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It would be very interesting if all such information respecting Cervantes and his great work could be collected, in the same way as the late Mr. Adamson did for Camoens. W. M. M.
A GOOSE TENURE (3rd S. iv. 268, 400.)-For a century and a half, the Lord of Essington, in Staffordshire, was bound to bring a goose on the first day of every year to the Lord of Hilton (an adjoining and superior manor), and drive it thrice round the hall fire, while "Jack of Hilton" was blowing it. He, or his bailiff, had then to carry it to the table, and receive a mess for himself from the Lord of Hilton. The custom ceased on Essington becoming the property of the Vernonsthe owners of Hilton.
"Jack of Hilton" is still at Hilton Park, where I saw him some three years since. He is very properly kept in a box, as being unfit for general observation. It is a small uncouth image of brass, resting on one knee; one arm on the breast. It is hollow, and perforated-by which the fireblowing part of the performance was effected. I think Plot gives a representation of it.
How or when this image came to Hilton, or was made a party to the Essington tenure, is unknown. I have been informed, however, that a gentleman who had become well versed on the Continent with Pagan antiquities, at once recognised it when shown to him as the god "Poosta (I write from memory). It is a very interesting subject, and one upon which I should wish Mr. Vernon of Harefield would send you a Note.
"My little dears who learn to read, Pray early learn to shun
THE GREAT DUKE A CHILD-EATER (3rd S. iv. 412.) At Christmas, either 1828 or 1829, appeared the first volume of Hood's Comic Annual. During the next few years there were sundry other "Comics" published in imitation of it: one, the name of which I cannot call to mind, was meant especially for the young, and in it I remember to have seen the song quoted by A. A. It is many years since I saw this book; but I am nearly certain that it also contains some "lines" in condemnation of punning. The lines commenced:
That very silly thing indeed Which people call a pun."
I maintain, nevertheless, that a good pun is much to be enjoyed. W. H. OGLESBY (3rd S. iv. 326.)-This name is not uncommon in the western part of North Lincolnshire. SP. will find it several times in Kelly's Post Office Directory of Lincolnshire, 1855. It occurs also once in the London Directory for 1861, and twice in the Gentleman's Magazine, 1793, July, p. 620; 1800, Feb., p. 185. K. P. D. E.
NEWSPAPERS (3rd S. iv. 397.)—R. J. W. will obtain the information he needs, by applying to Messrs. Hansards, Great Queen Street. A recent return can also be had there. Mitchell's Newspaper Directory will aid his research. Also, in the Encyc. Brit. (vol. xvi. pp. 180-205,) will be found an interesting and valuable historical ar ticle on Newspapers by Mr. Edwards. JAMES GILBERT. 2, Devonshire Grove, Old Kent Road, S.E.
RING SAID TO BE OF MARY, QUEEN OF SCOTS (3rd S. iv. 396.) —It is singular that the only sovereign to whom the insignia and initials, as described, could have belonged, should not have been suggested in the list given. The original seal was, doubtless, that of Queen (regnant) Mary Stuart, wife of King William III. The absence of the motto is confirmatory of this supposition; and I imagine that the escutcheon of pretence of Nassau, invariably borne by her husband, was properly omitted in a seal denoting her separate or distinct sovereign capacity. S. T.
ANONYMOUS WORK (3rd S. iv. 371.) — The Letters from the Kingdom of Kerry in the Year 1845, were written by Mrs. Lydia Jane Fisher, youngest daughter of Mary Leadbeater; whose interesting Annals of Ballitore form vol. i. of the well known Leadbeater Papers, published last year by Messrs. Bell & Daldy. Mrs. Fisher was the editor of that work. ̓Αλιεύς.
MISUSE OF WORDS (3rd S. iv. 407.)-I agree almost entirely with B. R., but the word garble by many old writers on weights and measures, requires a remark. The substantive, mentioned applying to all substances which have garble. To meant refuse and averdupois weight is stated as garble, was to separate the refuse from the valuable part. I suppose the garbler of spices must have been an officer appointed to judge of the refuse, in order to decide on the duty payable.
Aggravate is a word I have always heard applied to the act of making an angry person more angry it is natural that the word should be transferred from the feeling to the person. Other words have undergone the same alteration. But if aggravate must be restored to original meaning, there is a charming word ready to take its place. I found it in a very amusing book, published old horsedealer, a most original personage, exabout thirty years ago, the Clubs of London. An claims, "It is so aggrivoking!" This compound of aggravate and provoke has all the force of both words, in sound as well as in meaning,
A. DE MORGAN. SWING (3ra S. iv. 398.) At the time of the fires, the written notices signed "Swing" were very often, if not most frequently, directed against agricultural machines, pursuant to the notion that
machinery lessened the demand for labour. One particular kind of implement was often mentioned; and this was the point of a joke played, I believe, upon the headmaster of Westminster School, who was said in the newspapers to have found the following upon his desk: "Sir! If you do not lay by your thrashing machine, you will hear
further from SWING."
"THE MONKEY WHO HAD SEEN THE WORLD"
(3rd S. iv. 400.)—When a boy in the country, I had given to me a nice edition of Gay's Fables, with pictures. To "The Monkey," &c. was prefixed a picture containing an animal in bag-wig, tawdry jacket, spiky sword, and other absurdities; all which made him a funny creature. few years afterwards, I learnt to find my way about the streets of London. One day, turning from St. James's Square into Pall Mall, I came suddenly, without a moment's warning, in front of a young fop dressed exactly to the pattern I had so often laughed at. I had very nearly cried out "The monkey who has seen the world!!!" I followed him a little way-I had seen the sweeps on May-day not long before-expecting that he would stop before some house, and dance, or tumble, or do something for his living; but he walked on. I then turned back, and immediately afterwards met an elderly man, beyond doubt an educated gentleman, in the very same kind of dress, arm-in-arm with a general officer in full uniform and several stars; these were followed by others of the same types. On making inquiry, I found that the levée had just finished; and that the monkey-jacket, cheese-toaster, &c., which I had always fancied were invented by some clever artist to make a monkey look more like a monkey than he was by nature, were parts of the dress which grave men were expected to wear when they paid their respects to the sovereign! This was more than forty years ago, and I believe some of the trappings have been abolished. M.
INKSTAND (3rd S. iv. 348, 418.)—A correspondent immediately furnished me with the address at which these inkstands can be obtained: Dufour, 17A, Great George Street, Westminster. I have one now in use, and I think it decidedly the best I ever possessed. This inkstand has the moveable cover for the top of the cup.
A. DE MORgan. CURIOUS CIRCUMSTANCE (3rd S. iv. 409.)-I send you the record of a circumstance even still more curious than that given last week by your correspondent MR. G. F. CHAMBERS: —
"SIX BROTHER PRIESTS. It is scarcely likely that a
scene which took place at the Feast of our Lady of Mount Carmel, at St. Chad's Church, Manchester, perhaps ever occurred before, or that any father had the happiness of not only having six sons called to the Holy ministry, but to see them all at the altar at the same time; yet
such was the fact on Sunday last, when the following brothers were at the altar at St. Chad's at the Holy
Sacrifice, and in the evening sang vespers together: the Very Rev. Canon Edward Browne of St. Werburgh's, Birkenhead; the Very Rev. Canon Richard Browne, St. Ann's, Leeds; the Rev. Joseph Browne, St. Andrew's, Newcastle-on-Tyne; the Rev. Henry Browne, St. Mary's, Manchester; the Rev. J. F. Browne, St. Chad's, Man
chester; and the Rev. William Browne (lately ordained), Professor at the English College, Lisbon. The father and sisters of the above clergymen were at the mass and vespers, beholding what to them must have been a sub
ject of surpassing interest, and of internal glory to God that they had been so blessed." This is from the Tablet.
F. G. L.
GREAT GUNS (3rd S. iv. 392.) — Though not a direct reply to the query of J. E. H. as to whether we have any authentic records of cannon balls at all approaching the magnitude of 92 inches in circumference at a period so early as 1453, perhaps the following circumstance may not be uninteresting. Scrambling about among the ruins of the triple wall of Constantinople, one summer's afternoon a few years ago, I found among the débris which had fallen down into the ditch in front of the wall, a large stone bullet. I roughly measured its diameter by cutting a notch in my walking stick, and on reference to it I find the measurement thus indicated to be 22 inches. The place where the bullet was found was a little to the south of Top Kapoussi, "The gate of the Cannon," - so called because it was on an eminence in front of it that Mahomet planted his great gun. I thought it not improbable that this might be one of the bullets fired from the huge piece of ordnance, though I could see no mark of concussion upon it, except that in one part it was not perfectly spherical. It lay among the débris of a large portion of the wall that had fallen outward and partially filled up the great ditch. It was fashioned out of a blue quartzose rock, close grained, and extremely hard and heavy. I may add, that I once saw an old gun, built on the hoop and stave principle, apparently not less than "Mons Meg," if not larger, which was being chopped up by the steam hammer in the Turkish take a note of its dimensions. Arsenal to make nails. I regret that I did not J. A.
ST. ANTHONY'S SERMON TO THE FISHES (3rd S. iv. 414.)-I have examined Addison's Italian copy of this Sermon, and also his translation of it in and much more laboured than the Sermon which vol. ii. of his works in quarto. It is much longer I translated from my Portuguese copy, and which at the time I supposed to contain the entire Sermon. Addison's would probably be too long though we not unfrequently meet there with to find insertion in the pages of "N. & Q.," pieces of wearisome length and very slender in
I attach no further importance to the Sermon
than as it conveys a remarkable reproof to unwilling hearers; but I cannot admit that it was intended as a skit upon any prevalent perversion of texts. The Sermon inculcates serious duties, which men are too apt to forget; and the Saint is represented as conveying these to the minds of perverse people, through the novel experiment of preaching to creatures. The end was attained by the conversion of those who had before been obstinate and impenetrable.
In answer to MR. GELDART's question, I can safely assure him that no Catholic Doctor, great or small, ever maintained an opinion that animals have any capacity for religion. The commencement of St. Anthony's Sermon is as I gave What CANON DALTON quotes from Ribadeneira is merely the summons which the Saint first gave to the fish to come and hear him; and is thus given in the Portuguese: "Vinde ouvir a palavra de Deos peixes do mar e do rio, pois a não querem ouvir os homens heregas e impieis." Immediately a great number of fishes, great and small, came forth before the Saint, and all held their heads above the water in mute attention; and then the Saint began his Sermon in the words already given. By this time CANON DALTON has probably discovered that his promised Sermon to a wolf was not delivered by St. Anthony, but by St. Francis of Assisium. F. C. H.
VIXEN (3rd S. iv. 389.) — We have vixen (not fixen) in Shakspeare, Midsummer Night's Dream, Act III. Sc. 2. (Cambridge Edition, 1. 324.)
"She was a vixen when she went to school." Vixen is the reading of the folio of 1623.
Mrs. Cowden Clarke (a good authority) gives this as the only use of the word "vixen" by Shakspeare.
NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC.
The Book of Common Prayer, according to the use of the United Church of England and Ireland: together with the Psalter or Psalms of David pointed as they are to be sung or said in Churches. (Longman.) it.
In referring to presumably likely passages in Ben Jonson, in Marlowe, and in Beaumont and Fletcher, I do not find the word (either as fixen or vixen.)
Halliwell and Wright give fixen as North. JOHN ADDIS.
QUOTATION FROM SENECA (3rd S. iv. 373.)— This passage is found in the 104th Epistle of Seneca, towards the middle (edit. Argent. 1809). The correct reading is
"Ipsi quoque hæc possunt facere sed nolunt. Denique quem unquam ista destituere tentantem? Cui non faciliora adparuere in actu? Non, quia difficilia sunt, non audemus, sed, quia non audemus, difficilia sunt." C. T. RAMAGE.
JOSEPHINE'S ADDRESS TO NAPOLEON (3rd S. iv. 411.)-The song inquired for by M. B. was published by Chappell, about 1839, and is entitled "The Beloved One;" words by Miss Twiss, music by Mrs. Robert Arkwright H. A. S.
Messrs. Longman have, we presume, produced this beautiful specimen of decorative printing as a Prayer It is printed at the Chiswick Press, and its distinctive Book suitable for a wedding present, or a Christmas gift. features are the exquisite borders, which have been taken from the works of Geofroy Tory, the French bookseller and engraver (1480-1536), whose Latin Psalter and Cosmography of Eneas Sylvius are well known, and whose own treatise on ornamental typography, entitled Champfleury, is esteemed one of the most remarkable curiosities of literature. The designs are certainly very graceful and elegant.
The Desk-Book of English Synonymes; designed to afford Assistance in Composition, and also as a Work of Reference requisite to the Secretary, and indispensable to the Student. By John Sherer. (Groombridge & Sons.)
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"Works"-The Ostrich, an Emblem of Faith - The Sky at Sunset-Three of the most Popular Books in England in 1594 Ancient Humour-William Harborne-Longevity of the Raven, &c. - Tonson: Osborne - Knighting of the Sirloin-Abbot Whiting's Shoeinghorn, 472. QUERIES:- Capt. James Gifford: Admiral James Gifford, 472- Anonymous Theodore Anspach: Laing's Travels in South America"-The Ammergau Mystery: Shakspeare
"Life of Cæsar"-" Codex Vaticanus "
Their rights, privileges, and exemptions were almost innumerable. They claimed exemption from most of the usual taxes; they could not be imprisoned for debt, nor subjected to torture for criminal offences. They had the right of appealing to arms to decide their private quarrels; they claimed the privilege, whenever they considered themselves injured or affronted by their sovereign, of renouncing their allegiance to him; and several instances are recorded by Mariana of their ac
LONDON, SATURDAY, DECEMBER 12, 1863.
CONTENTS. -No. 102.
NOTES:-Grandees of Spain, 465-A Letter of S. T. Coleridge, 467-Philip Melanchthon and his Son-in-Law, 468 - Early Surnames, Ib.-"King Richard III.:' Push along keep moving," 469-Text of Walter Scott's Novels, 470.
Danish and Norwegian Heraldry-The Daft Highland Laird: Kay's " Edinburgh Portraits Old Damask Patterns-De la Tour d'Auvergne - Allusion to Eloisa - Epitaphs Sir Alexander Fraser, &c., 472.
QUERIES WITH ANSWERS: Much Panes: Banquet of
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REPLIES:-The Devil, 478- Cranmer Family, 480-Titus
Berry or Bury-Derivation of " Pamphlet "- Singapore
Notes on Books, &c.
THE GRANDEES OF SPAIN.
Many works in Latin, French, English, and Spanish, connected with the history of Spain, give us high ideas of the power, riches, influence, pride, and arrogance of the Spanish grandees, both in
ancient and modern times.
Their dignity seems to be as ancient as the monarchy itself, according to the assertion of Salazar de Mendoza in his Origen de las Dignidades Seglares de Castilla (Madrid, 1794). But it was principally in the wars against the Saracens that the higher nobility, or ricos hombres, as they were styled, rose into power and independence. Embarking with their sovereign in the same holy cause, they considered themselves entitled to divide with him the spolia opima of victory. They erected numerous strongholds (castilla) for their own use, as well as defence. They generally resided in them, surrounded by their vassals or retainers, who were scattered amidst the surrounding towns and villages, many of which were the property of the grandees. The lands belonging to the Lord of Biscay, which were confiscated by Alfonso XI., included more than eighty towns and castles (Mariana, Hist. de España, tom. i. ed. Madrid, 1780). In the time of Henry III., the Grand Constable Davalos could ride through
against their own king. In periods of popular
These feuds, combined with the martial spirit, pride, independence, and power of the nobles were continually convulsing the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon. But their pride and self-confidence ultimately proved their ruin.
The Aragonese sovereigns especially, many of whom were men of remarkable energy and firmness, made repeated efforts to reduce the authority of the grandees within reasonable bounds. Zurita, in his Anales de Aragon, gives several instances of the successful exertions of Peter II. and James the Conqueror to curb their pride, and strip them of their exorbitant privileges. In Castile, however, the kings were not always so fortunate; because, by their own want of courage and firmness, by their vices and prodigality, or incapacity for ruling their states, they allowed the nobles and grandees to usurp the possessions of the crown, and to invade some of its most sacred privileges. The disastrous reigns of John II. and Henry IV. afford sad proofs of this statement. (See Ayala, Crónica de Castilla, ed. Madrid, 1780.)
When, however, the crowns of Castile and Aragon came to be united in the persons of Ferdinand and Isabella (1469), the grandees were not allowed to set the royal authority at defiance with impunity. Though at the commencement of their reign, frightful feuds were carried on between the noble houses of the Guzmans and the Ponces de Leon; yet, when Isabella was at length firmly