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PREFACE.

The object of this work is so fully given in the title-page, that little more remains to be said in the preface.

Beginning with the simplest and most natural form of habitation, namely, a burrow in the ground, the work proceeds in the following order:-2d, those creatures that suspend their homes in the air; 3d, those that are real builders, forming their domiciles of mud, stones, sticks, and similar materials; 4th, those which make their habitations beneath the surface of the water, whether salt or fresh ; 5th, those that live socially in communities; 6th, those which are parasitic upon animals or plants; 7th, those which build on branches. The last chapter treats of miscellanea, or those habitations which could not be well classed in either of the preceding groups.

In all these classes a definite order has been preserved, the Mammalia having precedence, and being followed in regular order by the other members of the group. Thus, in the first few chapters, which treat of the Burrowers, the following system has been observed :—First comes Man, the chief of all the mammalia, and in due zoological order follow the Moles and Shrews, the Foxes, the Weasels, the Rodents, and the Edentates. The White Bear alone is removed from its legitimate place, on account of its singular habitation in the snow. The Burrowing Birds come next in order, those which burrow in the earth taking precedence of those which make holes in wood. Burrowing Reptiles follow next in order; and then come the Burrowing Invertebrates, headed by the Crustacea. The same system is followed throughout, so as to give the reader a clear and definite idea of the subject. For this reason, a table of contents is appended to the work, as well as an alphabetical index; the one to enable the reader to form a general conception of the subject, and the other to enable him to find out any particular creature.

On perusing the work, the attentive reader will probably discover that various animals are placed in one class when they might very well be in another. The reason is, that many creatures, such as the wasp, the ant, the squirrel, etc., might with equal propriety find a place in several of these classes, and I have therefore placed them in that class of which some peculiarity in nest-making renders them fit illustrators.

I must now return my thanks to the many friends who have assisted me in the work, by the loan or gift of specimens, or by affording valuable information. Among them I must especially mention J. GOULD, Esq., who kindly took an interest in the ornithological portion of the work; F. SMITH, Esq., of the British Museum; and the late CHARLES WATERTON, Esq., who permitted me the use of his museum, and gave me much interesting and useful information.

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER IX.

WOOD-BORING INSECTS.

BEETLES.-The usual Form of the Wood-borers.— The SCOLYTUS and its Ravages.

-Mode of forming the Tunnels.-Curious Instinct.—Theories respecting the Scol-

ytus.-Worm-eaten Furniture, its Cause, and the best Method of checking the

Boring Insects.-Ginger and Cork Borers. The “Petrified" Man.-The MEAL-

WORM and its Ravages.- Weevils.—The PALM WEEVIL of Jamaica.-Its Devel-

opment, and Uses as an Edible.--Its Cocoons.—The Wasp BEETLE, its Shape,

Colors, and tunneling Powers.—The Musk BEETLE.-Its Beauty and Fragrance.

-Difficulty of detecting the Musk Beetle.--Its Burrows and their Inmates.-

The RHAGIUM and its Cocoon.—The HARLEQUIN BEETLE.—Wood-boring Bees.-

Willow Bee, its Tunnel, and Mode of making the Cells.- Food of the Young.

-The Poppy BEE.—The Pith-BORING BEES and their Habits.--Structure of the

Cells and Escape of the Young.-Economy of Labor.-Shell-nests of Bees.-

Wonderful adaptation to Circumstances.-How the Bee burrows.-The Hoop-

SHAVER BEE.-Gilbert White's Description of its Habits.—The SiRex and its

Burrow.-Its Ravages among Fig-trees.-Formidable Aspect of the Insect.—The

two British Species. —CARPENTER BEE.—Mode of making its Burrow.—Method-

ical Labor.-Food of the Young.-How to make a Ceiling.-Number of Cells in

each Burrow.–The Carpenter Bee of Australia.—The PELOPÆUS as a Wood-

borer.-Its Tunnel, and Mode of making Cells.—The SAPERDA.—Damage caused

to Aspen and other Trees.—A useful Parasite. The Goat Moth.-Wood-leopard

Moth.-Clear-wings and Honey-comb Moths ..........

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