of the most exchequer comes obviously froin the French impudent acts of dishonesty ever perpetrated by “Echiquier” or chessboard, and that the “che. | a king. What, however, could have been more quers " was anciently a very apt sign for a tavern natural than for the Veneto-Lombard goldsmiths where any modifications of the games of chess, to have called the treasury (then closely associated draughts, or backgammon were played; but I with the mint) the “ zecca," and a draft drawing cannot obtain a satisfactory solution of why the money thereupon (when they could get it) a “chequers " should have had anything to do with “zeque" or "cheque"? There was once an official the royal treasury.

also called the “clerk of the cheque." Who and Next: I noted recently in Venice, that the what was he ? mint is called the “Zecca." Here, obviously the I have transcribed this as I found it in my word is derived from the Venetian zecchino or note-book, written when, from circumstances, I Sequin. The Sequin is said to have been origin- was debarred from access to any books of etymoally a Turkish coin ; but not being an orientalist, logical reference. But I have gained very little, I am unable to determine its possible Turkish or since my return to England, from the consultaArabic root, I will, however, observe that it is tion of authorities readier to the hand, and am

therefore emboldened to appeal to the correspon- | with silver ; a gold cross on the breast of the dents of “N. & Q." to point out more recondite skeleton, and a paten lying by it. The bones sources of information.

were all placed in a new chest, and buried again GEORGE Augustus SALA. in the same place. The Book of Days goes on :

“From all the appearances, it was plain that the swathings had been wrapped round a dry skeleton, and

not round a complete body; for, not only was there no « THE BOOK OF DAYS:" TRANSLATION OF space left between the swathing and the bones, but not

the least trace of the decomposition of flesh was to be ST. CUTHBERT.

found. It was thus clear that a fraud had been practised; The Book of Days occasionally gives some and a skeleton dressed up, in the habiliments of the grave, account of a saint, under the day of bis feast. for the purpose of imposing on popular credulity, and

benefiting thereby the influence and temporal interests of Accordingly, under the date of September 4, it

the church." has a long article on the “ Translation of St. Cuthbert," characterised by the usual inaccuracies It would be out of place in the pages of and prejudice of its other notices of the saints. “N. & Q." to go into a refutation of this gratuiIt is well known that, in 1827, on the 17th of tous imputation of fraud ; but before any imMay, a stone slab was removed from the Feretory | partial reader adopts this assertion of the Book of of St. Cuthbert, in Durham Cathedral, and a Days, I would have hiin in justice peruse a work skeleton taken up, which was confidently asserted published the year after this exhumation, and to be that of St. Cuthbert. It is not my inten entitled, Remarks on the Saint Cuthbert of the tion to enter upon any discussion as to the cor Rev. James Raine, M.A., &c. ; with the following rectness of this assertion : my only object here is significant motto, “Quodcumque ostendis mibi sic, to rectify the mistakes of the Book of Days.

incredulus odi.” It was written by the late Dr. “ The next appearance of St. Cuthbert,” it says, “was

Lingard; and the same learned author has a long in May, 1827; when, in presence of a distinguished as note on the subject in the 3rd edition of his Hise semblage, including the dignitaries of Durham Cathedral, tury and Antiquities of the Anglo-Saxon Church, his remains were again exhumed from their triple encase vol. ii. p. 77. But the flippant and groundless ment of coffins."

imputation of fraud will be found well met in the From this account, the reader would be led to Remarks above referred to, at p. 61. F. C. H. conclude that the exhumation was a public proceeding, conducted before a large assemblage, and by the d gnitaries of the cathedral. But the truth is, that it was quite a private undertaking;

KEMBLE'S VERSION OF THE TEMPEST.” conducted by one prebendary, the Rev. W. N. | In the article in The Cornhill Magazine for Darnell, and one other clergyman, the Rev. James July on the “ Stage Adaptations of Shakspeare," Raine, Rector of Meldon: and the “ distinguished | mention is made of the aslaptation of The Tempest assemblage " was composed of the deputy-receiver, | produced by Mr. Jobn Kemble in London - in the clerk of the works, the verger, and the master the winter of 1789." The exact date was Ocmason. Mr. Raine, indeed, includes the Rev. S. | tober 13, at Drury Lane Theatre. The Cornhill Gilly, another prebendary, among the openers of writer says: his tomb. But I know, from his own declaration,

“ This new version, in which Hippolito and Dorinda that he was not present at the actual opening. again made their appearance, and which altogether was He was engaged in the service of the choir ; but a sort of compromise between Shakspeare and Dryden, hearing a strange noise in the Feretory, he ran was the recognised Tempest of the stage till Mr. Macready thither in his surplice as soon as the service was

revived the original play at Covent Garden." over, to see what was going on. He there found In connection with this subject it may be worth the Rev. Messrs. Darnell and Raine, and the while to mention the following fact connected others. The two workmen were actually stand with the first production of The Tempest by the iny within the coffin, and trampling upon its con- Kemble family, and (what I imagine to be) the tents. He ordered them out, remonstrated with first appearance of the future Mrs. Siddons in a the Rev. Mr. Darnell, and requested that wit- play of Shakspeare; which facts have been overnesses might be sent for out of the town, and also looked by Boaden, Campbell, and other biosome one from Ushaw College. Mr. Darnell was graphers of the Kemble family. sub-dean: he seemed very nervous, and refused It was in 1767 that Mr. John Kemble became assent to Mr. Gilly's proposals. He wished to the manager of the Worcester Theatre, then held finish the investigation as quickly as possible, and " at the Great Room, at the King's Head, in to prevent any crowd assembling. So much for High Street," where Mr. Ward (the father of the “distinguished assemblage." Mr. Gilly then Mrs. Kemble, and the restorer of Shakspeare's went down himself; and discovered a stole and nonument) had been manager. At that time the two maniples; a portable altar of oak, covered managers of country theatres were driven to

various ingenious expedients in order to evade usual places. Between the parts of the Concert will be those penalties upon unlicensed playhouses threat- | presented, gratis, a celebrated COMEDY callid ened by Sir Robert Walpole's “Golden Rump"

The TEMPEST; or the Inchanted Island. Act of 1737; and they usually advertised and (As altered from Shakspeare by Mr. Dryden and Sir charged for a concert in which a dramatic per

W. D'Avenant.) formance would be introduced gratis. Indeed, on

With all the Scenery, Machinery, Musick, Monsters,

and other Decorations proper to the piece, entirely new. one occasion, at Wolverhampton, Mr. Kemble's

Alonzo (Duke of Mantua), Mr. Kemble; company performed a “ Concert of Vocal and

Hyppolito (a youth who never saw a Woman), Instrumental Music, divided into three parts,"

Mr. Siddons; together with the comic opera of “ Love in a Stephano (Master of the Duke's Ship), Mr. Kemble; Village,” all of which was gratis; but the gra

Amphitrite, by Mrs. Kemble; tuitous tickets could only be obtained at certain

Ariel (the Chief Spirit), by Miss Kemble; places where was to be had “ a quantity of tooth

and Milcha, by Miss F. Kemble.

The Performance will open with a Representation of a powder (from London), selling in packets at 2s.,

Tempestuous Sea (in perpetual agitation) and Storm, in 18. or 6d. each ;” and it was “humbly hoped that

which the Usurper's Ship is Wreckd; he Wreck ends no Ladies or Gentlemen will take it amiss, that they with a Beautiful Shower of Fire.-And the whole to cannot possibly be admitted without a Ticket.” conclude with a Calm SEA, on which appears Neptune, In the above opera, the future Mrs. Siddons

Poetic God of the Ocean, and his Royal Consort Amphiappeared as Rosetta, and Mr. Siddons as Young

trite, in a Chariot drawn by Seahorses, accompanied with

Mermaids, Tritons, &c.” Meadows; and, as it was just before her residence with Mr. Greathead's family at Guy's Cliff,

And it was in this fashion that the Tempest

was produced by Mr. Kenible, twenty-two years it was probably their last joint appearance before their marriage - the date of which is not given

later than this, at Drury Lane Theatre. The by Mrs. Siddon's biographers, but was Nov. 26,

above extract from the Worcester play-bill is

noteworthy as recording (at least, I believe so) 1773, at Trinity Church, Coventry. On the 13th of December, 1773, the plays of The West Indian

the first appearance of the future Mrs. Siddons in and The Padlock were performed by Mr. Kemble's

a Shakspearian character ; and it is a circumcompany at Worcester, the characters of Char

stance that has not been noted by her biographers. lotte Rusport in the former, and of Leonora in

CUTHBERT Bede. the latter, being sustained by “ Mrs. Siddons ;" which I imagine to be the first occasion on which THE QUEEN'S MEMORIAL TO THE LATE we meet with that illustrious name, now a house


A copy, in full, of the inscriptions upon this She had received a good education (given gra- | Memorial may interest the readers of “ N. & Q.” tuitously by the then mistress) at Thorneloe | The - Memorial Cairn.” as it is called in the loHouse School, in Worcester, where her native

cality, is situated upon a high mountain which talent was manifested at amateur theatricals ; !

overlooks the Palace of Balmoral, and a great and she appears to have made her debût on the

portion of the upper district of Deeside. The Worcester stage when she was twelve years old,

monument is composed of native granite, is pyrathough, as we know from “ the Boys and the

midal in form, and has four sides. Upon the Frog” anecdote, she had made her first appear

north side, cut in plain Roman capitals, is the ance on other boards at a very tender age. (Her

following:Worcester life, I may observe, is altogether passed

«то over by her biographers.) At twelve years of

THE BELOVED MEMORY age, on February 12 and 14, 1767, she performed at Worcester the character of the Young Prin


THE GREAT AND GOOD, cess in the play of Charles the First, and also

PRINCE CONSORT. sang in the concert. On April 16, 1767, Kemble

ERECTED BY HIS produced his version of The Tempest. I copy so

BROKEN HEARTED WIDOW, much of the bill as relates to the play and the

VICTORIA R. Kembles. The future Mrs. Siddons, it will be

21st AUGUST, seen, was the singing Ariel:


Upon another dressed slab, a few inches below “ Worcester, April 16th, 1767. the above, is this quotation: * MR. KEMBLE's Company of Comedians.

“ He being made perfect in a short time,

Fulfilled a long time: "At the THEATRE at the King's Head, on Monday

For his soul pleased the Lord, evening next. being the 20th of April instant, will be

Therefore hasted He to take performed a CoNCERT OF MUSICK, to begin at exactly

Him away from among the wicked. half-an-hour after six o'clock, Tickets to be had at the

Wisdom of Solomon, chap. iv. verses 13

and 14."


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