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Fr. 7, 1831.]
(SENATE. The contracts have been made for the ensuing four to give new bonds when required-being engaged in puryears from the first of January next, including all these suits of a disqualifying character; such as will cause long improvements, at a sum less than the amount now paid for periods of absence from the office-having too consideratransporting the mails in that division, by 25,047 87 ble a correspondence for the postage to be withdrawn from To this sum add the estimated value of the
the revenue--being concerned in a mail contract--the inimprovements, as before stated,
47,793 02 convenient location of the office--all these render remov.
als proper; and yet the present Postmaster General canAnd the actual saving to the department in
not act upon such cases as these without hearing the polithe renewing of the contracts, will amount,
tical clamor of “proscription!” And men should, in some annually, to
72,840 89 instances, be removed to obtain the services of those bet. Besides the very considerable amount gained in the in- ter qualified to discharge the duties of the appointment. creased expedition of the mails on many routes of great It has happened under every administration; it has hapinterest to the community, the value of which cannot be pened under this, and will occur under every succeeding well estimated.
one, that from misrepresentation some improper removals In this saving in the expense of the contracts, and the and appointments will take place. Taking into view all aduitional revenue which may be anticipated from the im- these causes which I have enumerated, is it not rather matprovements they secure, together with the general increase ter of wonder, that, in the course of nearly two years, but of postages, which is still progressive, will be seen a foun- a few more than five hundred out of ciglit thousand five dation for the belief which has been expressed, that the hundred have been removed. My apprehension is, that current revenue of the department for the succeeding year even yet there remain among the subordinate agents of will be sufficient for its disbursements.
this department some men unworthy of their places. I I have tisus shown to the Senate the condition of the fis- confidently hope that the present Postmaster General will cal concerns of this department, and the improvements go on, until none shall be continued in the employment of which have been made in the transportation of the mail. the department, but men of worth and integrity, and that
I now approach a subject more intimately connected he will not be deterred from his cluty by the cry of "prowith the inquiry before the Senate. The removals of post- scription.” masters, called by the gentleman from Blaine “proscrip The power of appointing his deputies, is given by law tion,” a word which, from long habit and frequent use, to the Postmaster General solely. What right of superhe pronounces better than any inan in this nation. There vision has the Senate over his discretion in these matters? are about eight thousand five hundred postmasters in the If they have any, it must result froin the claim that the United States; and, since this administration came into functions of the Executive are to be performed in suborpower, which has been near two years, about five hundred dination to this body. This is neither in accordance with have been removed. Let us now see whether there be the theory, the practice, nor the principles of the constinot unquestionable causes of removal, which may properly tution of this Government. have proluced as great a result as this. if a postmaster I will now show to the Senate some of the effects of this shoul commit any depredation on the mail, he surely “proscription,” which, in the poetical language of the ougit to be removed, although the gentleman from Mainc gentleman from Maine, "makes the land turn pale.” It should esclaim “proscription.”. Should a postmaster will be recollected that, on the 1st May, 1829, the postviolate the secrecy of correspondence, which some men master in this city was removed, and Dr. Jones--who is have done, the Postmaster General ought not to be deter- no Midas, at whose touch every thing turns to gold--was red from removing him by the cry of “proscription." appointed his successor. According to the report on my The same fate should await all delinquents in paying their table, the nett proceeds of the office, immediately preceddues; likewise those who ful to render their accounts, or sing this change, for one year, was $2,803 25, and in the who absise the franking privilege; and if, for any of these first year under Dr. Jones's management, the nett proceeds causes, removals take place, the gentleman from Maine amounted to $7,943 11 producing a clear gain in one year entertains the Senate with his “proscription.” Frauciu- of $5,139 86. Yes, sir; this single post office, under the lent exactions of postage-concealing or detaining letters, present administration, without the aid of additional comnewspapers, or pamphlets--constitute just causes of re- merce, or any unusual assemblage of citizens, has producmoral; and if they are made, we hear the gentleman from ed a profit in one year to the Government, of the sum Maine cry out "proscription!" Habits of intemperance which I have quoted, and this is “proscription.” I call disqualify a man for the office of postmaster; and, although it reform--call it by what name you may, it has produced temperance societies have done much in removing this results beneficial to the country; and the profits, since the destroyer of the human race froin our land, I would still year which I have mentioned, have shown that the increase ask, if there be no drunkards in Maine? And should I be is not of a temporary character. answered, that these worthy societies have entirely suc Another effect produced by what the gentleman calls ceeded in the East, we are not quite so fortunate in the “proscription,” may be exhibited. There are not half West, although they have made promising and successful so many new cases of delinquent postmasters as at former progress. Still this vice in sonje degree prevails; and periods; there is a reduction of the number of delinquen. should a postmaster be seen staggering and reeling to his cies since the first of January, 1825, of more than one-half; oince, so blind that lie could not see a letter, and he should and this reduction has been sensibly experienced within be removed, the genileman from Maine, unconsciously and the last year. This must be owing to some adequate cause. from habit, woukl cry out “proscription.” Insulting or I know of no other to which it can be ascribed, but the unaccommodating deportment to persons having business terror of “proscription," which teaches, that for failures at the office-habitual carelessness and inattention to the in the discharge of their duty, they will be removed from duties of the station, constitute just cause of removal; in- office. When I see such effects produced, I shall not be competency--refusing to comply with the standing regula- dismayed by the term “proscription;" for my country protions of the department--employing assistants of bad charac- fits, though the incumbent lose his place.
We shall hear ter--the commission of crinies--a dissolute course of life-- no more of such losses as $10,000 in a single post office, such conduct as is calculated to destroy public confidence as in the case of Fowler. in the ofiice, these are just causes of removal; and if a A charge has been exhibited in the committee against postmaster be remored for any of thes?, another victim is the Postmaster General of indebtedness to the Governadded to the gentleman's "proscription." The remote ment; and Abraham Bradley, the dismissed assistant Postresidence of the postmaster from the office--the refusal master General, has been examined to support this charge.
Post Office Investigation.
(Feb. 7, 1831.
Although his testimony does not tend to establish the fact an individual of high legal attainments, whose interest in for which the witness was introduced, it develops some the subject, if he had any, was only to collect the debt due facts of a highly interesting character to the community. to his department. Upon the facts thus stated, who can I have the minutes of his deposition before me, subject to pronounce the present Postmaster General a debtor to the the inspection of every member, and I beg the attention of Government? the Senate while I relate the substance of it upon this point. I am aware of the legal dotrine which may be urged
He states that, many years ago, John Fowler, of Lexing- on the other side; which is, that if one individual be ton, Kentucky, was appointed postmaster at that place; indebted to another upon two bonds, and payments be that he gave bond, with James Morrison and others as his made by the debtor to the creditor, without any direction sureties; that, he became a delinquent to a very large on the part of the debtor, to which bond the payment amount, and then gave a new bond, with W.T. Barry and should be applied, the creditor may elect to which lie will five others as his sureties; that after the execution of the give the credit. This is admitted to be the law, where no new bond, he paid up regularly, or nearly so, what fell other individuals are interested than the debtor and credidue at the end of each quarter, amounting in the whole to tor; but I should very much doubt whether a court and all that was due from the time the new bond was execut- jury could be found in this country, when the question ed, until lie was removed from office. I will here remark, was between different sets of sureties, who would permit that I am authorized to say, by a respectable man now in the delinquency which had accrued during the liability of the city, that Mr. Pouler, long before the surrender of one to be thrown upon others subsequently given, when the old bond, of which I shall presently speak, and before no kind of delinquency had occurred during the last oblithe department had applied the payments to either bond, gation. In the case of public officers, this would be pardirected the Postmaster General, Nr. Meigs, to apply all ticularly unjust; the legal effect of the condition of the last the payments made after the execution of the new bond, bond was, ihat Fowler should pay punctually, at the end to the new account of his receipts.
of every quarter, the public money received by him in the Mr. Bradley further states, in bis deposition, that there preceding quarter: this he had done, and the condition was no credit given on the old bond--that there was no was complied with. Can it be believed that, in this state application of the payments made to either bond, in any of things, a court would be warranted in giving judgment of the books of the department--that there was nothing against the new sureties for the delinquency which accrubut a general account current between Mr. Fowler and ed prior to the execution of the new bond; more especially the department, in the books of the office--that the old as it can be shown that Fowler directed the application bond was delivered up to James Morrison, after a sufficient of the payments to the new bond, and this long before the sum had been paid, subsequent to the execution of the department had applied the money to either? I had new bond, to satisfy the amount due under the old one, thought, sir, the judiciary of the country to be the proper and this was done without the knowledge of the sureties tribunal before which to try a question of indebtedness. in the new bond. Mr. Bradley does not expressly state The Government has sought to render Major Barry liable whether the then Postmaster General directed the surren- before that tribunal, and the suit failed. From the facts der of the old bond or not; but it is due to the memory of now disclosed, it always must fail. Although the GovernMr. Meigs to state that he was a correct and honest man, ment, by its acquiescence, seems to have abandoned the and that there are letters of his still in existence, in which claim, and this long before the present administration came he stated that he had no knowledge of the manner in which into power, yet, for party purposes, and to gratify the the bond was abstracted from the office. It does not con- feelings of a dismissed officer, Mr. Barry is to be denounccern the present question to decide by whom this bonded as a defaulter, and unworthy of public confidence. was surrendered. The great and important fact is esta- Whenever it shall be shown that Major Barry, the present blished, that the bond was surrendered by the department Postmaster General, or either of the Assistants, Colonel to one of the sureties in it. Such are the acts which make Gardner or Major Hobbie, shall have surrendered the ofa “land turn pale.” Here is an official bond—not secur- ficial bonds of postmasters, I will not stand here as their ing alone to the Government what might be due upon it, defender. No, sir; the clerk of a court who should surbut also the good behavior, for the time of service, of the render an insolvent marshal's or sheriff's bond, for the postmaster, and constituting the security to which any purpose of favoring and releasing the sureties, would stand party, injured by his misconduct in office, was to look for in a light equally favorable with me. Such conduct, pracindemnity--surrendered up. And this has been done con- tised by whom it may be, is a high misdemeanor, and metrary to law, and the uniform usage of the office. But rits expulsion from office. one case besides this had occurred during the thirty years' Mr. President: When men set out resolved to find fault, continuance of the witness in that office. Why was the they seldom permit themselves to be disappointed. If surrender of this bond applied for by Major Morrison? facts fail, imagination supplies their place. I cannot, in Certainly because he was afraid of his legal liability under any other way, account for the censure thrown by the gen. it. Why was it surrendered? It must be because the tlemen from Delaware and Maine on the Postmaster person surrendering it was willing to release Major Mor- General, for not having answered the interrogatories transrison, with a view of throwing the delinquency which had mitted by the committee to the department in December occurred prior to the execution of the new bond, upon its last. The Senate will recollect what was said by those sureties. The effect produced by the surrender of the gentlemen on that subject; but did any Senator suppose old bond, we can all see. The department has lost ten from what they said, that at that moment they had in their thousand dollars. Major Morrison lived and died a weal- possession a letter from the Postmaster General, which thy man, able to discharge all his pecuniary responsibili- gives the most satisfactory reasons for the delay, and which ties. Many years since, Major Barry and others were sued letter bad been in the possession of the chairman for seveon this bond; the court decided that the bond had no legal ral days? I will take the liberty of reading that letter to cbligatory force; a new trial was granted, and the suit was the Senate, that they may judge whether the Postmaster dismissed. This, it is admitted, constitutes no legal bar General be culpable, or the complaint of the gentlemen be to the commencement of a new action; but the fact that without cause. the late Postmaster General did not commence suit during Mr. GRUNDY here read as follows: his continuance in office, which was several years after the dismissal of the first suit, furnishes a strong argument
“ Post Office DEPARTMENT, Jan. 31, 1831. against the validity of the claim, from the opinion of the “Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt department itself, when it was under the management of of your letters of the 18th and of the 27th instant.
FFB. 7, 1831.]
Post Office Investigation.
"The preparation of the statements neeessary to a re- that contract was made. He, as was his duty, handed over ply to the interrogatories formerly submitted by the com that letter to the committee. The witnesses were named mittee, was immediately commenced, and has been unin- in the letter, and a suggestion also that their affidavits had terruptedly prosecuted by the department. It has re- been taken. A proposition was made to send for the witquired not only the application of all the disposable force nesses; this was not refused; but it was suggested, and of the department, delaying some of its important current concurred in by a majority of the committee, that before business, but has employed unremittingly several addi- that step was taken, application should be made at the tional clerks. When the work is completed, it will be department for the purpose of seeing whether the affidaforth with submitted to the committee.
vits of the witnesses were not there, and such other in“I am, sir, respectfully, &c.
formation as might be satisfactory; or at least enable the “W. T. BARRY.
committee to act more understandingly in making the in“Hon Mr. CLAYTON, Chairman, &c.”
vestigation. The chairman and myself were directed to
call at the office and make the examination. I took care This letter tells the gentlemen why the interrogatories to mention to him that I would attend him at any
time he sent by the committee have not been answered, and still should name, when the Senate was not in session.
He they urge that this officer has not, in this particular, done has not found it convenient to this day to call on me for his duty. He has also been censured for not making his re- the purpose of discharging this duty. I have called at the port in obedience to the call made by the gentleman from office: I have seen the papers, and they contain a most Ohio, (Mr. Berner:) On this morning we have received ample vindication of the department. After the contract that report, containing upwards of 6,000 pages; and surely, was made, the whole subject was laid before the President after gentlemen have heard the reasons assigned by the of the United States at the instance of those who were Postmaster General for the delay, their lips will be sealed dissatisfied. The affidavits of the witnesses named in the upon this subject.
letter referred to were taken; and, after a patient and full The gentleman from Maine has expressed a hope that investigation, the President (lecided that the Postmaster the objection involved in this resolution did not come from General had acted correctly. If the gentlemen on the the Postmaster General; but admonishes us that the pub- other side were anxious to obtain full and correct informalic will say that it came from that quarter. I cannot tell tion in relation to the transactions of this department, why what the pcople in Maine may be taught to say on this have they not pursued the course I have so often pressed subject. I shall say to the people of Tennessee, that I upon them, that the committce should go to the departmade objection upon my own judgment and responsi- ment and examine into all its transactions and doings? I bility; and to prevent him from falling into an error, 'I will have assured them that I was authorized by the Postmaster now state, that although the Postmaster General and my- General to say that, slıould such a course bc deemed adself have been in company, both before and since this visable, everything should be thrown open to the inspecquestion has been agitated, I have never heard him ex- tion of the committee; that he, his assistants, and clerks, press or intimate a wish, or opinion, on the subject. It would afford every facility and give every assistance in is argued on the other side, that as the committee have sent their power to the committee. By proceeding in this inquiries to the Postmaster General, asking him to assign way we could acquire a correct knowledge of the condition the general causes of removal, that therefore the indivi- of the department, and how it is conducted. This course duals removed ought in justice to be heardl. The com- of proceedling is declined, perhaps wisely, as thereby every mitice have not inquired of the Postmaster General why pretext of complaint might be removed, and the gentleany particular officer has been removed; but if this were man from Maine would be so fastened down by facts, that even so, is it an argument that shoukl be brought to bear even his fruitful imagination could not furnish materials against my friend from New Hampshire and myself? We for accusation. objected to that course, and were overruled; and now a The gentleman from Maine has stated that in his own wrong committed by the gentlemen themselves is insisted county there are thirty one postmasters; that eight of them on as a justification of a still greater crror. It is said that were friendly to the election of Mr. Adlams; and of these the contingent expenses of the department have been in- seven have been proscribed; and this, with him, consticreased. This may be true, and the gentlemen themselves tutes just ground of complaint. The people from that cannot be ignorant of the causes which have produced it. quarter differ from him in opinion. Since these occurThere are not clerks in the department sufficient to per-rences took place, the people of that congressional disform the ordinary and current business: and these large trict, with a full knowledge of all the circumstances, have calls for information upon the department create a neces- elected a representative favorable to this administration; sity of employing other clerks to perform the additional and in his own county and town, the votes have been cast labor. The very report laid on your table this morning in favor of a senator and representative to the State Legismuut have cost several thousand dollars, and the calls made lature of the same description. If, therefore, the gentleby the committee will cost several thousand dollars more. man's complaints are to be tried by the voice of his neighThese form a portion of the contingent expenses of the bors, the verdict is against him. The Senator from Maine department. I cannot believe it fair for gentlemen them- has said that this voracious Postmaster General has, in the selves to occasion the expenditure of money, and then State of New Hampshire, devoured six full blooded Yanraise a complaint that it is spent. Although I am perfectly kees at a single meal. [Mr. Holmes here interrupted Mr. willing to see the public money expended for beneficial Grundy, and said he did not say six, but twenty-five: Mr. purposes, and especially for the dissemination of useful Grundy proceeded.] This shows most strikingly the information among the people, I cannot discern any valu- difference between a man of imagination and one who able purpose that is to be answered by the copies of the deals in sober realities and facts. i bad been lashing up 1,400 bonds, under the call of the gentleman from Ohio, my poor imagination in pursuit of the gentleman from this morning received by the Senate from that depart- Maine, and could scarcely arrive at six, when he with ease, ment; none of them will ever be read, either by the Sena- (such is the power of his fancy,) can reach twenty-five. tor, or any other man in the community.
Twenty-five full blooded Yankees have then been devoured As to the suggestion that the committee have refused by the Postmaster General at a single meal. If this is to be to send to Virginia for witnesses to testify in relation to taken literally, all I can say is, that he is a man of bad the great southern contract, these are the facts: A citizen taste and strong stomach, for methinks I sometimes see of Virginia addressed a letter to a Senator from that State, one, the very sight of whom is enough for me. If this complaining of the department for the manner in which expression is to be taken figuratively, and the gentleman
Duły on Alum Sult.
[FEB. 8, 1831.
only means that the Postmaster General bias put them so able, faithful, and efficient, as he is. Their aim is asice, and removed them a distance froin him, as unfit to higher; through him they wish to reach the man who be associates with him in the administration of his depart- keeps them out of power and place; but in this they will ment, then he may have acted in good taste and no fur- fail. “The gods take care of Cato," and a just Provitherance of the public interest.
dence, and an honest people will protect and defend the The Senate will not expect me to notice the poetry of defender of his country against all unjust assaults of his the gentleman from Maine. My business is with dollars enemies. and cents--post offices, and post roads, and this is a poor subject for poetical display. It requires the imagination
TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 8. and genius of the gentleman from Maine to strew flowers over post roaels at this inclement season of the year. 1
DUTY ON ALUM SALT. will, however, notice his delicate and classical story re Mr. BENTON rose to ask lcare to introduce a bill to specting the public “meat cellar," and make the true ap- repeal the duty on alum salt. Ile said that this kind of plication. As I understand it, this "cellar” belongs to the salt was not manufactured in the United States; that it people of the United States; the gentleman and his friends was indispensable in curing provisions, and had to be were once placed in it to take care of it; the people were bought at whatever price it might cost. Ile said that the of opinion that they were not faithful sentinels; they uses of salt, and the injury done to the community by turned them out, and hare placed others in, who they be taxing it, had comman:led the attention of the British lieved were more faithful, and the gentleman and his Parliament, and occasioned a committee to be appointed friends are now endeavoring to break in, but the people in the year 1818, whose labors were a monument to their will not let them. The gentleman further remarks, that honor, and a title to the gratitude of their country. They when men are seeking for power, any means are resorted had taken the examinations in writing of more than seto for the accomplishinent of their object. Did the gen. venty witnesses, comprehending men of the first charactleman recollect that it might be said that he was illustrat- ter in every walk of life, of whom he would mention Lord ing the truth of Iris doctrine by his own example, and Kenyon, Sir Thomas Bernard, Sir John Sinclair, Arthur that the tendency of his whole conduct in this whole pro-Young, and Sir John Stanley, whose testimony, with the ceeding went to show that there were no morais in poli- reports of the committee, extended to four hundred folio tics? The gentlemen exclaim. there will be no report made pages. He would read some parts of their testimony, and by this committee. If there be none, the fault shall be believed that the Senate would perform a great service to thicirs, not ours. I hope a report will be made, one that the American people if they would direct a committee to will silence calumny and seal the lips of slander. I have make an abstract of the whole, and publish some thousand admitted that by means of misrepresentation some men copies for distribution among the people. have been removed, whom it would have been better to Mr. B. then began to read a part of the extracts which have retained, and the gentleman from Maine may have he had made, when he was interrupted by Mr. Foor, of known some one instance of that kind; and such is his Connecticut, who made several points of order, one of imagination, that whenever he hears of a removal, let the which was, that Mr. B.'s motion was not seconded. The cause of removal be what it may, lre supposes that it has Vice PRESIDENT said that it was not usual to have motions been done improperly, and from a spirit of proscription. seconded in the Senate; that the rule was a formality He reasons like the medical stuctent; he was taken by his which had not been attended to in practice; but, if any preceptor to see a sick patient; the patient had become Senator made it a point, the rule must be enforced.
Mr. worse, and the doctor charged the family with their having B. then appealed to the Senators from the south of Mason given him eggs to eat, which had increased his illness; and Dixon's line to furnish him a second. Sereral rose, the fact was admitted; the doctor again prescribed and and, observing, among them Mr. Woonbury, of New returned home; the student was curious to know how his Hampshire, he gave him the preference, because he was preceptor had come to the knowledge of the fact that his from the north of Mason and Dixon's line, and because patient had eaten eggs; the preceptor told him he had he had been the first to open the campaign against the scen the shells under the bed. On the next day the stu- salt tar several years ago. He said that the report and dent was sent to see the same patient, and found the man speeches of the Senator from New Hampshire against the dying, and informed his preceptor that the man had caten salt tax would remain as monuments to his honor when a horse; the preceptor said that was impossible; the stu- his own poor exertions were forgotten; and he took pride dent persisted in it, and upon being asked the reason why and pleasure in paying this tribute to him, and making it he thought so, he said he had seen a bridle under the bed; more fully known in the West, that he was only the foland whenever the gentleman from Maine sees a bridle, or lower of that distinguished and patriotic Senator, so justly a change of postmaster, a horse or a Yankee, in his imagi- dear to the whig republicans of all quarters of the Union, nation, has been devoured.
in waging a war of determined hostility against the salt The gentleman charges this administration with finch- tax. ing: Ile who is now at the head of this Government The other objections of Mr. Foor being disposed of, never learned the art of flinching, nor will he permit Mr. B. went on to read, or state, the extracts to which he those who act under him, citlier in the ficld or cabinet, referred. to do so; and the gentleman will learn this, should the Chief Magistrate entertain the same opinion I do in rela 1. From Sir John Sinclair's evidence.--I was once at tion to the call made on the Postmaster General to assign the farm of a gieat farmer in the Netherlands, a Mr. Mesthe calises which have produces the removals of postmas- selman, at Chenoi, near Havre, where I was surprised to
I have said that I thought that neither the Senate see an immense lieap of Cheshire rock salt, which he said nor the committee have the constitutional right to make he found of the greatest use for his stock. He said, first, this demand. Should the Chief Magistrate think so, of that, by allowing his sheep to lick it, the rot was effectual
ing I am certain, that he who never suffered his ly prevented; secondly, that his cattle, to whom he ga own private rights, or the rights of his country, to be in- lumps of it to lick, were thereby protected from infecvaded, will not permit an encroachment upon the rights tious disorders; and the cows being thus rendered more of his official station.
healthy, and being induced to take a greater quantity of Sir, we cannot mistake the object which gentlemen liquid, gave more milk. And I saw lumps of this salt, to have in view; they cannot desire to sacrifice the Post- which the cows had access, in the place where they were master General, a man so amiable and honest, an officer kept. He also said), that a sinall quantity pounded was
FEB. 8, 1831.]
Duty on Alum Salt.
found very beneficial to the horses when new oats were accelerates and promotes the quantity of milk given by given them, if the oats were at all moist.
He milch cows. [In another place Mr. C. says that the use gave them great lumps, that they (the cattle) might lick of salt prevents the ill taste which the feeding on certain when they chose.
One of the most important weeds and vegetables imparts to the milk.] It prevents uses of salt, as connected with agriculture, is, that it pre- the rot in sheep, and the effect of hoving, when stock are serves seed, when sown, from the attacks of the grub. ” fed on turnips or clover.
Salt renders daIn a communication to me from Sweden, by maged hay palatable and nutritious; and, if applied in difBaron Schultz, he says, the salt destroys the different sort ficult seasons, prevents an undue fermentation and heat in of worms found in the bodies of sheep, but in particular the stack. Chaff' and straw would be rendered available the liver worm.
to a much greater extent than at present by the applica
tion of salt. It would be a most valuable ingredient in 2. Arthur Young's Testimony.--Did you ever try salt the preparation of warm food for stall-fed cattle in the im. in the feeding of your cattle?
proved system of soiling; and, from my experience of its Yes; but chiefly with sheep; and I found the sheep as- salutary effects, I should consider the free use of it, as 2 tonishingly fond of it.
condiment, the greatest boon the Government could beDo you think that it would be beneficial in preventing stow on the husbandman.
I consider the rot in sheep?
the advantage from salt, in feeding my stock, on a farm of I found it so in the years when my neighbors’ sheep ciglit hundred acres, worth about one thousand pounds were generally affected with the rot: my sheep escaped, per annum, would exceed three hundred pounds per anand my land was quite as wet as my neighbors'. num! (that is, add a third to the annual value of the
Do you think, considering the advantages in health, farm.) fattening, and the power of using inferior food in the feed The probable consumption of salt for sheep and cat. ing of cattle and stock in general, that the free use of tle may be taken as follows, to wit: salt would be an advantage equivalent to seven shillings a head to the farmer? I should think it would be worth a great deal more.
14 lbs. the stone. Siones.
I think it is invaluable. In short, let my answer be what it would, it would be under the mark. Dr. Young then gave his opinion that the stock in Eng- 30,000,000 sheep,
2 stone cach, 60,000,000 land would be increased in value above three millions 1,421,000 cows,
8,526,000 sterling, nearly fifteen millions of dollars, by the free use 2,000,000 young cattle, do.
8,000,000 of salt. He estimated the stock in England to be- 1,100,000 fatting beasts, 6 do.
6,600,000 Horses, 1,500,000 head 1,200,000 draught cattle, 4. do.
4,500,000 do. 300,000 colts and sad. Sheep,
1,200,000 horses, not estimated, 3. Testimony of William Glover, superintendent of the cat
88,826,000 ile of the Hon. Mr. Curwen, M. P.
N. B. 14 pounds 1 stone, 4 stones 1 bushel, 4 bushels 1 This deponent began to give salt to the cattle under cwt. his care the 19th November, 1817, and from that time till + The English bushel of salt is 56 lbs. now the cattle have had salt, as follows: 40 milch cow's and breeding heifers, each 4 ounces per day; 30 oxen, 4
6. Lord Kenyon's evidence before the committee.---By ounces each per day; 27 young cattle, each 2 ounces per the information which I have been able to collect, I am day; 26 calves, 1 ounce each per day; 48 horses, each 4 induced to consider salt, when sparingly applied, as an ounces per day; 444 sheep, 2 ounces each per weck. admirable manure, especially for fallows and arable land; The advantage of salt for sheep appears to this deponent and, when mixed up with soil out of gutters, or refuse to be great; as he says none of the stock have died in the dirt or ashes, to be very valuable also on grass lands. My sickness since they commenced giving salt; and they have own experience convinces me that it is very powerful in had none in the rot; in other years they lost some of the destroying vegetation if laid on too thick, having put a ewes and wethers in the sickness. And this deponent large quantity of refuse salt on about one-fourth of an acre says that he has now kept the cattle at Schoose farm ten of land, which, after two years, still remains quite bare. years, and they were never so long without sickness.
A land surveyor of high character in my neighborhood, 4. The affidavit of thirty-two farmers.
considers that the use of salt would be likely to be very We, the undersigned, being fariners, and the owners valuable in destroying the slug, wire worm, snail, &c. of land in the neighborhood of Workington, do hereby which often destroy whole crops. He also remembers certify, that we are acquainted with and witnesses to the that salt was used largely in the neighborhood of the fact of Mr. Curwen giving salt to his cattle and horses, Higher and Lower Wiches in Cheshire, before the duties with their food, at the Schoose farm and at Workington; were raised to their present height. With respect to its and that we are desirous of using the same for our live value for cattle, horses, and sheep, I am informed that it stock if we could obtain it without difficulty, and at a is very highly thought of, both as nutriment, and as used cheap rate.
medicinaliy, internally and externally. Its value also is EXTRACT.
extremely well known for rendering bad and ill-gotten 5. Testimony of Mr. Curuen, M. P.-In regard to hay more nourishing and more palatable to cattle than cattle, I have under-estimated the quantity, because, if even good hay. salt could be had at a moderate price there is no ani
EXTRACT. mal I would give less than six stone, (14 pounds to the 7. Eridence of Mr. Kingston.--In reply to your questone,) each per annum.
I ries, as an agriculturist, I have no hesitation in saying that believe if salt were in general use for cattle it would salt, if freed from duty, would become one of the most amount to 340,000 tons--about 14,000,000 bushels--- useful and general articles of manure that ever was thought
“The importance of the free use of salt to agri- of, if properly composed, by mixing it with mud of any culture can scarcely be estimated too highly. Salt con- kind--the cleanings of ditches and ponds, the surface of tributes not only to the health of cattle and sheep, but contse ground thrown into heaps to rot, blubber, &c. I