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218, 223

“ Nine,

.. 150

Mr. IREDELL, continued

Page.
usurped; Powers intended to be given, legal without new Authority, &c., 179
Paper Money not affected, 185. Relative Importance of the Northern and
Southern States, .

186
Replies to general Objections,

218
Exclusive Legislation ; States will stipulate ; Insult to Congress in 1783;

Powers enumerated, excluded from all others; Abuse of Power; Non-
Adoption out of the Union; State of the Union in 1776; anticipates the
Interest of the First Congress; Importance of framing the first Code of
Laws,...

sufficient to establish the Constitution; Disadvantages in not
joining the Union under the Constitution,.

228
His Resolution for Yeas and Nays,....

241
Religion; Tests; Persecutions; its Toleration in America; Sacrament in

Great Britain ; Office open to all Religions; Guaranty explained ; Presi.
dent must be a Native; Form of an Oath ; governed by the Religion of
the Person taking it; Case of an East Indian, a Gentoo, in Charles II.'s
Time,

197
Moves for Ratification and subsequent Amendments,

248
Gov. JOHNSTON — Vice-President's Vote defended,

26
Representative accountable only to his Constituents,

33
Impeachment; Removal ; Disqualification,

35
State Officers amenable to the Courts of Law,.

50
Amendments; no Danger apprehended, .

56
Powers; no Parallel between Congress and Parliament,

64
Taxation, in Kind,

77
Replies to Objections,

88
Treaties; Difference between Confederation and Constitution,

115
Jurisdiction, concurrent between State and Federal Courts,

141
Trial by Jury, dissimilar Modes, .

150)
Constitution must be the supreme Law,
Amendments; adopting States; no Office-Hunter, &c.,

226
Fallacy of the Opinion that the Pope, or a Foreigner, may be chosen
President; Religion,

.... 198
Mr. WILLIE JONES — for putting the Question upon the Constitution im.

mediately,
Reasons for this Proposition,..

7
Ratification; wished to be out of the Union,

245
Though no Share in the new Appointments, common Interest with Virginia ;

Jefferson, he stated, wished Ratification only to preserve the Union ;
Office Expectants, their Bias, &c.,.....

225
Defence of the Opposition,

234
Amendments, ::

240
Against Adoption; moved the previous Question; refuses to withdraw his
Motion,

216 to 217
Mr. LANCASTER — his Apprehensions for Constitutional Amendments, 212.

Elections ; President's conditional Negative; Two Thirds very rarely will
agree to á Law; Appeals ; Armies ; Religion ; Papists or Mahometans
may occupy the Chair; Disqualification in the States; would oppose
Adoption,

215
Mr. LOCKE- Constitution grants unlimited Powers, 168. Necessity of Pine-
barren Acts; expedient to make Paper Money a legal Tender,.

169
Opposes the Adoption,...

239
Mr. LENOIR — President's Treaty-making Power, a legislative Act,

27
Convention exceeded its Powers; Reasons for opposing,.....

201
Mr. MACLAINE - Distinction between a Monarchy and Republic,.

10
“ We, the People,”'
, proper,

16
Constitution a Blank till adopted, .

24
Vice-President's casting Vote,..

26
Biennial Elections defended,

28
Impeachment not extended to Representatives,

34
Vice-President's Powers,..

12
Impeachment, not to reach petty Officers,....

43
Misdemeanors, by great State Officers, how redressed ?

46
Parliamentary Power; Blackstone ; Militia Power,.

63
Elections ; Time, Manner, Place, &c.,

Mr. MACLAINE, continued

Page
Appointing Power; Presidential Powers,

135
Judiciary; State and Federal Courts separate,.

139
Congress, its Powers limited and enumerated,...

140
States, their Interests connected ; Trial by Jury,

151
Power in the People, not in the States; Distinction between Law and Fact;
Federal Jurisdiction limited,..

160
State and Federal Courts,...

164 to 172
Money Bills ; Paper Money; Depreciation, though ultimately good,

172
Trial by Jury; further Explanations,

175
State Sovereignty not in Danger from Congress,.

180
Taxes will be inconsiderable; Congress will have Credit abroad; Adoption
will bring out Specie,.

188
Trade, its Resources; Loans,

189
Mr. M'DOWALL - Elections; Control over Taxation, opposed to its Surrender
to the general Government;.

S7
Power without Responsibility,.

119
Senate, Danger of Combination with the President,

124
Trial by Jury; wealthy Suitor may prevail,. .

143
Jury Trial, not secured,

149
Taxes; Consequence of Ambiguity,

189
Bill of Rights essential; Elections,

210
Mr. MILLER — Presidential Powers, a Defect in the Constitution,.

114
Mr. PERSON — for previous Question,....

217
Mr. PORTER-Money Clause, whence does the Power originate?

94
Treaty-making Power in the President and Senate,..

115
Treaties; House of Representatives ought to have a Vote in making them,.. 118
Mr. SHEPHERD– for full Discussion,....

217
Mr. SPAIGHT (a Member of the Federal Convention) - Taxes, whether paid to
State or Federal Government, no Difference,

81
Slaves, Compromise explained,.

100
Electors, regularity required,.

104, 106
Presidential Powers; Command of the Army,

114
Presidential and Senatorial Responsibility,

124
Judiciary ; Federal Convention unanimous in keeping separate the Federal
and State Governments,

139
Trial by Jury; in the Federal Convention, considerable Time taken to
investigate the Subject,

144
Convention, denies that it exceeded its Powers,.

206
Senate responsible to State Legislatures; Federal Constitution favorable to

Trial by Jury; Religion, no Power over it; an Infidel will never be chosen
for Office; Amendments; exclusive Legislation ; Liberty of the Press;
Census; Requisitions done away,..

206, 210
Mr. SPENCER- Governors, Servants of the People,

12
Objections to the new Form of Government,

50
Refractory States ; Elections, .

65
Taxes, Interference between the States and the Federal Government;
Objections,...

75
Taxes; laid by the State preferred,.

80
But in War by the general Governinent,

82
Executive Power; standing Council of one Member from each of the
States, &c.,..

116
Treaties should have the Sanction of all the Senate; Aristocracy should be
guarded against,

131
Judiciary, Objections to the System,..

136
Preamble, “We, the People;“ Oath, 153. Trial by Jury,.

154
Contends for a Bill of Rights ; Power, Jurisdiction, and Right, not given up;

remain in the States ; objects to a Revision of Facts by Federal Court, and
concurrent Jurisdiction dangerous,.

163
Boundary of a Bill of Rights wanted,

163
Religious Tests, Foundation of Persecution,

200
Amendments, 227. For Union,

239
Mr. STEELE – Elections; no Check in the old Confederation,

71
Journal, its Publication,...

72
Taxation, in Favor of the Clause,

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Page.
Mr. JOSEPH TAYLOR – Wording, “We, the People," an assumed Power,.. 23
Appointments; Rights parted with,

36
Impeachment, does it reach Collectors?.

45
Elections, their Control in vague Terms,.

70
Electors, Objections to the Power,

104, 105
Mr. WILSON - wished Exclusion of Popish Priests from Office,

212
BILL OF RIGHTS, .

243
YEAS AND NAYS, at large, on Amendment, .

250
CLOSING PROCEEDINGS—“neither to ratify nor reject the Constitution,"
adopted by a large Majority,.....

251

SOUTH CAROLINA.

ROBERT BARNWELL- for a limited Discussion, 263. Defence of the Con-

stitution, 291. President's Responsibility; Treaties; Congressional Pay;
Paper Medium; Trial by Jury; Preferences; Importation of Negroes;
Carrying Trade; pleased with the Clause relative to Slaves,.....

293
PIERCE BUTLER (one of the Members of the Federal Convention) — Im-
peachment; Senate ; Peace and War,.....

263
Mr. PATRICK CALHOUN — Religion ; too great a Latitude allowed, 312
PATRICK DOLLARD (in Convention) — his Constituents, to a Man, opposed
to the Constitution for Want of a Bill of Rights,

336
Com. GILLON — satisfied with the Doings of the Convention; in Favor of
American Bottoms,...

297
Hon. RALPH IZARD – Right of Kings to make Treaties,

268
Mr. RAWLINS LOWNDES- Senate and the old Confederation; Constitution
and Laws paramount; Presidential Powers,..

265
Treaties contrary to Law not valid; Eulogium on the Confederation, 271.

New Government an Experiment; no adequate Advantage; Slavery,.... 272
Importation of Negroes, 272. Evils apprehended from the Laws of Congress;
local Legislature; Fears for the Fate of the Southern States,..

273
Defence of the Confederation; Powers of the President; Representation;

Senators; Commercial Advantages enjoyed by the Eastern States; Taxes;
Congressional Pay; recommends another Convention,

287, 291
Explains his Argument on Treaties ; Checks; limiting the Importation of

Negroes an Evil; Navy to come from the East; Taxes; Expense of the
Government; Presidential Powers; the “ Well-born;" preparatory Plan

for a Monarchy; Constitution ruinous to the Liberty of America,. 308
Mr. JAMES LINCOLN - opposes the Constitution, as an aristocratic Govern-

ment; President may hold his Office for Life; Liberty of the Press
forgotten; Bill of Rights essential, .....

312
Col. MASON - thanks Mr. Lowndes for his Opposition to the Constitution,... 316
Mr. JOHN MATTHEWS — denies the Efficiency of the Confederation, 298
JUDGE PENDLETON – Impeachment,....

263
Only three States sanctioned the Importation of Negroes,

272
CHARLES PINCKNEY (a Member of the Federal Convention) — Motives as

a Member of the Federal Convention; Condition of the Country at the
Close of the War; Defects of the Confederation, &c., 253. Necessity
of a Government to operate on the People; Compromise; rapid Glance
at different Parts of the System,..

257
President's Power; Responsibility,

286
Observations on the System (before the Convention May 12.) But one

Government in Europe that provides for civil Rights, 318. People
Servants; Rulers supreme; Ireland; the Netherlands; America taught
the Rights of Man, 319. Primogeniture, 320. Peopled classed; commercial
foreign Trade, Root of public Distress ; mechanical; agricultural, 321.
Merchants; Mediocrity a leading Feature; Division into States ; East-
ern, 322. Middle; Maryland and the Southern States; Outline of the
Legislation of Pennsylvania ; Georgia; Maryland, 323. New York,
Massachusetts, 325. Foreign Governments; Evils of a Republic, 326

Page.
Constitution represents States as well as Governments; three principal
Forms of Government considered, ....

327
CHARLES COTESWORTH PINCKNEY (a Member of the Federal Conven-

tion) - Treaties, where to be lodged; President, the Power of proposing
Treaties,

263
Objections answered; Treaties not repugnant to Laws; Mode of voting in
Senate, &c.,...

266
Treaty of Peace, on its Promulgation ; Recognizances discharged; Case of
Love for Murder,

270
Explanations on Treaties; paramount under the Confederation, 277. Vattel

and Barlamaqui quoted ; South Carolina interested in the Sacredness of
Treaties; properly lodged in the Senate and President,

278
Abuse of Power; Impeachment; Things under the Confederation pictured;

The “three fifths,' 230. Representation, 283. Sufferings of the Eastern
States in the Cause of Independence; Negroes necessary in Cultivation
for South Carolina; Compromise ; Security against Emancipation; Fugi.
tives recoverable,

284
Independent before the Treaty of Peace; replies to Mr. Lowndes's Objec.

tions; Powers voted for the general Good; Elections; Representatives ;
Senate ; Presidential Elections ; Foreign Influence to be guarded against ;
commercial Preferences; Judiciary,..

.300 to 308
Replies to Mr. Lincoln's Objections ; Policy of the Reëligibility of the

President; General Government, no Powers but what are expressly
granted; Reasons why a Bill of Rights was not inserted,

315
(In Condention) — 10th Sec. Art. 1. On the Restrictive Clauses; Paper
Money; Credit with Foreigners,

333
Mr. PRINGLE (Speaker) — Treaty-making belongs to the executive Depart-
ment; President and Senate do not possess legislative Power,.

268
DAVID RAMSAY – Treaties superior to local Laws,.

270
Continental Debt; old Confederation dissolved,..

286
Hon. JACOB READ Confederation; Congress; its Efficiency farcical ;
Instances,

286
Hon. JOHN RUTLEDGE (a Member of the Federal Convention) - Treaties

paramount; their Mode of Ratification in England, and Operation in

America, 267. Difficulties in '82 because nine States did not aitend,..... 268
Treaties, the paramount Law; Eulogium on the Constitution,.

311
Hon. EDWARD RUTLEDGE -- Weakness of the Confederation ; defends the

Constitution, 274. Taxes, in Favor of the South; $10 a head on Negroes
equivalent to 5 per cent. on Importations; all Free taxed; only two
fifths of the Slaves taxed,

277
Federal Convention did not exceed its Powers; Navigation; Exclusion from
West India Trade, &c.,....

298
Gen. SUMPTER (in Convention) — moved an Adjournment, to give further
Time for Consideration; rejected, yeas, 89; nays, 135,

.... 338
ALEXANDER TWEED (in Convention) - denies the Restrictions of his Con-

stituents; open to Conviction ; Reforın needed; Importance of the Con-
stitution,

322
QUESTION To assemble at Charleston the 12th of May; ayes, 76 ;
nays, 75,....

316, 317
RATIFICATION, (in Convention ;) yeas, 149; nays, 73,

338, 340
CONGRESS of 1765. Note - List of Delegates and Extract from the Jour-
nal, 341. Extract from Ramsay on Ratification,

341

OPINIONS.

ABOLITION. Right of Petition. H. R. January, 1836. — Cushing,

594, 595
ALIEN AND SEDITION LAWS. June, 1798. — E. Livingston, Tazewell,
440. Report, 1799,

441
VIRGINIA RESOLUTIONS of 1798, pronouncing the Sedition Laws to be un-

constitutional, and defining the Rights of the States, drawn by Mr. Madison, 524
VOL. IV.

B

Page.
ANSWERS OF THE STATES-

State of New York,

537
State of Delaware,

532
State of Connecticut,.

538
State of Rhode Island,
533 State of New Hampshire,

538
Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 533 State of Vermont,...

539
KENTUCKY RESOLUTIONS of 1798 and 1799. (The original Draft
prepared by Mr. Jefferson.)..

540 to 545
MADISON'S REPORT on the Virginia Resolutions,

546 to 580
ALIEN AND SEDITION LAWS. M. Lyon. Senate, March, 1811. — Smith,
of South Carolina,

474
AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION. H. R. August 13, 1789.
Gerry, Ames, Madison,...

404
AMENDMENT TO THE CONSTITUTION; Election of President, Senate,
January 23, 1800. — C. Pinckney, of S. C.,...

442
H. R. August, 1804. – Jackson, 452

Senate, March, 1826. — Dicker-
son, 494. (With Extracts from the Journal of the Federal Convention on

the Presidential Term.)
APPOINTMENT; Panama Mission. Senate, March, 1826. — Berrien, .. 480 to 483
APPROPRIATIONS OF MONEY, for Vessels of War. H. R. February 25,
1797. – Gallatin, Nicholas,.

439
ARMY, STANDING, Regulation of. H. R. January 5, 1800. — Randolph,.... 441
BANKS. Hamilton's Exposition to Congress, 1791. Extract,.......... 617 to 620"
BANK, Establishment of. H. R. February 2, 1791. - Giles, 411. Vining, Madi-

son, 412. Ames, 414 to 417. Sedgwick, Madison, 417. Lawrence, Jack.
son, Boudinot, Stone, 418. Gerry,...

419 to 422
BANK OF THE UNITED STATES. Renewal of Charter. H. R.

April 13, 1810. — Love, Troup, Key, Alston, 456. Burwell, P. B. Porter,
Eppes, Crawford, 457. Clay,.

458
H. R. April 13, 1830. — M'Duffie, .. 524
(Note. Jackson's Message of December 7, 1830.)
BANKS. Mr. Jefferson. Extract referred to by Mr. Madison,.......... 609 to 611
Note on Banks, from Jefferson's Memoirs, March 11, 1798,

611
Vote on the Tariff, furnishing a Summary of the Argument of the South
Carolina Exposition. See page 580.
Mr. Madison to C. J. Ingersoll, February, 1831, ....

608
BANKRUPT BILL. H. R. February 16, 1818. — Hopkinson, 470. Tyler,
Sergeant, Mills, 471. March 12, 1822. – Buchanan,..

475
BANKRUPT LAW. Senate, May 1, 1826. Hayne, 490 to 493. Woodbury, 493
BANKRUPTCY. Senate, January, 1826. Van Buren,

... 479
COLUMBIA, DISTRICT of, Case of J. P. Van Ness.

H. R. January,
17, 1803. — Van Ness, Bacon,

451
To re-cede the District.' H. R. February 9, 1803. - Bayard,

451
CONTRACTORS. March 23, 1806. - Eppes,...

454
DEBT, DOMESTIC. H. R. February 22, 1790. — Smith, S. C. 405. Madison, 406

PUBLIC. Reduction of the Public Debt. H. R. November 20, 1792.
- Mercer, 429. Ames, 430. Madison, .

431
DEBTS. Mr. Madison to Mr. Stevenson, 27th November, 1830, examining

the Origin and Progress of the Clause of the Constitution, “To pay the
DEBTS, AND provide for common Defence," &c., Extract.........

... 612 to 615
DIGEST OF DECISIONS in the Courts of the Union, involving Constitu.
tional Principles, •

626
DUTIES. May 15, 1789. – White, Madison, Clymer, Carroll, 345. Wadsworth,

Ames, Fitzsimons, Hartley, Bland, Boudinot, 346. Sinnickson, Lawrence,
Smith, S. C.; Messages of Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe ; W.
H. Crawford's Report,

347
DUTIES OR LICENSES. H. R. December 31, 1800. — Bird,

442
DUELLING. Persons engaged in a Duel to be disqualified from holding Office.
H. R. December 31, 1803. - Davis,

451
EMBARGO, to suspend. H. R. April 19, 1808. - Quincy, 455. Key,....... 456

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