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Widow. TRANIO, BIONDELLO, GRUMIO, and others, attending.

Luc. At last, though long, our jarring notes

agree:

And time it is, when raging war is done,
To smile at 'scapes and perils overblown.—
My fair Bianca, bid my father welcome,

While I with self-same kindness welcome thine.--
Brother Petruchio,-sister Katharina,—
And thou, Hortensio, with thy loving widow,-
Feast with the best, and welcome to my house :
My banquet 16 is to close our stomachs up,
After our great good cheer. Pray you, sit down;
For now we sit to chat, as well as eat.

[They sit at table. Pet. Nothing but sit and sit, and eat and eat! Bap. Padua affords this kindness, son Petruchio. Pet. Padua affords nothing but what is kind. Hor.

For both our sakes, I would that word

were true.

Pet. Now, for my life, Hortensio fears his widow."7

Wid. Then never trust me, if I be afeard.

Pet. You are very sensible, and yet you miss my

sense:

I mean, Hortensio is afeard of you.

Bap. How likes Gremio these quick-witted folks ?

Gre. Believe me, sir, they butt together well. Bian. Head, and butt! a hasty-witted body Would say your head and butt were head and horn. Vin. Ay, mistress bride, hath that awaken'd

you?

Bian. Ay, but not frighted me; therefore I'll sleep again.

Pet. Nay, that you shall not: since you have begun,

Have at you for a bitter jest or two!22

Bian. Am I your bird? I mean to shift my bush;

And then pursue me as you draw your bow.—
You are welcome all.

[Exeunt BIANCA, KATHARINA, and Widow. Pet. She hath prevented me.-Here, Signior Tranio,

This bird you aim'd at, though you hit her not;
Therefore a health to all that shot and miss'd.
Tra. Oh, sir, Lucentio slipp'd me like his grey-

hound,

Which runs himself, and catches for his master. Pet. A good swift 23 simile, but something currish.

Tra. 'Tis well, sir, that you hunted for yourself:

Wid. He that is giddy thinks the world turns 'Tis thought your deer does hold you at a bay. round.

Pet. Roundly replied.1

Kath.
Mistress, how mean you that?
Wid. Thus I conceive by him.
Kath. He that is giddy thinks the world turns
round:-

I pray you, tell me what you meant by that.
Wid. Your husband, being troubled with a
shrew, 19

Measures my husband's sorrow by his woe:
And now you know my meaning.

Kath. A very mean meaning.
Wid.

Right, I mean you. Kath. And I am mean, indeed, respecting you. Pet. To her, Kate!

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16. Banquet. Sometimes used to express what we now call a dessert. It consisted of a course of fruit, cake, sweetmeats, wine, &c.; was often served after supper as well as after dinner, and in a different room from the one in which the principal meal had been eaten.

17. Hortensio fears his widow. The word "fears 39 was often used both actively and passively, in the sense of to 'frighten,' and to be afraid of.' Petruchio says it in the latter sense; the widow takes it in the former sense.

18. Roundly replied. Roundly" is punningly said, in reference to "the world turns round;" and in the sense of 'bluntly,' 'bluffly.'

19. Shrew.

rhyme) 'shrow.'

Bap. Oh, ho, Petruchio! Tranio hits you now. Luc. I thank thee for that gird, good Tranio. Hor. Confess, confess, hath he not hit you here ?

Pet. 'A has a little gall'd me, I confess; And, as the jest did glance away from me, 'Tis ten to one it maim'd you two outright.

Bap. Now, in good sadness, son Petruchio,

I think thou hast the veriest shrew of all.

Pet. Well, I say no: and therefore, for assurance,

Let's each one send unto his wife;

And he whose wife is most obedient
To come at first when he doth send for her,
Shall win the wager which we will propose.
Hor. Content. What is the wager?
Luc.

Pet. Twenty crowns!

Twenty crowns.

20. Marks. The coin called 'a mark' was, in value, thirteen shillings and fourpence.

21. Ha' to thee, lad Equivalent to the more modern 'Here's to thee;' and a similar idiom to those explained in Note 112, Act iv.

22. Have at you for a bitter jest or two. See Note 112, Act iv. "Bitter" is printed 'better' in the Folio. Capell made the correction.

23. Swift. Here used for prompt, quick-witted. See Note 32, Act v., "As You Like It."

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25. In good sadness. 'In all seriousness,'' seriously speakSometimes pronounced (as here, for the sake of ing.' "Sad" was often used for serious, grave, sedate, sober.

See Note 26, Act i., "Much Ado about Nothing."

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Bion.

Pet.

An awful 30 rule, and right supremacy;

Sir, my mistress sends you word And, to be short, what not, that's sweet and happy. That she is busy, and she cannot come.

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26. I'll venture so much of my hawk. Instance of "of” used for 'on.'

27. Holidame. Perhaps a corruption of "halidom." See Note 20, Act iv., "Two Gentlemen of Verona." But possibly a form of Holy Dame,' or Blessed Lady.'

28. Deny. Used for 'refuse." See Note 34, Act iv., "Much Ado about Nothing."

29. Swinge. Shakespeare sometimes uses this word as we now use the word 'lash;' that is, really meaning to strike as with a whip, but figuratively meaning to strike or punish with words.

Bap. Now, fair befall thee, good Petruchio!
The wager thou hast won; and I will add
Unto their losses twenty thousand crowns;
Another dowry to another daughter,

For she is chang'd, as she had never been.
Pet. Nay, I will win my wager better yet,
And show more sign of her obedience,
Her new-built virtue and obedience.

See, where she comes, and brings your froward wives

As prisoners to her womanly persuasion.

Re-enter KATHARINA, with BIANCA and Widow.
Katharine, that cap of yours becomes you not:
Off with that bauble, throw it under-foot.

[KATHARINA pulls off her cap and throws

it down. Wid. Lord, let me never have a cause to sigh, Till I be brought to such a silly pass!

Bian. Fie! what a foolish duty call you this? Luc. I would your duty were as foolish too: The wisdom of your duty, fair Bianca, Hath cost me a hundred crowns since supper-time. Bian. The more fool you, for laying on my duty."

Pet. Katharine, I charge thee, tell these headstrong women

What duty they do owe their lords and husbands. Wid. Come, come, you're mocking: we will have no telling.

Pet. Come on, I say; and first begin with her. Wid. She shall not.

Pet. I say she shall :-and first begin with her.

30. Awful. Here, as elsewhere, used for lawful,' 'legitimately authorised.' See Note 5, Act iv., "Two Gentlemen of Verona."

31. The more fool you, for laying on my duty. This speech of a bride, a wife of a few hours' old, puts the climax to the delineation (as we feel it throughout: see Note 20, Act i.; Note 2, Act ii.; Notes 5 and 8, Act iii.) of Bianca's character. Shakespeare has drawn her perfectly; as one of those girls superficially thought to be so amiable;' but, when thoroughly known, found to be so self-opinionated, sly, and worthless.

Kath. Fie, fie! unknit that threatening unkind
brow;

And dart not scornful glances from those eyes,
To wound thy lord, thy king, thy governor :
It blots thy beauty, as frosts do bite the meads;
Confounds thy fame, as whirlwinds shake fair
buds;

And in no sense is meet or amiable.

A woman mov'd is like a fountain troubled,
Muddy, ill-seeming, thick, bereft of beauty;
And while it is so, none so dry or thirsty
Will deign to sip, or touch one drop of it.
Thy husband is thy lord, thy life, thy keeper,
Thy head, thy sov'reign; one that cares for thee
And for thy maintenance; commits his body
To painful labour both by sea and land,
To watch the night in storms, the day in cold,
Whilst thou liest warm at home, secure and safe;
And craves no other tribute at thy hands
But love, fair looks, and true obedience,-
Too little payment for so great a debt.
Such duty as the subject owes the prince,
Even such a woman oweth to her husband;
And, when she is froward, peevish, sullen, sour,
And not obedient to his honest will,
What is she but a foul contending rebel,
And graceless traitor to her loving lord ?-
I am asham'd that women are so simple
To offer war, where they should kneel for peace;
Or seek for rule, supremacy, and sway,
When they are bound to serve, love, and obey.
Why are our bodies soft and weak and smooth,
Unapt to toil and trouble in the world,

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36. Old lad. Instance of Shakespeare's using the adjective "old" without reference to age. See Note 21, Act iv.

37. Sped. Idiomatically used for despatched, destroyed, ruined. To speed well or ill, is still an idiom in use; and well may Petruchio say that his two fellow-bridegrooms have sped ill, or "are sped" (injured for life) in the wives they have chosen apparently meek and loving, but really self-willed and disobedient.

38. Hit the white. A term borrowed from archery; meaning to win by hitting the centre of the target, generally painted white. It is figuratively used for winning Bianca, the Italian for "white."

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40. 'Tis a wonder, &c. This is the line alluded to in Note 1 of the play. It contains, so to say, the essence of its moral: to superficial observers (and Lucentio is notably superficial in judgment; witness his choice of Bianca) it is "a wonder" that woman like Katharine should be brought from her first violence and wilfulness into the good sense and sweet wisdom of her ultimate wifely submission and knowledge of feminine duty. But to those who read Shakespeare's teaching attentively, the underlying means of influence and monition are discernible beneath the ostensible means of mere out-blustering and outdomineering. Petruchio's hectoring and ordering have that humorous exaggeration which serves to show his wife how ludicrous is such habitual and unreasonable waywardness; he shows her the folly and absurdity as well as the hatefulness of violent temper; and, withal, he keeps throughout the personal fondness for her which wins a woman's heart while it convinces her understanding. It is thus that Katharine is reformed; it is so" that the Shrew is "tamed."

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