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Duty on Alum Salt.

[FEB. 8, 1831.

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am also persuaded, that if it could be afforded to be use of salt was to be ascribed the circumstance of four sprinkled on the lavers of hay, when making into the rick, times the number of sheep having been reared on a stein catching weather, it would prevent its heating and rile common, than would otherwise bave subsisted on it; getting mouldy. I had once some small cattle tied up to and that the wool of these flocks is not only the finest in fatten, which did not thrive, owing, as the bailiff said, to the whole country, but bears the highest price of any in the badness of the bay, of which they wasted more than France. The fineness of the wool of the Spanish sheep they ate; but, by sprinkling it with water in which some is also attributed, in a great measure, to the free use of salt had been dissolved, they returned to eat it greedily. salt. It is not, therefore, I presume, an extraordinary poI am free to say, a proper quantity of salt would prevent sition to say, that, by a proper use of common salt, the cattle from being hoven by an excess of green food. same quantity of forage inight, on many occasions, be

made to go twice as far as it could have done, in feeding 8. Mr. Thomas Bourne's examination.--The commit- animals, had the salt been withheld from them! tee understand you are a merchant, residing at Liverpool? I am.

10. Mr. Charles G. Cothill, cxamined.--What is your Can you speak as to the probable effect of the repeal profession? of the salt duties on your trade?

Answer. A bacon and provision merchant, residing in It would be a good thing, in my opinion, for the coun- Judd street, Brunswick square. try at large, and also the manufactures.

Wbat is the nature and amount of your business, and Have you any knowledge of its being used in food for how far has it been affected by the salt duties? animals?

Answer. About fifty years ago my father established a Yes, to horses in particular.

manufactory in Vine street, and expended £10,000 in Has it a good effect?

adapting the premises for the curing of bacon and the Yes.

salting of pork. Our annual returns were about £50,000: Then do you not suppose, if the restrictions were taken it is now diminished to less than £1,000 annually, in conost, it would come into more general use among the farm- sequence, as I apprehend, of the very high duties on salt, ers, for stock of all kinds?

as our trade has diminished progressively as those duties It would in that instance; we used to have five horses have increased. in our rock salt mine, and those horses always appeared in Do you not consider that the breed of hogs has also good condition, though very much worked.

diminished, in consequence of this increase of duty on Were they liable to less disorders than those out of the salt? mine?

Answer. Very matcrially; and, as a further proof of Yes; much less.

what I state, we had a very extensive trade of £200,000 a Do you happen to know whether they were in the prac- year in hogs; now not .L10,000. tice at that time of receiving salt with thcir food?

What effect, in your opinion, would a great reduction Yes; to my knowledge they were.

of the salt duties produce in your business? In what quantity?

Answer. I conceive it would restore our trade: we About a handful to a quartern of oals.

should then be able to supply the West India markets, and

other colonies, with salted pork, cheaper and better than 9. Evidence of Mr. IV. Ilorne.--There are very few any other country. farmers who are not aware of the importance of salt in

What is the quantity of salt used upon 100 weight of preserving bay, and restoring it when damaged; many of pork, to make bacon? ihose whom I have conversce with on the subject, have

Answer. In a manufactory of bacon, about 12 pounds; used it for these purposes, and it would generally be re.

to cure a small quantity, about 17 or 18. sorted to, to the extent of ten or fifteen pounds to the ton of hay, if the duties on salt were repealed. Lord Somer 11. Testimony of Sir Thomas Bernard.--I ventured ville has furnished most suitisfactory information on this to suggest that å tax on salt was fundamentally wrong in subject; and I know, from respectable authority, that it principle, because it presses must on the class least able to is a common practice in the United States of America to bear the weight---because of its immoral tendency--and sprinkle salt upon hay when forming it into ricks. We because it deprires the nation of benefits, beyond measure also learn from Lord Somerville, that Mr. Darke, of Brce greater than the whole produce of the impost. The salt don, one of the most celebrated graziers in the kingdom, duties are about a million and a half sterling per annum, mixed salt with his flooded mouldy hay, and that his Here" (about seven millions of dollars.) The

poor use most salt ford oxen did better on it than others on the best hay he in proportion to their wealth; a cottager in the country ten had; and he was convinced the day had all its good effects to one in proportion to a nobleman in town. But the befrom the salt.

I have learnt from nefits of which the nation is deprived by the salt duties, Mr. Sutton, of Eaton, in Cheshire, that he would give are not casily appreciated, or even numbered.

In agrithirty tons (120 bushels, of 56 pounds each,) of salt a culture and rural economy alone, the loss in feeding cattle, year to his cattle, being fifty cows, if the duty were rc- sheep, and hogs--in restoring damaged provender--in pealed.

In many parts of the United manure, and in the effect on wages, may, without extravaStates of America, salt is generally given to cattle. gance, be supposed to exceed the whole value of the tax.

The excellent condition of the horses Equal, perhaps, would be the gain to our manufacturers in the rock-pits of Cheshire, may be adduced in favor of of woollen, linen, glass, carthenware, soap, &c. &c. &c. its benefit in fattening cattle and keeping them in health.” by the unrestrained use of muriate and carbonate of soda Many counted that they can attribute the longevity of their and muriatic acid, of which our salt mines and ocean afford horses to the good effects of salt. Mr. Hadfield, of Li-supplies absolutely inexhaustible. verpool, furnishes an instance in his horse, thirty years Mr. B. having read, or stated, these extracts, to show old; he constantly gave it rock salt to lick, placing it in the use of salt in agriculture, said there were many other his manger.

Mr. Young has furnished us, in the annals witnesses examined, to prove that alum salt, which the of agriculture, with a most interesting and satisfactory English usually called bay salt, because it was made by statement (obtained from the Memoirs of the Royal Acade- solar evaporation, out of sea water in the bay of Biscay, my of Sciences at Paris) on the effect of salt in fattening and other bays, was indispensable to the curing of provi. cattle.

From this report it appears, that to the unlimited sions, for long keeping, or for exportation, other articles

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FEB. 8, 1831.]

Duty on Alum Salt.

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connected with agriculture, as cheese, butter, bacon, more without encroaching too much on the time of the pickled beef, and pickled pork; and that the English Go-Senate, he said he would introduce the testimony of some vernment permitted alum salt, under the name of bay salt, American witnesses to the same points. He had seen the to be imported both into England and Ireland duty free, statements of the English witnesses last winter; and, being for these purposes, even when the domestic manufacture desirous to hear what Americans would say on the same of common salt in England far exceeded the home de- subject, he had, in the course of the last summer, admand, and furnished millions of bushels for exportation. dressed certain queries to some friends and acquaintances Ile also stated that the committee of the House of Com- in the Western States, and had received from many of mons had examined the first physicians of Great Britain, them communications of so much interest and value, that to prove the effect of a deficiency of salt in the provisions he should lay them before the Senate; and, first, would of the poor on their health, and that these plıysicians uni-exhibit the queries for the better understanding of the formly testified that many diseases of the poor, and espe- answers. The names of his correspondents, he said, cially in children, were the effect of using vegetables not would be known to the members of the Senate from the sufficiently salted, and fish and meat not sufficiently cured. States in which they reside; some will be known to the He also stated that the committee had extended their Senators from many States; and some to the whole body examination to the use of salt in various manufactories, of the Senate. and had established, by proof, that a variety of useful manufactures required the abolition of the salt duty. On Queries on the state of the sall trade in the Ifestern States. this point, he read extracts from the examination of Samuel

1. Whether the trade in salt is monopolized? and, if so, Parkes, Esq. an eminent chemist of London, as follows: at what works? and over how many States do the sales of

these monopolists extend?

2. The practices of the monopolists, if any, to enhance 12. Examination of Samuel Parkes.--What is your the price of salt, and to prevent competition? profession?

3. The prices of domestic and foreign salt in your I am proprietor of the chemical works in Goswell neighborhood, and the freight of foreign salt from New street, London, and of other chemical works in Maiden Orleans? lane, Islington.

4. Whether the monopolists have established depots of Can you acquaint the committee what are the manu- salt in different States, and appointed agents to sell their factures most affected by the salt laws?

salt, and restricted the sales of each depot to its district? The manufactures of mineral alkali, crystalized soda, How far are the depots apart in your State? muriatic acid, hard soap, distinguished from soft soap, 5. Whether the salt manufacturers have entered into Glauber salt, Epsom salt, magnesia, and sal ammoniac, are agreements with the monopolizers to restrict the quantity all materially affected by the duty on salt; but as common of salt made at the works to confine the sales to the mosalt, or one or other of the component parts of common nopolists? and to stop working wells and furnaces for salt, is made use of in the composition of a great variety pay? The meaning of the phrase “dead wells,” and the of articles that are employed in our manufactures, it is rent of such wells? difficult to answer that question with precision.

6. Whether salt is sold in your neighborhood by weight Respecting soap, I have only to observe, that common salt or measure? If by weight, how many pounds are allowed is absolutely necessary for the manufacture of hard soap; to the bushel? and how much a weighed bushel measures? for however plentifully potash may be produced, large 7. In selling by the barrel, is due allowance made for quantities of common salt must be employed with it, or the weight of the barrel, and for the loss of salt in drying? the soap will be only temporarily hard; it will have no last- if not, what is the difference between the real and nomiing consistence.

Salt is employed largely in the nal quantity in the barrel? preparation and manufacture of a great number of other 8. Whether the monopolists sell for money, or country articles that might be enumerated; and in a short time 1 produce? for ready pay, or upon credit? and whether the have no doubt they would all be benefited by the reduc- price is higher or lower since the monopoly? tion of the duty on salt.

9. Do the monopolists risc and fall in their prices acHow does the price of salt affect the soap boilers? cording to the presence or absence of competition? and As it affects all other trades in which salt is employed. what salt competes with them? State the way in which it affects them.

10. Do they realize great gains? The cheaper it is, the cheaper they will have it if they 11. Whether the domestic salt is fit for pickling beef buy it.

and pork, for curing bacon, and preserving butter, for Do you know any other (manufacturing) purposes for exportation, or consumption in the South, or long keepsalt?

ing? Yes: it is used in very large quantities by dyers, when 12. Whether beef and pork, put in common salt, will it can be had cheap; and in a great variety of other ways. be received for the use of the army or navy?

With respect to the salting of hides, I learn from fur 13. The necessity and expense of repacking beef and ther inquiry, that the butcher usually applies five pounds pork in alum salt, in New Orleans, which hias been put up of salt to every ox or cow hide which he has occasion to in domestic salt? lay by, or to send to the tanner at a distance.

14. The necessity and advantage of giving salt to Crystalized soda (made of salt,) is much used in horscs, cattle, sheep, and hogs? Whether salt is not inwashing. Four hundred tons are annually made at the dispensable to stock in the Western States? Whether there Long Benton works only.

is not a great difference between inland and maritime You have stated that, during the last six or seven States in this respect? The reason of that difference? years, it has increased from one to four hundred tons. How much salt per head, and how often per week or Yes.

month 'ought it to be given to each kind of stock? and This at the Long Benton works only?

whether the farmers in your section of the country are Yes.

prevented, by the high price and scarcity of salt, from Which is made from salt duty free?

giving as much to their stock as they need? Yes. They liave an exclusive privilege.

15. The use and advantage of salt in preserving hay, When Mr. B. had finished reading these extracts, and fodder, and clover? In restoring them, after being daexpressed his regret that, out of seventy witnesses and maged by wet? four hundred folio pages of testimony, he could read no St. Louis, July, 1830.

SENATE.]
Duty on Alum Salt:

[Feb. 8, 1831 Communication from G. T. C. McCIANXAHAN, Esq. of ally; but I am further informed that the lease is out, and

Jackson county, North Alabama, October, 1830. the works are to go into active operation to compete with Your first query--the trade of salt is entirely monopo. White, he having let them lie idle heretofore; these are lized here by James White, of the Holston salt works,

"dead wells,” but the number of dead wells he has I am in Virginia. I cannot exactly till to what States these unable to inform you. works furnish salt, but it is to be supposed to the western

6. Salt is sold hire by weight, fifty pounds to the parts of Virginia, castern part of Tennessce, a part of bushel; and fifty pounds (the bushel) of the salt which i North Carolina, the northern part of Georgia, Norih Ala- tried, (without pressing,) measuredí 1,188,55 solid bama, and some in South Alabama, &c. &c.

inches, m:king 4 gallons 1 quarts, dry measuits Query 2d--Colonel J. White has a depot at this place, which is but very little over half a measured busivel. a mile and a half from Tennessee river, down which Therefore, when salt is two dollars the fifty pounds, we stream he boats his salt. And if any person else brings have to pay at the rate of three dollars and sixty-six and salt here to sell, they immediately undersell that person a half cents the measured busiel. This is oppression in a and ruin him. The people sometimes get their salt from free country--this is the fruit of the tariff. Nashville, when they have a convenience of doing so, and 7. In selling by the barrel, the weight of the barrel, it comes much cheaper, after paying land carriage one and the net weight of salt, is sometimes, and most comhundred and thirty miles, than White's salt; but no per- monly, placed on the barrel; but the weight of the barson dares to compete wit! him here; because he can, rel is marked much less than its real weight. at his will, undersell any person who pays a land carriage They make iso deduction for the drying of the salt. of one hundred and thirty miles; and therefore instantly One barrel I particularly weighed out, and it lost twenty break them up. One thing is yet to be told, which will pounds; and I am credibly informed that some have lost convince any man of the sin and oppression of this mo- as much as fifty. nopolizing system. This same James White will carry his 8. The monopolists here sell for money, or cotton at salt by us down to Ditto's landing, ten miles below Hints- the cash price, which is the same thing as money. They ville, haul it out to Winchester, Tennessee, which is fifty- do not credit their salt. There is always two prices for five miles of land carriage, and sell it there so much lower cotton ere--a cash and discount price. Merchants, in than he will here on the river take it out of his boats, taking in cotton for their accounts, give more for it than that some of the planters, who are able to take their they will in money; and this is called the discount price. wagons and cross a very bad mountain, (part of the Cum. The salt gentlemen sell their salt for cotton, at the cash berland,) haul their salt over from Winchester, which price. The remaining part of the query I know nothing is forty-five miles from this place. Is this not oppressive about. to the poor? Would not this governmental.monopolist 9. The monopolists have fallen here, since they find wring from the distressed orphan, widow, and war-worn that people would go to Nashville for their salt, if they soldier, all their earthly sustenance? And yet the Con- id not. But they know at what price to keep it lip; gress of the United States--this boasted land of liberty they know the planters cannot take the trouble to go one and equal laws, countenances such oppressive acts. Why hundred and thirty miles to Nashville, to get a little salt; does Mr. White not sell as low here on the river as at and they knowithrat no person dares to compete with them, Winchester, after carrying his salt one hundred and twen- as they could instantly reduce the price of their salt, and ty miles, fifty-fise by land, and that, ton, the very same thereby ruin their competitor. salt? The answer is obvious. At Winchester there is 10. "They certainly must realize great gains, or they some competition; it is not so far from Nashville, where would not give nine or twelve thousand dollars annually for foreign salt may be obtained. And this is why he sells it one manufactory, to let it lie idle. Why does not Con. lower there than at this place.

gress lease all the salt works in the United States, and We are here fenced in with almost impassable mom-let them lie idle, and then knock the duty off of salt, if tains, at a great distance from any commercial depot, and they wish to encourage the manufacture of salt, by filling without the means of shunning the exorbitant exactions of the puckets of the manufacturers? It would be much these vampyres, who take the bread from the mouths of better for the people. They would be great gainers by our children with the calculating coldness of an Arab; purchasing the salt works, and demolishing them, or letand these acts are legalized by a Congress of freementing them out at a small rate, and then striking the duty We are glad to hear the stern voice of indignation at this from salt. oppression, uttered by some of the patriotic republicans

The remaining queries, I am in hopes, will find abler of that body; and we should glory in being among the persons to answer them than I. most persecuted victims, if by that means this most per Communication from a meiting of the citizens of Aledison nicious system of monopoly could be overturned. Query 311--We have no forcign salt here for sale; two

county, Alabaña, 8th of November, 1830, ihe sulject proyears ago some gentlemen brought a few bushels from posed by Dr. IFilliam H. Glasscock, and authenticated Nashville, and sold it for one dollar und eighty-seren and by the signatures of Thomas Miller, President, und a half cents per fifty pounds, imderselling the salt gentle

Charles A. Jones, Secretary. men here at that time. The domestic salt has got lower Answer to 1st. The salt consumed here is almost ex. than it was four years ago. Then it was two dollars and clusively obtained from Col. James White's manufactory, fifty cents, now one dollar and eighty-seven cents to two of Virginia, and sold by his agents in East Tennessee, a dollars.

part of North Alabama, and West Tennessee. The freight from New Orleans to Nashville is one cent To the 2.1. We can give no definitive answer. per pound, as I am informed by a merchant of this place, 3d. The price of domestic salt is one dollar and twentyand from Nashville to this place one and a quarter cents five cents per bushel, by the barrel, or one dollar and per pound.

seventy-five cents by the single bushel. Foreign salt sells at 4. There is a depot here, and another at Ditto's lancling, about ihe same. The freight of salt, from New Orleans to as I ain told, for selling salt. These places are about fifty. Huntsville, is abont one cent and three-fourths per pound, five miles apart by land. The remaining part of the ques 4th. Colonel White has salt deposited in different parts tion I do not know any thing about.

of this State, and others, at various distances from each 5. Colonel White, as I have been informed by good au- other, say ten to fifteen miles. thority, leased the Preston salt works, in what is called 5th. Preston's works were for some time discontinued New Virginia, for nine or twelve thousand dollars annu-l for--say ten thousand dollars per annum.

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FER. 8, 1831.)

Duty on Alum Salt.

(SENATE.

6th. Universally sold by weight, allowing fifty pounds to tity of salt, per head, to each kind of stock, will depend the bushel; the measured bushel will weigh from seventy on the food with which they are supplied. If with grain, to eighty pounds.

less; if with herbs, more salt. I am sure, if the price of 7th. When the salt is weighed out of the barrel, it sel- salt be reduced, the farmers in this section of the country dom holds out, and frequently loses from five to twenty would give their stock a better supply, and that their impounds. We may add, that, lowever honestly it may provement would be in proportion to the increased quanhave been put up at the works, it is generally brought tity given. To err, by an excess, is not to be appredown in open boats, subject to the winter rains, which hended. damage it more or less; and we know of but one of his To the fifteenth query I will remark, that the use of salt, agents who sells it any other way than by the marked in the preservation of hay, is well expended. And if new weight.

mowed hay, or clover, or other grasses, be packed, a 8th. Salt is sold for nothing else but ready money, layer of hay, and a layer of straw, either wheat, oats, or 9th. Salt is sold, high or low, according to competition. rye, and a good supply of salt to each layer be added, you The Kenhawa ground alum and Liverpool are brought make the best of food for horses and cattle. in but sparingly, which is the only competition.

I approve, very highly, your intention to repeal, if you 10th. We believe that White realizes great gains. We can, the salt tax, totally and promptly. In this, and all are sustained in this opinion, from his carrying it by land efforts of your useful life, I wish you success. twenty-five or hirty miles farther, where he meets with competition, and selling it for less than he does here. Communication from General William Hall, of Sumner 11th. Wholly unfit.

county, Tennessee, dated December 8, 1830. 12th. It will not be received for either.

I received your

queries on the state of the salt trade 13th. We can give no correct answer.

in the Western States," in due time; and have delayed 14th. It is indispensable for stock of all kinds. It is thought answering them, only that I might obtain all the informathey require more in the Western States than maritime tion within my reach necessary to a correct reply. The States, owing, probably, to the absence of the sea breeze, queries will be answered in the order in which they are and vapor impregnated with salt coming from the sea, and proposed, Nos. 1, 2, &c., answering to the corresponding alighting on the vegetable matter. Stock of all kinds numbers in the queries. should be salted twice a week; but, owing to the high 1. The salt made at the Kenhawa works, from whence price of salt, the stock are probably not salted more than a large portion of the supply for this State, Ohio, Kenonce in two weeks, on an average. From the best ac- tucky, Indiana, and Illinois, is obtained, is monopolized. counts, three thousand barrels of salt are consumed an

2. The monopolists have depots and agents in the difnually in Madison county, averaging about six bushels (of ferent States, supplied by them, who are required to acfifty pounds) to the barrel. The population being about count quarterly for sales, which are made for cash, and at twenty-seven thousand, gives us an average of thirty-three prices fixed by the monopolists. pounds and one-third to each person.

Were those heavy 3. The prices of domestic and foreign salt vary from duties taken off, the consumption would be much greater. seventy to one hundred cents per bushel of fifty pounds.

15th. Salt is thought to be useful in preserving hay, fod. Freight from New Orleans may be had at fifty cents per der, and clover; each will keep well if sprinkled over with hundred pounds. it, though not thoroughly cured when put up. More 4. Answered in No. 2. over, our pork is often spoiled from the want of a suffi

5. I have not been able to obtain any satisfactory inforciency of salt to pack it up in, which we cannot obtain on mation as to this query. account of the high price. Thousands, and tens of thou

6. Salt is sold in this state, and throughout the Western sands of pounds are often lost from that circumstance country, by weight. The measured bushel weighs from alone. Alum salt would be an immense saving to North twenty to twenty-five pounds more than the weighed Alabama, in that one particular.

bushel. Resolred, therefore, unanimously, That the delegation 7. An allowance is made for the weight of the barrel, from this State, as well as those of our sister States, have though none for the loss of salt in drying. our unfeigned thanks for their exertions and co-operation 8. Is answered, in part, previously. The price is higher the last session of Congress, with Mr. Benton, in endea- since the monopoly. voring to repeal the duty on salt; and that we request our 9. The price of salt is regulated by the quantity in delegation to use their utmost to effect the repeal of a market. The quantity of foreign, or other domestic salt, tax so burdensome to us, and of no ultimate advantage to brought to this market, is inconsiderable.

10. The monopolists realize great gains.

11. Although Kenbawa salt is very superior to any other Communication from Colonel F. W. Burton, formerly of domestic salt brought to this market, I am informed that

North Carolina, now of Murfreesborough, Tennessee, nearly all the beef and pork from the Western country is dated December 8, 1830.

repacked in foreign salt, either for shipment, or for the Your favor of July last, propounding fifteen queries on army or navy. the state of the salt trade in the Western States, was re 12. See No. 11. ceived in due time. To the thirteen first of these queries, 13. I am not informed as to the price of repacking beef I am sure that the commercial gentlemen of the country or pork which has been put up in domestic salt. can render a much more correct and satisfactory answer 14. The necessity and advantage of giving salt to stock than I can.

of every kind is universally admitted. It is indispensable To the fourteenth I will observe, that salt is indispen- in the Western States, and ought to be given to all kinds sably necessary to the good condition of horses, horned of stock about once a week, and to each head of horses cattle, sheep, and hogs, in the Western States. It is bene- or cattle from two to four ounces at a time, and less than ficial in the maritime States likewise, and the more so as half that quantity to sheep or hogs, though farmers in this you recede from the seaboard. The watery constituent section are prevented from giving their stock the necesparts of the atmosphere on the seaboard take with them sary quantum of salt, owing to the high price of the article. salt, which is inhaled by these animals, and thereby they 15. The use and advantage of salt in preserving of hay, are supplied with that salt which is necessary for the health- fodder, and clover, is admitted by all practical farmers, ful condition of all animals, both granivorous and herbu- although but few avail themselves of the advantage, in con. lent, and to some of those that are carnivorous. The quan-1 sequence of the scarcity and high price of salt.

Vol. VII.- 9

any State.

SESATE.]

Duty on Alum Salt.

(FEB. 8, 1831.

nessee.

Communication from Lieutenant Governor Breathitt, of Ken- manufacturers furnish exclusively the supply of that article tucky, dated Russellville, Nov. 16, 1830.

for the valley of the Wabash; and that none is permitted My information will not enable me to answer your favor to be vended by others, so far as can be prevented by them; on the state of the salt trade in detail.

and that those agents are regulated by fixed prices, under From the general opinion on the subject, there is no which they may not sell, but can raise the price in propordoubt there was, during the last year, an extensive salt tion to the demand. It is also believed that a scarcity of monopoly supplied from the Kenhawa works. Depots salt is frequently occasioned by the inadequacy of the mawere had principally on the watercourses for salt, where nufactories to produce sufficient supplies, or that those it was vended by their agents, sometimes on a credit of monopolists hoard it up for the purpose of extorting exorfour or six months. Whether it continues the present bitant prices; neither of which causes would operate to season, I am not advised. Those depots extended to Ten- produce the scarcity and high price so oppressive to the

Sales were made for money. There is but little West, was the salt trade left open to the natural course of foreign salt brought into this neighborhood: I cannot, competition. therefore, state the difference in price. This neighbor. The monopoly of the salt trade is notorious, and is one hood is'supplied from the Illinois saline, and the Kenhawa of the greatest grievances to be complained of in the West; salt from the latter is preferred to preserve meat.

It is and it is believed that the unrestricted importation of alum not so white and clean as that from the saline. It is usually salt is, perhaps, the only method which can be adopted sold by weight--50 lbs. to the bushel, when sold by the effectually to break it down, unless Congress should think barrel. The tare of the barrel is taken off, and the salt is proper to declare it a criminal offence to attempt a monogenerally weighed at the time of sale. It is, however, poly of any article of necessary consumption, as the Britisha sometimes otherwise. About this time last year, the com- Parliament has done, and render such 'offence punishable mon price, at this place, was one dollar per bushel; now, by fine and imprisonment, which even would not be so it may be purchased at seventy-five cents.

There is no

effectual. doubt that salt is indispensable for the use of stock, and It will not be disputed but that a supply of alum salt is particularly in this country. Much stock has been raised necessary in the West, even if the domestic salt was obupon the grazing the forest affords, and if they are fur- tainable unembarrassed by monopoly, from its superior nished plentifully with salt, they are fat. Hence the ne- qualities in the preservation of beef and pork in a southern cessity of its being as cheap as possible, and because, also, market, where we must of necessity send our surplus of of its universal use by all. I was pleased at the reduction those articles. It is believed by stock raisers, that a much of the duties last session on coffee, tea, molasses, and salt. larger quantity of salt is necessary for stock in the WestI should be pleased, however, to see the duties retained on ern than in the Atlantic States, owing, doubtless, to the manufactured articles, so that our own manufactories may nature of the food on which they are subsisted, and the enter into competition with foreign ones, and make a rea- aliseases to which they are subject. sonable profit. I would not have them to have unreason

I should have been much gratified to have been able to able profit: then it would be a tax upon one portion for furnish you information on all the points on which you rethe benefit of the other. The point to stop at is one of quest it, and should have done it most cheerfully had I difficulty, and requires great experience and much re- been in possession of it. Not doubting, however, but that search.

the method you have taken will elicit it in abundance, I I should be pleased to hear from you occasionally. shall, therefore, rest satisfied, anxiously desiring the suc

cessful result of your efforts to repcal the salt tax entirely, Statement of the Ilon. Mr. Lyon, of Kentucky. concurring with you in opinion that it is the best service That, being a member of a mercantile house which re of the price of public lands: in both of which great West

that can be rendered to the West next to the graduation ceived a quantity of salt from the Kenhawa Salt Company, to sell on commission, in the years 1826–7, with instruc- ern measures, you have the concurrence of a vast majority tions to sell at the original mark or lick weight, finding of the West most ardently wishing you success. many of the barrels greatly deficient in weight, var, ing Communication from General Tipton, of Indiana, duted from 10 to 20 per cent., they reweighed, and sold a quantity at the real weight; that, when the agent of the com

Logansport, Indiana, Nov. 24, 1830.

Your printed letter of July last has been duly receiver, pany came on, he was dissatisfied, and said it was their custom to sell elsewhere at the original mark, and that it and I have made strict inquiry of merchants, and other must be s? sold there, which they refused to do. The gentlemen of intelligence of this vicinity, in relation to the agency, and the salt on hand, were transferred to other salt monopoly. From facts collected from them, and some hands; and thai he has great reason to believe the neces that there is, and has been for years, a monopoly of that

within my own knowledge, I have no hesitation in saying sities of the people, in many instances, compelled them to

article, to the great injury of the poorer class of the peopurchase the deficient barrels at their marked weight. of the Senate, in ascending the Ohio from Cincinnati, last Ohio and the Wabash rivers, at from thirty to forty miles Also, that, being in company with the Hon. Mr. Benton, ple of Indiana.

Deposits for the sale of salt are established along the fall, on board the steamboat Emigrant, said to belong to, from each other, by monopolists from Kenhawa, in Virgiand be in the employ of

, the Kenhawa Salt Company, nia, and from Kentucky. One agent of these monopolists which was towing a keel-boat to Maysville, Keptucky, loaded with alum or foreign salt, and delivered there for is at this village; another at Lafayette, forty miles below,

who rise or fall in their prices according to the compet:the purpose of salting pork in that part of Kentucky.

tion they meet, and, by this means, oppress the poor, and Feb. 1830.

amass wealth to themselves to a very large amount per Communication from General Milroy, of Delphi, Indiana, The salt manufactured at the wells at Kenhawa, and in duted Nov. 25, 1830.

Kentucky, will not preserve pork in the Southern climate. I received your letter requesting information relative to In the winter of 1822 I descended the rivers to New Or. the salt trade of this country. My limited acquaintance leans, with“ a quantity of pork put up with salt made at with mercantile business will enable me to say but little the wells of these monopolists. Soon after my arrival from my own knowledge on the subject. I can say, how- at New Orleans, I was compelled to purchase Twk's ever, that the belief is universal, and uncontradicted in Island salt, and repack my pork; thereby incurring an exthis part of the country, that agents employed by the salt/pense of one hundred and fifty dollars.

annum.

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