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REGISTER O DEBATES 127 COITOKESS.
TWENTY-FIRST CONGRESS-SECOND Session.
LIST OF MEMBERS OF TIIE SENATE AND HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE U. STATES.
PENNSYLVANIA.-James Buchanan, Richard CoulMAINE.-- Joli Holmes, Peleg Sprague.
ter, Thomas H. Crawford, Harmar Denny, Joshua Evans, NEW JIAMPSHIRE.-Samuel Bell, Levi Woodbury.
Chauncey Forward, Joseph Fry, Jr. James Ford, Innis MASSACHUSETTS.-Nathaniel Silsbee, Dan'l Webster. Thomas Irwin, Adam King, George G. Leiper, H. A.
Green, John Gilmore, Joseph Hemphill, Peter Ihrie, jr. CONNECTICUT.-Samuel A. Foot, Calvin Willey. RHODE ISLAND.--Nehemiah R. Knight, Asher Robbins. M'Creery, William Ramsay, John Scott, Philander Ste
Muhlenburg, Alem Marr, Daniel H. Miller, William VERMONT,- Dulley Chase, Horatio Seymour. NEW YORK.-Nathan Sanford, Charles E. Dudley.
phens, John B. Sterigere, Joel B. Sutherland, Samuel A. NEW JERSEY—Theodore Frelinghuysen, Mahlon Dick
Smith, Thomas HI. Sill.
DELAWARE.-Kensey Johns, Jr. PENNSYLVANIA.-William Marks, Isaac D. Barnard. c. Howaril, George E. Mitchell, Michael C. Sprigg, Ben
MARYLANI).-Elias Brown, Clement Dorsey, Benj. DELAWARE.-- John M. Clayton, Arnold Naudain.
edict I. Semmes, Richard Spencer, George C. WashingMARYLAND.-Samuel Smith, Ezekiel Chambers. VIRGINIA.-L. W. Tazewell, John Tyler.
lon, Epbraim K. Wilson. NORTH CAROLINA.---James Iredell, Bedford Brown. S. Archer, William Armstrong, John S. Barber, John M.
VIRGINIA.-Mark Alexander, Robert Allen, William SOUTH CAROLINA-William Smith, Robert Y. Ilayne. Palton, J. T. Boulding, Richard Coke, Jr. Nathaniel H. GEORGIA.--George M. Troup, John Forsyth.
Claibo KENTUCKY.--- John Rowan, George M. Bibb.
Robert B. Craig, Philip Doddridge, Thomas TENNESSEE.--Hugh L. White, Felix Grundy.
Davenport, William F. Gordon, Lewis Maxwell, Charles
F. Mercer, William M'Coy, Geo. Loyall, John Roane, OHIO.-Benjamin Ruggles, Jacob Burnet. LOUISIANA. - Josiah S. Johnston, Edward Livingston. James Trezvant.
Joseph Diaper, Andrew Stevenson, John Taliaferro, INDIANA.-- William Hendricks, James Noble. MISSISSIPPI. ---Powhatan Ellis, George Poindexter.
NORTH CAROLINA.-Willis Alston, Daniel L. Bar. ILLINOIS.- Elias K. Kane, David J. Baker.
ringer, Samuel P. Carson, H. W. Conner, Edmund DeALABAMA.-John M'Kinley, William R. King.
berry, Edward B. Dudley, Thomas H. Hall, Robert PotMISSOURI. – David Barton, Thomas Il. Benton.
ter, Wm. B. Shepard, Augustine H. Shepperd, Jesse Speight, Lewis Williams, Abraham Rencher.
SOUTH CAROLINA.Robert W. Barnwell, James HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. Blair, John Ca:npbeil, Warren R. Davis, Wm. Drayton,
Wm. D. Martin, George M'Duffie, W’m. T. Nuckolls, MAINE.-John Anderson, Samuel Butman, George Starling Tucker. Evans, Rufus M'Intire, Cornelius Holland, Joseph F.
GEORGIA.--Thomas F. Foster, Charles E. Haynes, Wingate, Leonar) Jarvis. NEW HAMPSHIRE -John Brodhead, Thomas Chand. Richard H. Wilde, James M. Wayne.
Wilson Lumpkin, Henry G. Lamar, Wiley Thompson, ler, Joseph Tiammons, Jonathan Harvey, Henry Ilub
KENTUCKY.--James Clark, N. D. Coleman, Thomas barri, John W. Weeks.
Chilton), lienry Daniel, Nathaniel Gaither, R. M. Johnson, MASSACHUSET IS. --Joli Bailey, Isaac C. Bates, John Kincaid, Joseph Lecompte, Chitienden Lyon, RoB. W. Crowninshield, John Davis, Henry W. Dwight, bert P. Letcher, Charles A. Wickliffe, Joel Yancey. Edward Everett, Benjamin Gorliam, George Grenwell, jr.
TENNESSEE. ----John Blair, John Bell, David CrockJames L. Hodges, Joseph G. Kendall, John Reed, Josett, Robert Desha, Jacob C. Isacks, Cave Johnson, Pryor seph Richardson, John Varnim.
Lea, Jiunes K. Polk, James Standefor. RHODE ISLAND - Tristam Burges, Dutee J. Pearce.
01110.-- Morciecai Bartley, Joseph H. Crane, William CONNECTICUT.-Noyes Barber, William W. Ells Creighton, James Findilay, Wm. W. Irvin, William Ken. worth, J. W. Huntington, Ralph J. Ingersoll, W. L. non, Tumphrey H. Leavitt, Wm. Russel, Wm. StanberStorrs, Ebenezer Young.
ry, James Shields, John Thompson, Joseph Vance, Sam. VERMONT.–William Calioon, Horace Everett, Jona- uel F. Vinton, Elisha Whittlesey. than Jlunt, Rollin C. Maliary, Benjamin Swift.
LOUISIANA.--Henry H. Gurley, W. H. Overton, NEW YORK.-William G. Angel, Benedict Arnold, Edward D. Whito. Thomas Beekman, Abraham Bockee, Peter I. Borst, C.
INDIANA.-Ratliff Boon, Jonathan Jennings, John C. Cambreleng, Jacob Crocheron, Timothy Childs, lle! Test. ry B. Cowles, S. W. Eager, Charles G. Dewitt, Jolin D.
ALABAMA.-R. E. B. Baylor, C. C. Clay, Dixon R. Dickinson, Jonas Earll, jr. Isaac Finch, Michael Hoffman,
Lewis. Joseph Iawkins, Jehiel H. Halsey, Perkins King, James
MISSISSIPPI.-Thomas Hinds. Lent, John Magee, Henry C. Martindale, Robert Monell,
ILLINOIS.-Joseph Duncan, Thomas Maxwell, E. F. Norton, Gershom Powers, Ro
MISSOURI.-Spencer Pettis. bert S. Rose, Jonah Sanford, Henry R. Storrs, James Strong, Ambrose Spencer, John W. Taylor, Phineas L.
Delegates. Tracy, Gulian C. Verplanck, Campbell P. White.
NEW JERSEY.--Lewis Condict, Richard M. Cooper, MICHIGAN TERRITORY.-John Biddle.
FLORIDA TERRITORY.-Joseph M. White.
21st Cong. 2d sess.)
MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED An arrangement has been effecteil with Great Britain, STATES,
in relation to the trade between the United States and TO BOTII NOUSES OF CONGRESS,
her West India and North American colonies, which has At the commencement of the Seconil Session settled a question that has tur years afforded maiter for
contention and almost uninterrupteu discussion, ar.d bas of the Twenty-first Congress.
been the subject of no less than six negotiations, in a manDECEMBER 7, 1830.
ner which promises results highly favorable to the parties.
The absiract right of Great Britain to monopolize the Fellow-Citizens of the Senate
trade with her colonies, or to exclude us from a particiand of the House of Representatives : pation therein, has never been denied by the U. States. The pleasure I have in congraiulating you on your But we have contended, and with reason, that if, at any return to your constitutional duties is much heightened time, Great Britain may desire the productions of this by the satisfaction which the condition of our beloved country as necessary to her colonies, they must be recountry at this period justly inspires. The beneficent ceived upon principles of just reciprocity ; and further, Author of all good has granted to us, during the present that it is making an invidious and untriendly distinction, year, liralth, peace, and plenty, and numerous causes for to open her colonial ports to the vessels of other nations, joy in the wonderful success which attends the progress and close them against those of the United States. of our free institutions.
Antecedently to 1794, a portion of our productions was With a population unparalleled in its increase, and pos- admitted into the colonial islands of Great Britain, by parsessing a character which combines the hardlihood of en- ticular concession, limited to the termn of one year, but terprise with the considerateness of wisdom, we see in renewed from year to year. In the transportation of every section of our happy country a steady improvement these productions, however, our vessels were not allowed in the means of social intercourse, and correspondent ef. to engage; this being a privilege reserved to British shipfects upon the genius and laws of our extended republic. ping, hy which alone our produce could be taken to the
The apparent exceptions to the harmony of the pros- islands, and theirs brought to us in return. From Newpect are to be referred rather to inevitable diversities in foundland and her continental possessions, all our producthe various interests which enter into the composition of lions, as well as our vessels, were excluded, with occaso extensive a whole, than to any want of attachment to sional relaxations, by which, in scasons of distress, the the Union-interests whose collisions serve only, in the former were admitted in British bottoms. end, to foster the spirit of conciliation and patriotism, so By the treaty of 1794, she offered to concede lo us, for essential to the preservation of that union which, I most a limited time, the right of carrying to her West India devoutly hope, is destined to prove imperishable. possessions, in our vessels not exceeding seventy tons
In the midst of these blessings, we have recently wit- burden, and upon the same terms as British vessels, any nessed changes in the condition of other nations, which productions of the United States which British vessels may, in their consequences, call for the utmost vigilance, night import therefrom. But this privilege was coupled wisdom, and unanimity, in our councils, and the exercise with conditions which are supposed to have led to its reof all the moderation and patriotism of our people. jection by the Senate: that is, that American vessels
The important modifications of their Government, ef shouldi land their return cargoes in the United States only ; fected with so much courage and wisdom by the people and, moreover, that they should, during the continuance of France, afford a happy presage of their future course, of the privilegc, be precluded from carrying molasses, and has naturally elicited from the kindred feelings of sugar, coffee, cocoa, or cotton, either from those islands this nation that spontaneous and universal burst of ap- or from the U.States, to any other part of the world. Great plause in which you have participated. In congratulating Britain readily consented to expunge this article from the you, my fellow.citizens, upon an event so auspicious to treaty ; and subsequent attempts to arrange the terms of the dearest interests of mankind, I do no more than re the trade, either by treaty stipulations or concerted legis. spond to the voice of my country, without transcending, lation, having failed, it has been successively suspended in the slightest degree, that salutary - maxim of the illus. and allowed, according to the varying legislation of the trious Washington, which enjoins an abstinence from all parties. interference with the internal affairs of other nations. The following are the prominent points which have, in From a people exercising, in the most unlimited degree, later years, separated the two Governments. Besides a the right of self government, and enjoying, as derived restriction, whereby all importations into her colonies in from this proud characteristic, under the favor of heaven, American vessels are confined to our own products carried much of the happiness with which they are blessed ; a hence, a restriction to which it does not appear that we people who can point in triumph to their free institutions, have ever objected, a leading object on the part of Great and challenge comparison with the fruits they bear, as Britain has been to prevent us from becoming the carriwell as with the moderation, intelligence, and energy, ers of British West Indii commodities to any other coun. with which they are administered ; trom such a people, try than our own. On the part of the United States, it the deepest sympathy was to be expected in a struggle has been contended, 1st. That the subject should be refor the sacred principles of liberty, conducted in a spirit gulated by treaty stipulations in preference to separate leevery way worthy of the cause, and crowned by an hero. gislation ; 2d. That our productions, when imported into ic moderation which has disarmed revolution of its terrors. the colonies in question, should not be subject to higher Notwithstanding the strong assurances which the ma.. duties tiian the productions of the mother country, or of whom we so sincerely love and justly admire has given to her other colomal possessions ; And, 3d. That vur ves. the world of the high character of the present King of the sels should be allowed to participate in the circuitous trade French, and which, if sustained to the end, will secure to between the United States and different parts of the Bri. him the proud appellation of Patriot King, it is not in bis tish dominions. success, but in that of the great principle which has borne The first point, atter having been, for a long time, him to the throne-the paramount authority of the pub- strenuously insisted upon by Great Britain, was given up lic will-that the American people rejoice.
by the act of Parliament of July, 1825 ; all vessels sut: I am happy to inform you that the anticipations which fered to trade with the colonies being permitted to clear were indulged at the date of my last communication on from thence with any articles which British vessels might the subject of our foreign affairs, bave been fully realized export ; and proceed to any part of the world, Great in several important particulars.
Britain and her dependencies alone excepted. On our
part, each of the above points had, in succession, been lain, and concluded in a manner strongly indicative of a explicitly abandoned in negotiations preceding that of sincere desire to cultivate the best relations with the which the result is now announced.
United States. To reciprocate this disposition to the fulThis arrangement secures to the Unitel States every lest extent of my ability, is a duty which I shall deem it a advantuge asked by them, and which the state of the ne- privilege to discharge. gotiation allowed us to insist upon. The trade will be Although the result is, itself, the best commentary on placed upon a footing decidedly more favorable to this the services rendered to his country by our Minister at country ihan any on which it ever stood ; and our com- the court of St. James, it would be doing violence to my merce and navigation will enjoy, in the colonial ports of feelings were I to dismiss the subject without expressing Great Britain, cvery privilege allowed to other nations. the very high sense I entertain of the talent and exertion
That the prosperity of the country, so far as it depends which have been displayed by him on the occasion. on rius vade, will be greatly promoted by the new arrange. The injury to the commerce of the United States rement, there can be no doubt. Independiently of the more sulting from ilie exclusion of our vessels from the Black obvious advantages of an open and direct intercourse, its seal, and the previous footing of mere sufferance upon establishment will be attended with other consequences which even the limited trade enjoyed by us with Turkey of a higher value. That which has been carried on since has hitherto been placed, have, for a long time, been a the mutual interlict under all the expense and inconve- source of much solicitude to this Government ; and seve. nience unavoidably incident to it, would have been in- ral endeavors have been made to obtain a better state of supportably onerons, had it not been, in a great degree, things. Sensible of the importance of the object, I felt lightened by concerted evasions in the mode of making it my duty to leave no proper means unemployed to acthe transhipments at what iil'e called the neutral ports. quire for our fug the same privileges that are enjoyed by These indirections are inconsistent with the dignity of na- the principal Powers of Europe. Commissioners were, tions that have so many motives, not only to cherish feel consequently, appointed, to open a negotiation with the ings of mutual friendship, but to maintain such relations Sublime Porte. 'Not long after the member of the comas will stimulate their respective citizens and subjects to mission who went directly from the United States had efforts of direct, opell, and honorable competition only sailed, the account of the treaty of Adrianople, by which and preserve them from the influence of seductive and one of the objects in view was supposed to be secured, vitiating circumstances.
reached this country. The Black Sea was understood to When your preliminary interposition was asked at the be opened to Under the supposition that this was close of the last session, a copy of the instructions under the case, the additional facilities to be derived from the which Mr. McLane has acted, together with the conmu. establishment of commercial regulations with the Porte nications which had at that time passed between him and were deemed of sufficient importance to require a prothe British Government, was laid before you. Although secu:ion of the negotiation as originally contemplated. there has not been any thing in the acts of the two Go. It was therefore persevered in, and resulted in a treaty, vernments which requires secrecy, it was thought most which will be forth with laid before the Senate, proper, in the then state of the negotiation, to make that By its provisions, a free passage is secured, without communication a confidential one. So soon, however, as limitation of time, to the vessels of the United States, to the evidence of execution on the part of Grea: Britain is and from the Black Sea ,including the navigation thereof; received, the whole matter shall be laid before you, when and our trade with Turkey is placed on the fouting of the it will be seen that the apprehension which appears to !nost favored nation. The latter is an arrangement wholhave suggested one of the provisions of the act passed at ly inlependent of the treaty of Adrianople ; and the your last session, that the restoration of the trade in ques. former derives much value, not only from the increased tion miglit be connected with other subjects, and was security which, under any circumstances, it would give sought to be obtained at the sacrifice of the public inter to the right in question, but from the fact, ascertained in est in other particulars, was wholly unfoundeil ; and that the course of the negotiation, that, by the construction the change which has taken place in the views of the put upon that treaty by Turkey, the article relating to British Government has been induced by considerations ihe passage of the Bosphorus is confined to nations hav. as honorable to butii partics, is, I trust, the result will ing treaties with the Porte. The most friendly feelings prove beneficial.
appear to be entertained by the Sultan, and an enlight. This desirable result was, it will be seen, greatly pro-ened disposition is evinced by himn to foster the intercourse moteil by the liberal and confiding provisions of the act between the two countries by the most liberal arrange. of Congress of the last session, by which our ports were, This disposition it will be our duty and interest upon the reception and annunciation by the President of !o cherish. the required assurance on the part of Great Britain), Our relations with Russia are of the most stable chafurtiwiti'opened to her vessels, betore the arrangement raclır. Respect for that Empire, and confidence in its couill be carried into effect on her part ; pursuing, in this friendship towards the United States, have been so long act of prospective legislation, a similar course to that entertained on our part, and so carefully cherished by adopteil by Great Britain, in abolishing, by her act of Par- the present Emperor and his illustrious predecessor, as to liament, in 1825, a restriction then existing, and permit- have become incorporated with the public sentiment of ting our vessels io clear from the colonies, on their return the United States. No means will be left unemployed on voyages, for any foreign country whatever, before British my part to promote thesc salutary feelings, and those innvessels had been relieved from the restriction iinposel by provements of which the commercial intercourse between our law, of returning directly from the United States to the two countries is susceptible,and wbich have derived in. the colonies--a restriction which she required and ex. creasel importance from our treaty with the Sublime Porte. pected that we should abolish. Upon each occasion, a I sincerely regret to inform you that our Minister latelimited and temporary advantage Das been given to the ly coinmissioned to that Court, on whose distinguished opposile party, but an avantage of no importance in talents and great experience in public affairs ! place great comparison with the restoration of mutual confidence reliance, bas been compelled, by extreme indisposition, and guol feelings, and the ultimate establishment of the to exercise a privilege, which, in consideration of the extrade upon fair principles.
tent to whicha bis constitution had been inpaired in the Il give's ine ufeigneel pleasure to assure you that this public service, was committed to his discretion-of leay. negotiation has beer, thoughoul, characterised by the ing temporarily his post for the advantage of a more gemost fralık and friendly spirit on the part of Great Bri- nal climate.
If, as it is to be loped, the improvement of his health The commercial intercourse between the two countries should be such as to justify him in doing so, he will re- is susceptible of highly advantageous improvements; but pair to St. Petersburgh, and resume the discharge of his the sense of this injury has had, and must continue to official duties. I bave received the most satisfactory as- bave, a very umfasor.ible insluence upon thein. From its surance that, in the mean time, the public interests in satisfactory adjustment, not only a firin anii cordial friendthat quarter will be preserved from prejudice, by the slip, but a progressive development of all their relations, intercourse which he will continue, through the Secretary may be expected. It is, therefore, my ernest hope that of Legation, with the Russian cabinet,
this old and vexarious subject of difference may be speedYou are apprised, although the fact has not yet been ily removed. officially announced to the House of Representatives, I feel that my confilence in our appeal to the motives that a treaty was, in the month of March last, concluded which shoukl govern it just and magnanimous Nation, is between the United States and Denmark, by which alike warranted by the character of the French people, $ 650,000 are secured to our citizens as an inlemnity for and by the ligh voucher we possess for the enlarged spoliations upon their commerce in the years 1808, 1809, views and pure integrity of the monarch who now pre1810, and 1811. This treaty was sanctioned by the Se sides over their councils ; and nothing shall be waniing nate at the close of its last session, and it now becomes the on my part to meet any manifestation of the spirit we an. duty of Congress to pass the necessary laws for the or. ticipate in one of corresponding frankness and liberality. ganization of the Board of Commissioners to distribute The subjects of chlerence with Spain have been the indeinnity amongst the claimants. It is an agreeable brought to the view of that Government, by our Minister circumstance of this adjustment, that its terms are in con. there, with much force and propriety; and the strongest formity with the previously ascertained views of the assurances have been received of their carly and fasoraclaimants themselves ; thus removing all pretence for a ble consideration). future agitation of the subject in any form.
The steps which reinaineil to place the matter in conThe negotiations in regard to such points in our foreign troversy between Great Britain and the United States relations as remained to be adjusted, have been actively fairly before the arbitrator, have all been taken in the prosecuted during the recess. Material advances bave same liberal and friendly spirit which characterized those been made, which are of a character to promise favorable before announced. Recent events have doubtless served results. Our country, by the blessing of God, is not in a to delay the decision, but one Minister al the Court of the situation to invite aggression ; and it will be our fault if distinguished arbitrator has been assured that it will be she ever becomes so. Sincerely desirous to chillivate the maile within the time contemplates by the treaty. most liberal and friendly relations with all ; ever ready to I am particularly gratified in being able to state that a fulfil our engagements with scrupulous fidelity ; limiting decidedly favorable, and, as I hope, lasting change las our demands upon others to mere justice ; holding our been effected in our relations with the neighbormy reselves ever ready to do unto them as we would wish to be public of Mexico. The unfortunate and unfounded siis. done by, and avoiding even the appearance of undue picions in regard to our clisposition, which it became my partiality to
any Nation, it appears to me impossible that painful duty 10 advert to on a former occasion, have been, a simple and sincere application of our principles to our I believe, entirely removed ; and the Government of Mexforeign relations can fail to place them ultimately upon ico has been made to understand the real character of the the footing on which it is our wish they shoull rest. wishes and views of this in regard to that country. The
of the points referred to, the most prominent are, our consequence is, the establishment of frien Iship and misclaims upon France for spoliations upon our cominerce ; tual confidence. Such are the assurances which I have similar claims upou Spain, together with embarrassments received, and I see no cause to doubt their si cerity. in the commercial intercourse between the two countries, I had reason 10 expect the conclusion of a commercial which ought to be removed ; the conclusion of the treaty treaty with Mexico in scason for communication on the of commerce and navigation with Mexico, which has been present occasio). Circumstances which are not explainso long in suspense, as well as the final seillement of li cu, but which, I am persuadel, are not the result of an mits beween ourselves and that republic; and finally the indisposition on her part to enter into it, have producer arbitrament of the question between the United States the delay. and Great Britain in regard to the northeastern bou. There was reason to fear, in the course of the last suindary.
mer, that the harmony of our relations miglit be disturbed The negotiation with France has been conducted by by the acts of certain claimants, under Mexican grants, our Minister with zeal and abilily, and in all respects 10 of territory wlich has hithertu been un ler our jurisdicmy entire satisfaction. Although the prospect of a faro. tion. The co-operation of the representative of Mexico rable termination was occasionally dimmed by counter near this Government was asked on the occasion, and was pretensions, to which the United States coull not assent, readily afforded. Insiructions and advice have been given he yet had strong hopes of being able to arrive at it satis to the Governor of Arkansas and the Officers in cominanı! faciory settlement with the late Government. The nego- in the adjoining Mexican State, by which, it is hoped, tiation hias been renewed with the present authoriles; the quiet of that frontier will be preseivel, unul a sinal and, sensible of the general and lively confidence of our selllement of the dividing line shall bave removed all citizens in the justice and magnanimity of regenerated ground of controversy. France, I regret the more not to have it in my po ser, The exchange of ratification of the treaty concluded yet, to announce the result so confidently anticipated. last year with Austria has not yet taken place. The de. No ground, however, inconsistent with this expectation, lay has been occasioned by the non-arrival of the ratificahas been taken ; and I do not allow myself to doubt that tion of that Government within the time prescribed by the justice will soon be done to us. The amount of the treaty: Kent weil authority has been asked for by the claims, the length of time they have remained unsatisfied, representative of Austria ; and, in the mean tiine, the rate and their incontrovertible justice, make an earnest proses pidly increasing trade and navigation between the two cution of them by this Government an urgent duty. The countries have been placed upon the most libcral fouting illegality of the seizures and confiscations out of which of our navigation acts. they have arisen is not disputed ; and whatever distinc Several alleged deprecations bave been recently com. tions may have heretofore been set up in regard to the milted on our commerce by the national vessels of Por. liability of the existing Government, it is quite clear that tugal. They have been made the subject of iminediale such considerations cannot now be interpored.
remonstrance and reclination. Tam no: yet posses.cd
[21st Cong, 21 Sess.
of sufficient inforination to express a definitive opinion of jects, I shouil no: inve withhell my assent. The one their character, but expect soon to receive it. No pro- now returned does so in several particulars, but it also per means shall be omitted to o'tain for our citizens all contains appropriations for g'urveys of a local character, the reilress to which they iniy appear to be entitled. which I cannot approve. It gives me satisfaction to find
Almost at the moment of the adjourninent of your last that no serious inconvenience luns arises from withhoki. session, iwo bills, the one entitled " Anact for making ing my approval from this bill; nor will it, I trust, be appropriations for buikling light 2.14 ses, light-boats, bear canse of regret that an opportunity will be thereby : fordicons, and monuments, plucing buoys, and for improving ed for Congress to review its provisions an der circumharbors and directing surveys," and the other, " An act stances better calculated for full investigation titan those to authorize a subscription for stock in the Louisville anil under which it was passed. Portland Canal Company, were submitted for my appro). Lo speaking of direct appropriations, I mean not to inval. It was not possible, within the tiine allowed me, clude a practice which has obtined to some extent, and before the cluse of the session, to give these biles the to which I have, in one instance, in a different capacity, consideration which wasilue to their character and inpor. given my assent—that of subscribing to the stock of pri. tance; and I was compelled to retain them for that pur vate associations, Positive experience, and a more tho. pose. I now avail myselt of this early opportunity, lo ro rough considera'ion of the subject, live convinced me of turn then to the Houses in which they respectively ori. the impropriety as well as inexpediency of such invest. ginitel, with the reasons which, a termnture deliberaments. All improvements effected by the funds of the lion, compeline to withdrukt my:pproval.
natio, fur general use, shoull be open to the enjoyment The practice of letraying oit of the Treasury of the of all our fellow citizens, exempt from the payment of United States the expenses incurred by the establishment tolls, or any imposition of that character. The practice an I support ut lighbouses, beicons, buys, and public of thus mingling the concerns of the Government with piers, within the bays, inleis, harbors, and ports of the those of the States or of individuals, is inconsistent with United Sille's, to render the navigation thereof safe and the object of its institution, and highly impolitic. The easy, is coeval with the adoption of the Constillition, and successful operation of the federal system can only be has been contient without interruption or dispute. preserved by confining it to the few and simple, but yet
As our foreign com nerce increased, and was extended important objects for which it was designed. into the interior of the country by the establisleinert of A different practice, if allowed to progress, wouldl ports of entry and delivery upon our navigable rivers, the ultimately change the character of this Governinent, by sphere of those expenditures received il corresponding consolidating inio one the General and State Governenlargement. Lighthouses, beacons, boys, public plers, ments, which were intended to be kept forever distinct. and the removai of sand bars, sawyers, and other partial I cannot perceive how bills authorizing such stibscriptions or temporary impedime!is in the navigable rivers and can be otherwise regarled than as bills for revenue, and harSors wilich were einbraced in the revenue districts consequently subject to the rule in that respect prescrifrorn tiine to time established by law, were iluthorized bed by the Constitution. If the interest of the Governupon the same principle, and the expense defrayed in the ment in private companies is subordinate to that of india
Toat these expenses have it times been viiluals, the management and control of a portion of the extravagant and clisproportionate, is very probable. The public fimds is delegated to an authority unknown to the circuinstances under which they are incurred, ale well Constitution, and beyond the supervision of our consti. calculated to lead to such a result, unless the application, llenis: if sup:rior, its officers and agents will be con. is subjected to the closest scrutiny. The localitv.intages stantly exposed to imputations of favoritism and oppresarising tran the disbursenent of public monuy two fre sion. Direct prejudice to the public interest, or an alienquently, it is to be ared, invile approprations for vb. alion ut the affections and respect of portions of the jects of this character that are neither necessary nuril se people, may, therefore, in addition to the general distill. The number of light-louse kvepers is already very credit l'estilling to the Guvernmeot from embarking with large, and the bill before ine propuses tv indelin il filty. Its constituents in pecuniary speculations, be looked for one inore, of various elescriptions from representation is the probable fruit of such associations. It is nu allupo i the subject winch are understool 1o be entitled to swer to this ulijection 10 sty that the extent of conserespect, I an induced to believe that there has not only quences like these cannot be great from a limite:l and been great improvidence in the past expenditures of the small number of investments : because experience in Government upon these objects, but that the security of other matters teaches us, and we are not at liberty 10 navigation lias, in some instances, been diminished by the disregard its alinomtions, tha!, unless an entire stop be multiplication of light-10815s, and consequent change of put to them, it will soon be impossible to prevent their ligtits, upon the Civilst. It is in this, as in other respects, accumulation, until they are spread over the whole coun. vill July to avoid ikunnecessary expenses
, as well as eve try, and inade to embrace many of the private and apry increase of patronage not called for by the public ser- propriate concerns of individuals. vice. Bul, in the discharge of that duty in this particu The power which the General Government would :ico her, it must not be forgotten that, in relation to our foreign qure within the several States by becoming the princicommerce, thic berilen and benefit of protecting and ic-pal stockholder in corporations, controlling every cional coinmo.laling it necessarily se together, and must do so and each sixty or hundred miles of every inportant road, as long as the public revenue is drawn from the people and giving a proportionate vote in all their elections, is through the custoin house. It is indisputable, that what almost inconceivable, and, in iny view, dangerous to the ever gives facility an I security to navigation, cheapers liberties of the people. imports ; and all who consume them are alike interested This inoile ot arding such works is, also, in its nature, in whatever prociuces thuis effect. If they consume, they deceptive, and in many cases conducive to improvidence ought, its they noix du, to pay ; otherwise, they dy noe in the administration of the national funds. Appropria. pay. The consumer in the most inland State derives the rious will be obtained with much greater facility, and same advantage from every necessary and prudent ex- granted with less Security to the public interes', when penditure for the facility and sectirity of our foreig! com the measure is tinus lisgriseil, than when definite and dimerce and navigation, that he does who l'esilios in a ma rect expenditures of money are asked for. The interes's ritime State. Locul expenditures inave not, of themselves, of the nation woull doubties be better served by avoidla a corresponsleit operation.
ing all such indirect modes of aiding particulier objects. From a bill making direct appropriation for such ob to a Government like ours, more especially, should all